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1.
Current Organocatalysis ; 8(1):109-125, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1200024

ABSTRACT

The recent widespread infection of COVID-19 in the entire world has created a pandemic situation with a serious health challenge to mankind. Numerous incidents of cardiovascular diseases were found among COVID-19 patients with a significantly high morbidity rate. Medication with several anticoagulant or blood thinner drugs are being performed on COVID-19 patients with atrial fibrillation and cardiovascular ailments to minimize the incidence of death. Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant and cardiovascular drug prescribed as its sodium salt. S-Enantiomer is two to five times more active than R-enantiomer as an anticoagulant. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure warfarin is thus a rational and extremely important task. Organocatalyzed synthetic strategies may be considered as important avenues to produce optically pure warfarin in comparison to biocatalysis and chiral metal complex catalysis. Herein, a comprehensive review of the asymmetric organocatalyzed synthesis of warfarin catalyzed by diamine based organocatalysts, amino acid-based organocatalysts, quinine based organocatalysts, and proline derived organocatalysts in both aqueous and non-aqueous media has been discussed.

2.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(3): 201895, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158064

ABSTRACT

Development of strategies for mitigating the severity of COVID-19 is now a top public health priority. We sought to assess strategies for mitigating the COVID-19 outbreak in a hospital setting via the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions. We developed an individual-based model for COVID-19 transmission in a hospital setting. We calibrated the model using data of a COVID-19 outbreak in a hospital unit in Wuhan. The calibrated model was used to simulate different intervention scenarios and estimate the impact of different interventions on outbreak size and workday loss. The use of high-efficacy facial masks was shown to be able to reduce infection cases and workday loss by 80% (90% credible interval (CrI): 73.1-85.7%) and 87% (CrI: 80.0-92.5%), respectively. The use of social distancing alone, through reduced contacts between healthcare workers, had a marginal impact on the outbreak. Our results also indicated that a quarantine policy should be coupled with other interventions to achieve its effect. The effectiveness of all these interventions was shown to increase with their early implementation. Our analysis shows that a COVID-19 outbreak in a hospital's non-COVID-19 unit can be controlled or mitigated by the use of existing non-pharmaceutical measures.

3.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-5719

ABSTRACT

Background: There had been a preliminary occurrence of human-to-human transmissions between healthcare workers (HCWs), but risk factors in the susceptibility

5.
Sleep Med X ; 2: 100028, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857168

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, they are at high risk of acquiring the pathogen from infected patients and transmitting to other HCWs. We aimed to investigate risk factors for nosocomial COVID-19 infection among HCWs in a non-COVID-19 hospital yard. Methods: Retrospective data collection on demographics, lifestyles, contact status with infected subjects for 118 HCWs (including 12 COVID-19 HCWs) at Union Hospital of Wuhan, China. Sleep quality and working pressure were evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and The Nurse Stress Index (NSI), respectively. The follow-up duration was from Dec 25, 2019, to Feb 15, 2020. Results: A high proportion of COVID-19 HCWs had engaged in night shift-work (75.0% vs. 40.6%) and felt working under pressure (66.7% vs. 32.1%) than uninfected HCWs. SARS-CoV-2 infected HCWs had significantly higher scores of PSQI and NSI than uninfected HCWs (P < 0.001). Specifically, scores of 5 factors (sleep quality, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disorder, and daytime dysfunction) in PSQI were higher among infected HCWs. For NSI, its 5 subscales (nursing profession and work, workload and time allocation, working environment and resources, patient care, management and interpersonal relations) were all higher in infected than uninfected nurse. Furthermore, total scores of PSQI (HR = 2.97, 95%CI = 1.86-4.76; P <0.001) and NSI (HR = 4.67, 95%CI = 1.42-15.45; P = 0.011) were both positively associated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion: Our analysis shows that poor sleep quality and higher working pressure may increase the risk of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs.

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