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Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 79: 104051, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906723


The monkeypox virus, which belongs to the orthopoxy virus family, causes fever, lethargy, headache, lymphadenopathy, myalgia, and rash, as well as various complications such as superimposed infections, sepsis, keratitis, encephalitis, and bronchopneumonia. Following replication at the site of injection, the virus often enters by the oropharynx, nasopharynx, or intradermal pathway, spreading to lymph nodes before viremia, promoting viral dissemination to other organ systems. Monkeypox cases have recently been brought to WHO's notice from 12 presently non-endemic member nations spread over three WHO regions, with 92 laboratory-confirmed cases and 28 cases of suspicion as of May 21, 2022. Monkeypox is presently endemic in the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Benin, Cameroon, Gabon, Sierra Leone, and South Sudan. Monkeypox cases have been detected all across the world, posing a challenge to healthcare infrastructure that is still recovering from the COVID-19 outbreak. Close monitoring and exact data collecting, the implementation of successful programs across the world, and public support of preventative measures are some of the strategies being used to cope with the increasing incidence of monkeypox.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 79: 104011, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894769


Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) approved RTS, S/AS01 (RTS, S) as the world's first malaria vaccine for partial malaria protection in young children at risk. While this immunization drive begins during the unprecedented pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 Virus, the WHO has also approved 7 Vaccines in 2021 for the vaccination of children at risk. This article explores the quandary that would occur to the officials in charge of carrying out large vaccination campaigns against these two deadly infectious illnesses in several regions including the continent of Africa. The article also outlines the priorities for resolving this dilemma, offers evidence-based solutions, and provides a summary of recent significant events and their consequences. While providing the latest data, a discussion on the causation of the dilemma with clear recommendations for possible solutions has been explored as well.

Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(9)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820346


Since ancient times, plants have been used for their medicinal properties. They provide us with many phytomolecules, which serve a synergistic function for human well-being. Along with anti-microbial, plants also possess anti-viral activities. In Western nations, about 50% of medicines were extracted from plants or their constituents. The spread and pandemic of viral diseases are becoming a major threat to public health and a burden on the financial prosperity of communities worldwide. In recent years, SARS-CoV-2 has made a dramatic lifestyle change. This has promoted scientists not to use synthetic anti-virals, such as protease inhibitors, nucleic acid analogs, and other anti-virals, but to study less toxic anti-viral phytomolecules. An emerging approach includes searching for eco-friendly therapeutic molecules to develop phytopharmaceuticals. This article briefly discusses numerous bioactive molecules that possess anti-viral properties, their mode of action, and possible applications in treating viral diseases, with a special focus on coronavirus and various nano-formulations used as a carrier for the delivery of phytoconstituents for improved bioavailability.