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1.
Microb Pathog ; : 105520, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778376

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is attributable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been causing a worldwide health issue. Airways colonization by Candida spp. is prevalent among patients on automatic ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs). This research aimed to ascertain the risk factors and roles of Candida spp. respiratory tract colonization, and Candida lung infection during the progression of COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients. In total, Candida spp. were recovered in 69 from 100 immunosuppressed patients with COVID-19. Bronchoscopy was used to collect the Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. For the identification of Candida spp. PCR sequencing was done using the ITS1 and ITS4 primers. The amplification of the HWP1 gene was conducted to identify the Candida albicans complex. The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against Candida spp. were evaluated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M60. In 63.77% of the patients, Candida respiratory colonization at D0 and D14 had no impact on the severity of COVID-19. In comparison to C. albicans strains, Candida respiratory disorder with C. glabrata had influenced the severity of COVID-19 for critically ill patients following adjustment for the risk factors of COVID-19 (P < 0.05). Amphotericin B and caspofungin showed superior activity against all Candida spp. All antifungal agents showed 100% sensitivity against the two C. africana strains. Our observation on patients who used automatic ventilation, respiratory colonization by Candida spp. was not seen to influence the infection or death caused by COVID-19. Amphotericin B and caspofungin showed superior activity against all Candida spp. and were recommended for the treatment regime of pulmonary candidiasis associated with COVID-19 infection. Although "Candida pneumonia" is rarely being reported in critically ill patients, Candida airway colonization mainly by Candida albicans is common especially among patients with diabetes, malignancies, and kidney disorders.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107522, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the safety and efficacy of a treatment protocol containing Favipiravir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a multicenter randomized open-labeled clinical trial on moderate to severe cases infections of SARS-CoV-2. Patients with typical ground glass appearance on chest computerized tomography scan (CT scan) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 93% were enrolled. They were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (1.6 gr loading, 1.8 gr daily) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (800/200 mg daily) treatment regimens in addition to standard care. In-hospital mortality, ICU admission, intubation, time to clinical recovery, changes in daily SpO2 after 5 min discontinuation of supplemental oxygen, and length of hospital stay were quantified and compared in the two groups. RESULTS: 380 patients were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (193) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (187) groups in 13 centers. The number of deaths, intubations, and ICU admissions were not significantly different (26, 27, 31 and 21, 17, 25 respectively). Mean hospital stay was also not different (7.9 days [SD = 6] in the Favipiravir and 8.1 [SD = 6.5] days in Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups) (p = 0.61). Time to clinical recovery in the Favipiravir group was similar to Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.75 - 1.17) and likewise the changes in the daily SpO2 after discontinuation of supplemental oxygen (p = 0.46) CONCLUSION: Adding Favipiravir to the treatment protocol did not reduce the number of ICU admissions or intubations or In-hospital mortality compared to Lopinavir/Ritonavir regimen. It also did not shorten time to clinical recovery and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intubation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 35(4): 438-441, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-604157

ABSTRACT

Studies have reported a sex bias in case fatalities of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, it is observed that men have a higher risk of developing a severe form of the disease compared to women, highlighting the importance of disaggregated data of male and female COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, other factors (eg, hormonal levels and immune functions) also need to be addressed due to the effects of sex differences on the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. An insight into the underlying causes of sex differences in COVID-19 patients may provide an opportunity for better care of the patients or prevention of the disease. The current study reviews the reports concerning with the sex differences in COVID-19 patients. It is explained how sex can affect angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), that is a key component for the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and summarized the gender differences in immune responses and how sex hormones are involved in immune processes. Furthermore, the available data about the impact of sex hormones on the immune functions of COVID-19 cases are looked into.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/immunology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
4.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 185-191, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-51040

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, reports from China of the incidence of pneumonia with unknown etiology were sent to the World Health Organization (WHO). Shortly afterwards, the cause of this disease was identified as the novel beta-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and its genetic sequence was published on January 12, 2020. Human-to-human transmission via respiratory droplets and contact with aerosol infected surfaces are the major ways of transmitting this virus. Here we attempted to collect information on virus stability in the air and on surfaces and ways of preventing of SARS-CoV-2 spreading.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Environmental Microbiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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