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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis lacks systematic characterization in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients with newly diagnosed myocarditis in the context of COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic and treatment strategies were driven by a dedicated multidisciplinary disease unit for myocarditis. Multimodal outcomes were assessed during prospective follow-up. RESULTS: Seven consecutive patients (57% males, age 51 ± 9 y) with acute COVID-19 infection received a de novo diagnosis of myocarditis. Endomyocardial biopsy was of choice in hemodynamically unstable patients (n = 4, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 25 ± 9%), whereas cardiac magnetic resonance constituted the first exam in stable patients (n = 3, mean LVEF 48 ± 10%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed an intra-myocardial SARS-CoV-2 genome in one of the six cases undergoing biopsy: in the remaining patients, myocarditis was either due to other viruses (n = 2) or virus-negative (n = 3). Hemodynamic support was needed for four unstable patients (57%), whereas a cardiac device implant was chosen in two of four cases showing ventricular arrhythmias. Medical treatment included immunosuppression (43%) and biological therapy (29%). By the 6-month median follow-up, no patient died or experienced malignant arrhythmias. However, two cases (29%) were screened for heart transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Myocarditis associated with acute COVID-19 infection is a spectrum of clinical manifestations and underlying etiologies. A multidisciplinary approach is the cornerstone for tailored management.

2.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 61(2): 306-315, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921971

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the most aggressive phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy, the Regional Authority of Lombardy identified a number of hospitals, named Hubs, chosen to serve the whole region for highly specialised cases, including vascular surgery. This study reports the experience of the four Hubs for Vascular Surgery in Lombardy and provides a comparison of in hospital mortality and major adverse events (MAEs) according to COVID-19 testing. METHODS: Data from all patients who were referred to the Vascular Surgery Department of Hubs from 9 March to 28 April 2020 were collected prospectively and analysed. A positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction swab test, or symptoms (fever > 37.5 °C, upper respiratory tract symptoms, chest pain, and contact/travel history) associated with interstitial pneumonia on chest computed tomography scan were considered diagnostic of COVID-19 disease. Patient characteristics, operative variables, and in hospital outcomes were compared according to COVID-19 testing. A multivariable model was used to identify independent predictors of in hospital death and MAEs. RESULTS: Among 305 included patients, 64 (21%) tested positive for COVID-19 (COVID group) and 241 (79%) did not (non-COVID group). COVID patients presented more frequently with acute limb ischaemia than non-COVID patients (64% vs. 23%; p < .001) and had a significantly higher in hospital mortality (25% vs. 6%; p < .001). Clinical success, MAEs, re-interventions, and pulmonary and renal complications were significantly worse in COVID patients. Independent risk factors for in hospital death were COVID (OR 4.1), medical treatment (OR 7.2), and emergency setting (OR 13.6). COVID (OR 3.4), obesity class V (OR 13.5), and emergency setting (OR 4.0) were independent risk factors for development of MAEs. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Lombardy, acute limb ischaemia was the most frequent vascular disease requiring surgical treatment. COVID-19 was associated with a fourfold increased risk of death and a threefold increased risk of major adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infection Control , Postoperative Complications , Vascular Diseases , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Adjustment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vascular Diseases/diagnosis , Vascular Diseases/mortality , Vascular Diseases/surgery , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods
3.
Blood Purif ; 50(1): 102-109, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no information on acute kidney injury (AKI) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) among invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Western healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and outcome of AKI and CRRT among invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study in a tertiary care hospital in Milan, Italy. RESULTS: Among 99 patients, 72 (75.0%) developed AKI and 17 (17.7%) received CRRT. Most of the patients developed stage 1 AKI (33 [45.8%]), while 15 (20.8%) developed stage 2 AKI and 24 (33.4%) a stage 3 AKI. Patients who developed AKI or needed CRRT at latest follow-up were older, and among CRRT treated patients a greater proportion had preexisting CKD. Hospital mortality was 38.9% for AKI and 52.9% for CRRT patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients, AKI is very common and CRRT use is common. Both carry a high risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical
4.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 68: 88-92, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612189

ABSTRACT

Heparin resistance is an uncommon phenomenon defined as the need for high-dose unfractionated heparin (UFH) of more than 35,000 IU/day to achieve the target activated partial-thromboplastin time ratio or the failure to achieve the desired activated clotting time after a full UFH dose. This rare phenomenon is being more commonly observed in Covid-19 patients in a hypercoagulable state. We describe a Covid-19 patient confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, with acute limb ischemia, who developed heparin resistance. The patient was managed by the departments of vascular surgery, anesthesia and intensive care, and the Coagulation Service and Thrombosis Research from San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Drug Resistance , Heparin/pharmacology , Ischemia/drug therapy , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Aged , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Ischemia/blood , Ischemia/etiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Crit Care Resusc ; 2020 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Describe characteristics, daily care and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: Case series of 73 patients. SETTING: Large tertiary hospital in Milan. PARTICIPANTS: Mechanically ventilated patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between 20 February and 2 April 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic and daily clinical data were collected to identify predictors of early mortality. RESULTS: Of the 73 patients included in the study, most were male (83.6%), the median age was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR], 54-69 years), and hypertension affected 52.9% of patients. Lymphocytopenia (median, 0.77 x 103 per mm3 ; IQR, 0.58-1.00 x 103 per mm3), hyperinflammation with C-reactive protein (median, 184.5 mg/dL; IQR, 108.2-269.1 mg/dL) and pro-coagulant status with D-dimer (median, 10.1 µg/m; IQR, 5.0-23.8 µg/m) were present. Median tidal volume was 6.7 mL/kg (IQR, 6.0-7.5 mL/kg), and median positive end-expiratory pressure was 12 cmH2O (IQR, 10-14 cmH2O). In the first 3 days, prone positioning (12-16 h) was used in 63.8% of patients and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in five patients (6.8%). After a median follow-up of 19.0 days (IQR, 15.0-27.0 days), 17 patients (23.3%) had died, 23 (31.5%) had been discharged from the ICU, and 33 (45.2%) were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = 0.004) and hypertension (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.75-29.11; P = 0.009) were associated with mortality, while early improvement in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio was associated with being discharged alive from the ICU (P = 0.002 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Despite multiple advanced critical care interventions, COVID-19 ARDS was associated with prolonged ventilation and high short term mortality. Older age and pre-admission hypertension were key mortality risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04318366.

7.
Critical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-23326

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak spread from China all around the world, causing thousands of deaths. In Italy, the hardest hit region was Lombardy, with the first reported case on 20 February 2020. San Raffaele Scientific Institute — a large tertiary hospital and research centre in Milan, Italy — was immediately involved in the management of the public health emergency. Since the beginning of the outbreak, the elective surgical activity of the hospital was rapidly reduced and large areas of the hospital were simultaneously reorganised to admit and assist patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition, the hospital became the regional referral hub for cardiovascular emergencies in order to keep ensuring a high level of health care to non-COVID-19 patients in northern Italy. In a few days, a COVID-19 emergency department was created, improving the general ward capacity to a total number of 279 beds dedicated to patients with COVID-19. Moreover, the number of intensive care unit (ICU) beds was increased from 28 to 72 (54 of them dedicated to patients with COVID-19, and 18 to cardiology and cardiac surgery hub emergencies), both converting pre-existing areas and creating new high technology spaces. All the involved health care personnel were rapidly trained to use personal protection equipment and to manage this particular category of patients both in general wards and ICUs. Furthermore, besides clinical activities, continuously important research projects were carried out in order to find new strategies and more effective therapies to better face an unprecedented health emergency in Italy.

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