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Microorganisms ; 11(2)2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225461


Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a heterogeneous, multiorgan and potentially life-threatening drug-hypersensitivity reaction (DHR) that occurs several days or weeks after drug initiation or discontinuation. DHRs constitute an emerging issue for public health, due to population aging, growing multi-organ morbidity, and subsequent enhanced drug prescriptions. DRESS has more consistently been associated with anticonvulsants, allopurinol and antibiotics, such as sulphonamides and vancomycin, although new drugs are increasingly reported as culprit agents. Reactivation of latent infectious agents such as viruses (especially Herpesviridae) plays a key role in prompting and sustaining aberrant T-cell and eosinophil responses to drugs and pathogens, ultimately causing organ damage. However, the boundaries of the impact of viral agents in the pathophysiology of DRESS are still ill-defined. Along with growing awareness of the multifaceted aspects of immune perturbation caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2-related disease (COVID-19) pandemic, novel interest has been sparked towards DRESS and the potential interactions among antiviral and anti-drug inflammatory responses. In this review, we summarised the most recent evidence on pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic approaches, and clinical management of DRESS with the aim of increasing awareness on this syndrome and possibly suggesting clues for future research in this field.

Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac454, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051512


Background: This study's primary aim was to evaluate the impact of thrombotic complications on the development of secondary infections. The secondary aim was to compare the etiology of secondary infections in patients with and without thrombotic complications. Methods: This was a cohort study (NCT04318366) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients hospitalized at IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital between February 25 and June 30, 2020. Incidence rates (IRs) were calculated by univariable Poisson regression as the number of cases per 1000 person-days of follow-up (PDFU) with 95% confidence intervals. The cumulative incidence functions of secondary infections according to thrombotic complications were compared with Gray's method accounting for competing risk of death. A multivariable Fine-Gray model was applied to assess factors associated with risk of secondary infections. Results: Overall, 109/904 patients had 176 secondary infections (IR, 10.0; 95% CI, 8.8-11.5; per 1000-PDFU). The IRs of secondary infections among patients with or without thrombotic complications were 15.0 (95% CI, 10.7-21.0) and 9.3 (95% CI, 7.9-11.0) per 1000-PDFU, respectively (P = .017). At multivariable analysis, thrombotic complications were associated with the development of secondary infections (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.788; 95% CI, 1.018-3.140; P = .043). The etiology of secondary infections was similar in patients with and without thrombotic complications. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19, thrombotic complications were associated with a high risk of secondary infections.