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1.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911436

ABSTRACT

Whether severe COVID-19 is by itself a significant risk factor for the development of candidemia currently remains an open question as conflicting results have been published. We aim to assess the occurrence of candidemia in patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We conducted a retrospective study on patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia admitted to 5 ICUs in France who were specifically screened for fungal complications between March 2020 and January 2021. The study population included a total of 264 patients; the median age was 56 years old and most of them were male (n = 186; 70.5%) and immunocompetent (n = 225; 87.5%), and 62.7% (n = 153/244) were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Microbiological analysis included 4864 blood culture samples and beta-glucan test performed on 975 sera. Candidemia was diagnosed in 13 (4.9%) patients. The species involved were mainly C. albicans (n = 6) and C. parapsilosis (n = 5). Almost all patients (12/13; 92.3%) had a colonization by yeasts. ICU mortality was not significantly impacted by the occurrence of candidemia. Unrelated positive beta-glucan tests were observed in 49 patients (23.4%), including 6 with mold infections and 43 with false positive results. In our series, patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia seemed at low risk of developing invasive candidiasis.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872095

ABSTRACT

Preclinical studies have shown that volatile anesthetics may have beneficial effects on injured lungs, and pilot clinical data support improved arterial oxygenation, attenuated inflammation, and decreased lung epithelial injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving inhaled sevoflurane compared to intravenous midazolam. Whether sevoflurane is effective in improving clinical outcomes among patients with ARDS is unknown, and the benefits and risks of inhaled sedation in ARDS require further evaluation. Here, we describe the SESAR (Sevoflurane for Sedation in ARDS) trial designed to address this question. SESAR is a two-arm, investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective, randomized, stratified, parallel-group clinical trial with blinded outcome assessment designed to test the efficacy of sedation with sevoflurane compared to intravenous propofol in patients with moderate to severe ARDS. The primary outcome is the number of days alive and off the ventilator at 28 days, considering death as a competing event, and the key secondary outcome is 90 day survival. The planned enrollment is 700 adult participants at 37 French academic and non-academic centers. Safety and long-term outcomes will be evaluated, and biomarker measurements will help better understand mechanisms of action. The trial is funded by the French Ministry of Health, the European Society of Anaesthesiology, and Sedana Medical.

3.
Critical care (London, England) ; 26(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1876647

ABSTRACT

Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has different phenotypes and distinct short-term outcomes. Patients with non-focal ARDS have a higher short-term mortality than focal ones. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the morphological phenotypes of ARDS on long-term outcomes. Methods This was a secondary analysis of the LIVE study, a prospective, randomised control trial, assessing the usefulness of a personalised ventilator setting according to lung morphology in moderate-to-severe ARDS. ARDS was classified as focal (consolidations only in the infero-posterior part of the lungs) or non-focal. Outcomes were assessed using mortality and functional scores for quality of life at the 1-year follow-up. Results A total of 124 focal ARDS and 236 non-focal ARDS cases were included. The 1-year mortality was higher for non-focal ARDS than for focal ARDS (37% vs. 24%, p = 0.012). Non-focal ARDS (hazard ratio, 3.44;95% confidence interval, 1.80–6.59;p < 0.001), age, McCabe score, haematological cancers, SAPS II, and renal replacement therapy were independently associated with 1-year mortality. This difference was driven by mortality during the first 90 days (28 vs. 16%, p = 0.010) but not between 90 days and 1 year (7 vs. 6%, p = 0.591), at which point only the McCabe score was independently associated with mortality. Morphological phenotypes had no impact on patient-reported outcomes. Conclusion Lung morphologies reflect the acute phase of ARDS and its short-term impact but not long-term outcomes, which seem only influenced by comorbidities. Trial registration: NCT 02149589;May 29, 2014. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13054-022-04036-7.

