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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935702

ABSTRACT

Data regarding early predictors of clinical deterioration in patients with infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still scarce. The aim of the study is to identify early symptoms or signs that may be associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study on a cohort of patients with COVID-19 in home isolation from March 2020 to April 2021. We assessed longitudinal clinical data (fever, dyspnea, need for hospitalization) through video calls at three specific time points: the beginning of symptoms or the day of the first positivity of the nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2-RNA (t0 ), and 3 (t3 ) and 7 (t7 ) days after the onset of symptoms. We included 329 patients with COVID-19: 182 (55.3%) males, mean age 53.4 ± 17.4 years, median Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of 1 (0-3). Of the 329 patients enrolled, 171 (51.98%) had a mild, 81 (24.6%) a moderate, and 77 (23.4%) a severe illness; 151 (45.9%) were hospitalized. Compared to patients with mild COVID-19, moderate and severe patients were older (p < 0.001) and had more comorbidities, especially hypertension (p < 0.001) and cardiovascular diseases (p = 0.01). At t3 and t7 , we found a significant higher rate of persisting fever (≥37°C) among patients with moderate (91.4% and 58.0% at t3 and t7 , respectively; p < 0.001) and severe outcome (75.3% and 63.6%, respectively; p < 0.001) compared to mild COVID-19 outcome (27.5% and 11.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). Factors independently associated with a more severe outcome were persisting fever at t3 and t7 , increasing age, and CCI above 2 points. Persisting fever at t3 and t7 seems to be related to a more severe COVID-19. This data may be useful to assess hospitalization criteria and optimize the use of resources in the outpatient setting.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911722

ABSTRACT

Few data are available regarding the effectiveness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in immunocompromised patients. Vaccination may have a suboptimal efficacy in this population, in particular if patients are exposed to anti-B-cell therapy. We report the virological and clinical characteristics of a patient with follicle center lymphoma under bimonthly maintenance therapy with obinutuzumab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. Despite three doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, the patient was infected by the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. After an initial period of clinical and molecular remission due to early therapy with sotrovimab, the patient experienced a fatal relapse sustained by the same viral strain.

3.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(5): 1548-1560, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653231