4.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 220, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Existing clinical studies supported the potential efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as derived exosomes in the treatment of COVID-19. We aimed to explore the safety and efficiency of aerosol inhalation of the exosomes derived from human adipose-derived MSCs (haMSC-Exos) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The MEXCOVID trial is a phase 2a single-arm, open-labelled, interventional trial and patients were enrolled in Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China. Eligible 7 patients were assigned to receive the daily dose of haMSCs-Exos (2.0 × 108 nano vesicles) for consecutively 5 days. The primary outcomes included the incidence of prespecified inhalation-associated events and serious adverse events. We also observed the demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory results including lymphocyte count, levels of D-dimer and IL-6 as well as chest imaging. RESULTS: Seven severe COVID-19 related pneumonia patients (4 males and 3 females) were enrolled and received nebulized haMSC-Exos. The median age was 57 year (interquartile range (IQR), 43 year to 70 year). The median time from onset of symptoms to hospital admission and administration of nebulized haMSC-Exos was 30 days (IQR, 15 days to 40 days) and 54 d (IQR, 34 d to 69 d), respectively. All COVID-19 patients tolerated the haMSC-Exos nebulization well, with no evidence of prespecified adverse events or clinical instability during the nebulization or during the immediate post-nebulization period. All patients presented a slight increase of serum lymphocyte counts (median as 1.61 × 109/L vs. 1.78 × 109/L). Different degrees of resolution of pulmonary lesions after aerosol inhalation of haMSC-Exos were observed among all patients, more obviously in 4 of 7 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our trial shows that a consecutive 5 days inhalation dose of clinical grade haMSC-Exos up to a total amount of 2.0 × 109 nano vesicles was feasible and well tolerated in seven COVID-19 patients, with no evidence of prespecified adverse events, immediate clinical instability, or dose-relevant toxicity at any of the doses tested. This safety profile is seemingly followed by CT imaging improvement within 7 days. Further trials will have to confirm the long-term safety or efficacy in larger population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: MEXCOVID, NCT04276987.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Adipose Tissue , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332766

ABSTRACT

Background: Existing clinical studies supported the potential efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as derived exosomes in the treatment of COVID-19. We aimed to explore the safety and efficiency of aerosol inhalation of the exosomes derived from human adipose-derived MSCs (haMSC-Exos) in patients with COVID-19. Methods: The MEXCOVID trial is a phase 2a single-arm, open-labelled, interventional trial and patients were enrolled in Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China. Eligible 7 patients were assigned to receive the daily dose of haMSCs-Exos (2.0×10 8 nano vesicles) for consecutively 5 days. The primary outcomes included the incidence of prespecified inhalation-associated events and serious adverse events. We also observed the demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory results including lymphocyte count, levels of D-dimer and IL-6 as well as chest imaging. Results: Seven severe COVID-19 related pneumonia patients (4 males and 3 females) were enrolled and received nebulized haMSC-Exos. The median age was 57 year (IQR, 43 year to 70 year). The median time from onset of symptoms to hospital admission and administration of nebulized haMSC-Exos was 30 days (IQR, 15 days to 40 days) and 54 d (IQR, 34 d to 69 d), respectively. All COVID-19 patients tolerated the haMSC-Exos nebulization well, with no evidence of prespecified adverse events or clinical instability during the nebulization or during the immediate post-nebulization period. All patients presented a slight increase of serum lymphocyte counts (median as 1.61×10 9 /L vs. 1.78×10 9 /L). Different degrees of resolution of pulmonary lesions after aerosol inhalation of haMSC-Exos were observed among all patients, more obviously in 4 of 7 patients. Conclusions: Our trial shows that a consecutive 5 days inhalation dose of clinical grade haMSC-Exos up to a total amount of 2.0×10 9 nano vesicles was feasible and well tolerated in seven COVID-19 patients, with no evidence of prespecified adverse events, immediate clinical instability, or dose-relevant toxicity at any of the doses tested. This safety profile is seemingly followed by CT imaging improvement within 7 days. Further trials will have to confirm the long-term safety or efficacy in larger population. Trial Registration MEXCOVID, NCT04276987

6.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 48, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes high mortality. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have potentially relevant immune-modulatory properties, whose place in ARDS treatment is not established. This phase 2b trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of UC-MSCs in patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS. METHODS: This multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (STROMA-CoV-2) recruited adults (≥ 18 years) with SARS-CoV-2-induced early (< 96 h) mild-to-severe ARDS in 10 French centres. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three intravenous infusions of 106 UC-MSCs/kg or placebo (0.9% NaCl) over 5 days after recruitment. For the modified intention-to-treat population, the primary endpoint was the partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2)-ratio change between baseline (day (D) 0) and D7. RESULTS: Among the 107 patients screened for eligibility from April 6, 2020, to October 29, 2020, 45 were enrolled, randomized and analyzed. PaO2/FiO2 changes between D0 and D7 did not differ significantly between the UC-MSCs and placebo groups (medians [IQR] 54.3 [- 15.5 to 93.3] vs 25.3 [- 33.3 to 104.6], respectively; ANCOVA estimated treatment effect 7.4, 95% CI - 44.7 to 59.7; P = 0.77). Six (28.6%) of the 21 UC-MSCs recipients and six of 24 (25%) placebo-group patients experienced serious adverse events, none of which were related to UC-MSCs treatment. CONCLUSIONS: D0-to-D7 PaO2/FiO2 changes for intravenous UC-MSCs-versus placebo-treated adults with SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS did not differ significantly. Repeated UC-MSCs infusions were not associated with any serious adverse events during treatment or thereafter (until D28). Larger trials enrolling patients earlier during the course of their ARDS are needed to further assess UC-MSCs efficacy in this context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04333368. Registered 01 April 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/history/NCT04333368 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(2): 123-129, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565191