ABSTRACT

To address the impact of COVID-19 olfactory loss on the brain, we analyzed the neural connectivity of the central olfactory system in recently SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects with persisting olfactory impairment (hyposmia). Twenty-seven previously SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects (10 males, mean age ± SD 40.0 ± 7.6 years) with clinically confirmed COVID-19 related hyposmia, and eighteen healthy, never SARS-CoV-2 infected, normosmic subjects (6 males, mean age ± SD 36.0 ± 7.1 years), were recruited in a 3 Tesla MRI study including high angular resolution diffusion and resting-state functional MRI acquisitions. Specialized metrics of structural and functional connectivity were derived from a standard parcellation of olfactory brain areas and a previously validated graph-theoretic model of the human olfactory functional network. These metrics were compared between groups and correlated to a clinical index of olfactory impairment. On the scanning day, all subjects were virus-free and cognitively unimpaired. Compared to control, both structural and functional connectivity metrics were found significantly increased in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects. Greater residual olfactory impairment was associated with more segregated processing within regions more functionally connected to the anterior piriform cortex. An increased neural connectivity within the olfactory cortex was associated with a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection when the olfactory loss was a residual COVID-19 symptom. The functional connectivity of the anterior piriform cortex, the largest cortical recipient of afferent fibers from the olfactory bulb, accounted for the inter-individual variability in the sensory impairment. Albeit preliminary, these findings could feature a characteristic brain connectivity response in the presence of COVID-19 related residual hyposmia.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Nerve Net/diagnostic imaging , Smell/physiology , Adult , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of the pandemic on the disruption of a persuasive educational antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) conducted in a university hospital in southern Italy. METHODS: In March 2020, the ASP, which began in January 2017 and was carried out at different times in 10 wards, was stopped due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted an observational study with interrupted time series analysis to compare the antibiotic consumption and costs, average length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality between 12 months before and 9 months after the interruption. RESULTS: Four medical, four surgical wards and two ICUs were included in the study, for a total of 35,921 patient days. Among the medical wards we observed after the interruption a significant increase in fluoroquinolone use, with a change in trend (CT) of 0.996, p = 0.027. In the surgical wards, we observed a significant increase in the overall consumption, with a change in level (CL) of 24.4, p = 0.005, and in the use of third and fourth generation cephalosporins (CL 4.7, p = 0.003). In two ICUs, we observed a significant increase in piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolone consumption (CT 9.28, p = 0.019, and 2.4, p = 0.047). In the wards with a duration of ASP less than 30 months, we observed a significant increase in antibiotic consumption in the use of piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolones (CT 12.9, p = 0.022: 4.12, p = 0.029; 1.004, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The interruption of ASP during COVID-19 led to an increase in the consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly in surgical wards and in those with a duration of ASP less than 30 months.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 662746, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity presentation between oncologic and non-oncologic patients and to evaluate the impact of cancer type and stage on COVID-19 course. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, retrospective study involving 13 COVID-19 Units in Campania region from February to May 2020. We defined as severe COVID-19 presentation the cases that required mechanical ventilation and/or admission to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and/or in case of death. RESULTS: We enrolled 371 COVID-19 patients, of whom 34 (9.2%) had a history or a diagnosis of cancer (24 solid, 6 onco-hematological). Oncologic patients were older (p<0.001), had more comorbidities (p<0.001) and showed a higher rate of severe COVID-19 presentation (p=0.001) and of death (p<0.001). Compared to 12 patients with non-active cancer and to 337 without cancer, the 17 patients with active cancer had more comorbidities and showed a higher rate of severe COVID-19 and of mortality (all p values <0.001). Compared to the 281 non-severe patients, the 90 subjects with a severe presentation of COVID-19 were older (p<0.01), with more comorbidities (p<0.001) and with a higher rate of cancer (p=0.001). At multivariate analysis, age (OR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.11) and suffering from cancer in an active stage (OR 5.33, 95% CI: 1.77-16.53) were independently associated with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Since the higher risk of severe evolution of COVID-19, cancer patients, especially those with an active malignancy, should be candidates for early evaluation of symptoms and early treatment for COVID-19.

6.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1276-1287, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196467

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has rapidly spread throughout the world since December 2019 to become a global public health emergency for the elevated deaths and hospitalizations in Intensive Care Units. The severity spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia ranges from mild to severe clinical conditions. The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 disease is correlated with multiple factors including host characteristics (genetics, immune status, age, and general health), viral load and, above all, the host distribution of the airways and lungs of the viral receptor cells. In this review, we will briefly summarize the current knowledge of the characteristics and management of coronavirus disease 2019-pneumonia. However, other studies are needed to better understand the pathogenetic mechanisms induced by SARS-Cov-2 infection, and to evaluate the long-term consequences of the virus on the lungs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Management , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology
7.
Life (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713876

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the related disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to a pandemic proportion, increasing the demands on health systems for the containment and management of COVID-19. Nowadays, one of the critical issues still to be pointed out regards COVID-19 treatment regimens and timing: which drug, in which phase, for how long? Methods: Our narrative review, developed using MEDLINE and EMBASE, summarizes the main evidences in favor or against the current proposed treatment regimens for COVID-19, with a particular focus on antiviral agents. Results: Although many agents have been proposed as possible treatment, to date, any of the potential drugs against SARS-CoV-2 has shown to be safe and effective for treating COVID-19. Despite the lack of definitive evidence, remdesivir remains the only antiviral with encouraging effects in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Conclusions: In such a complex moment of global health emergency, it is hard to demand scientific evidence. Nevertheless, randomized clinical trials aiming to identify effective and safe drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection are urgently needed in order to confirm or reject the currently available evidence.

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