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI) resulting in life-threatening hypoxaemia. Although ARDS can be caused by a variety of pathogens or major trauma, it is best known as the major cause of mortality in COVID-19 patients. Since ARDS is often associated with dysregulated inflammatory immune responses, immunomodulatory approaches represent a possible treatment option. The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of interleukin (IL)-1 blockade using Anakinra in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of a daily subcutaneous Anakinra treatment in a mouse model of LPS-induced ALI. We monitored body weight to assess the general health status of the mice. Two days after ALI induction, we evaluated the inflammatory cytokine MIP-2 as well as protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. Two and nine days after ALI induction, we evaluated infiltrating leukocytes in BAL fluid and lung tissue. RESULTS: Anakinra treatment reduced ALI-induced weight loss compared to nontreated groups. At Day 2, Anakinra treatment reduced levels of MIP-2 and protein in BAL fluids and reduced frequencies of NK cells and neutrophils in the lung tissue. Nine days after ALI induction, Anakinra treated mice displayed reduced levels of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in BAL fluids. CONCLUSIONS: IL-1 blockade using Anakinra reduced classical hallmarks of inflammation in a mouse model of ALI. Our data support ongoing and future research on the evaluation of Anakinra as a potential treatment option in ARDS.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 180-190, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe COVID-19 have emerged as a population at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). However, to our knowledge, the prevalence of IFIs has not yet been assessed in large populations of mechanically ventilated patients. We aimed to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and mortality associated with IFIs in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 under intensive care. METHODS: We performed a national, multicentre, observational cohort study in 18 French intensive care units (ICUs). We retrospectively and prospectively enrolled adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome, with all demographic and clinical and biological follow-up data anonymised and collected from electronic case report forms. Patients were systematically screened for respiratory fungal microorganisms once or twice a week during the period of mechanical ventilation up to ICU discharge. The primary outcome was the prevalence of IFIs in all eligible participants with a minimum of three microbiological samples screened during ICU admission, with proven or probable (pr/pb) COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) classified according to the recent ECMM/ISHAM definitions. Secondary outcomes were risk factors of pr/pb CAPA, ICU mortality between the pr/pb CAPA and non-pr/pb CAPA groups, and associations of pr/pb CAPA and related variables with ICU mortality, identified by regression models. The MYCOVID study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04368221. FINDINGS: Between Feb 29 and July 9, 2020, we enrolled 565 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. 509 patients with at least three screening samples were analysed (mean age 59·4 years [SD 12·5], 400 [79%] men). 128 (25%) patients had 138 episodes of pr/pb or possible IFIs. 76 (15%) patients fulfilled the criteria for pr/pb CAPA. According to multivariate analysis, age older than 62 years (odds ratio [OR] 2·34 [95% CI 1·39-3·92], p=0·0013), treatment with dexamethasone and anti-IL-6 (OR 2·71 [1·12-6·56], p=0·027), and long duration of mechanical ventilation (>14 days; OR 2·16 [1·14-4·09], p=0·019) were independently associated with pr/pb CAPA. 38 (7%) patients had one or more other pr/pb IFIs: 32 (6%) had candidaemia, six (1%) had invasive mucormycosis, and one (<1%) had invasive fusariosis. Multivariate analysis of associations with death, adjusted for candidaemia, for the 509 patients identified three significant factors: age older than 62 years (hazard ratio [HR] 1·71 [95% CI 1·26-2·32], p=0·0005), solid organ transplantation (HR 2·46 [1·53-3·95], p=0·0002), and pr/pb CAPA (HR 1·45 [95% CI 1·03-2·03], p=0·033). At time of ICU discharge, survival curves showed that overall ICU mortality was significantly higher in patients with pr/pb CAPA than in those without, at 61·8% (95% CI 50·0-72·8) versus 32·1% (27·7-36·7; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the high prevalence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidaemia and high mortality associated with pr/pb CAPA in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. These findings highlight the need for active surveillance of fungal pathogens in patients with severe COVID-19. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adolescent , Adult , Child, Preschool , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 90, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on mental health of professionals working in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the intensity of the epidemic in France. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 77 French hospitals from April 22 to May 13 2020. All ICU frontline healthcare workers were eligible. The primary endpoint was the mental health, assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Sources of stress during the crisis were assessed using the Perceived Stressors in Intensive Care Units (PS-ICU) scale. Epidemic intensity was defined as high or low for each region based on publicly available data from Santé Publique France. Effects were assessed using linear mixed models, moderation and mediation analyses. RESULTS: In total, 2643 health professionals participated; 64.36% in high-intensity zones. Professionals in areas with greater epidemic intensity were at higher risk of mental health issues (p < 0.001), and higher levels of overall perceived stress (p < 0.001), compared to low-intensity zones. Factors associated with higher overall perceived stress were female sex (B = 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08-0.17), having a relative at risk of COVID-19 (B = 0.14; 95%-CI = 0.09-0.18) and working in high-intensity zones (B = 0.11; 95%-CI = 0.02-0.20). Perceived stress mediated the impact of the crisis context on mental health (B = 0.23, 95%-CI = 0.05, 0.41) and the impact of stress on mental health was moderated by positive thinking, b = - 0.32, 95% CI = - 0.54, - 0.11. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 negatively impacted the mental health of ICU professionals. Professionals working in zones where the epidemic was of high intensity were significantly more affected, with higher levels of perceived stress. This study is supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Health (PHRC-COVID 2020).

10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(3): 307-317, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041932

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Whether severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a significant risk factor for the development of invasive fungal superinfections is of great medical interest and remains, for now, an open question.Objectives: We aim to assess the occurrence of invasive fungal respiratory superinfections in patients with severe COVID-19.Methods: We conducted the study on patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related pneumonia admitted to five ICUs in France who had respiratory and serum sampling performed for specific screening of fungal complications.Measurements and Main Results: The study population included a total of 145 patients; the median age was 55 years old. Most of them were male (n = 104; 72%), were overweight (n = 99; 68%), and had hypertension (n = 83; 57%) and diabetes (n = 46; 32%). Few patients presented preexisting host risk factors for invasive fungal infection (n = 20; 14%). Their global severity was high; all patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation, and half (n = 73, 54%) were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Mycological analysis included 2,815 mycological tests (culture, galactomannan, ß-glucan, and PCR) performed on 475 respiratory samples and 532 sera. A probable/putative invasive pulmonary mold infection was diagnosed in 7 (4.8%) patients and linked to high mortality. Multivariate analysis indicates a significantly higher risk for solid organ transplant recipients (odds ratio, = 4.66; interquartile range, 1.98-7.34; P = 0.004). False-positive fungal test and clinically irrelevant colonization, which did not require the initiation of antifungal treatment, was observed in 25 patients (17.2%).Conclusions: In patients with no underlying immunosuppression, severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia seems at low risk of invasive fungal secondary infection, especially aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(11): 1121-1131, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can have symptoms that rapidly evolve to profound hypoxaemia and death. The efficacy of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with severe ARDS in the context of COVID-19 is unclear. We aimed to establish the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with respiratory failure and COVID-19 treated with ECMO. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was done in the Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network, comprising five intensive care units (ICUs) and included patients who received ECMO for COVID-19 associated ARDS. Patient demographics and daily pre-ECMO and on-ECMO data and outcomes were collected. Possible outcomes over time were categorised into four different states (states 1-4): on ECMO, in the ICU and weaned off ECMO, alive and out of ICU, or death. Daily probabilities of occupation in each state and of transitions between these states until day 90 post-ECMO onset were estimated with use of a multi-state Cox model stratified for each possible transition. Follow-up was right-censored on July 10, 2020. FINDINGS: From March 8 to May 2, 2020, 492 patients with COVID-19 were treated in our ICUs. Complete day-60 follow-up was available for 83 patients (median age 49 [IQR 41-56] years and 61 [73%] men) who received ECMO. Pre-ECMO, 78 (94%) patients had been prone-positioned; their median driving pressure was 18 (IQR 16-21) cm H2O and PaO2/FiO2 was 60 (54-68) mm Hg. At 60 days post-ECMO initiation, the estimated probabilities of occupation in each state were 6% (95% CI 3-14) for state 1, 18% (11-28) for state 2, 45% (35-56) for state 3, and 31% (22-42) for state 4. 35 (42%) patients had major bleeding and four (5%) had a haemorrhagic stroke. 30 patients died. INTERPRETATION: The estimated 60-day survival of ECMO-rescued patients with COVID-19 was similar to that of studies published in the past 2 years on ECMO for severe ARDS. If another COVID-19 outbreak occurs, ECMO should be considered for patients developing refractory respiratory failure despite optimised care. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , France , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
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