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1.
Cell Metab ; 34(6): 857-873.e9, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926324

ABSTRACT

It is not well understood why diabetic individuals are more prone to develop severe COVID-19. To this, we here established a human kidney organoid model promoting early hallmarks of diabetic kidney disease development. Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, diabetic-like kidney organoids exhibited higher viral loads compared with their control counterparts. Genetic deletion of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in kidney organoids under control or diabetic-like conditions prevented viral detection. Moreover, cells isolated from kidney biopsies from diabetic patients exhibited altered mitochondrial respiration and enhanced glycolysis, resulting in higher SARS-CoV-2 infections compared with non-diabetic cells. Conversely, the exposure of patient cells to dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of aerobic glycolysis, resulted in reduced SARS-CoV-2 infections. Our results provide insights into the identification of diabetic-induced metabolic programming in the kidney as a critical event increasing SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility, opening the door to the identification of new interventions in COVID-19 pathogenesis targeting energy metabolism.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Organoids , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(8): e15230, 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918173

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants has caused considerable concern due to both reduced vaccine efficacy and escape from neutralizing antibody therapeutics. It is, therefore, paramount to develop therapeutic strategies that inhibit all known and future SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we report that all SARS-CoV-2 variants analyzed, including variants of concern (VOC) Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron, exhibit enhanced binding affinity to clinical grade and phase 2 tested recombinant human soluble ACE2 (APN01). Importantly, soluble ACE2 neutralized infection of VeroE6 cells and human lung epithelial cells by all current VOC strains with markedly enhanced potency when compared to reference SARS-CoV-2 isolates. Effective inhibition of infections with SARS-CoV-2 variants was validated and confirmed in two independent laboratories. These data show that SARS-CoV-2 variants that have emerged around the world, including current VOC and several variants of interest, can be inhibited by soluble ACE2, providing proof of principle of a pan-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Elife ; 112022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791920

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis and host-viral interactions of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus (CCHFV) are convoluted and not well evaluated. Application of the multi-omics system biology approaches, including biological network analysis in elucidating the complex host-viral response, interrogates the viral pathogenesis. The present study aimed to fingerprint the system-level alterations during acute CCHFV-infection and the cellular immune responses during productive CCHFV-replication in vitro. We used system-wide network-based system biology analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a longitudinal cohort of CCHF patients during the acute phase of infection and after one year of recovery (convalescent phase) followed by untargeted quantitative proteomics analysis of the most permissive CCHFV-infected Huh7 and SW13 cells. In the RNAseq analysis of the PBMCs, comparing the acute and convalescent-phase, we observed system-level host's metabolic reprogramming towards central carbon and energy metabolism (CCEM) with distinct upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) during CCHFV-infection. Upon application of network-based system biology methods, negative coordination of the biological signaling systems like FOXO/Notch axis and Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 signaling with metabolic pathways during CCHFV-infection were observed. The temporal quantitative proteomics in Huh7 showed a dynamic change in the CCEM over time and concordant with the cross-sectional proteomics in SW13 cells. By blocking the two key CCEM pathways, glycolysis and glutaminolysis, viral replication was inhibited in vitro. Activation of key interferon stimulating genes during infection suggested the role of type I and II interferon-mediated antiviral mechanisms both at the system level and during progressive replication.


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an emerging disease that is increasingly spreading to new populations. The condition is now endemic in almost 30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, South-Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. CCHF is caused by a tick-borne virus and can cause uncontrolled bleeding. It has a mortality rate of up to 40%, and there are currently no vaccines or effective treatments available. All viruses depend entirely on their hosts for reproduction, and they achieve this through hijacking the molecular machinery of the cells they infect. However, little is known about how the CCHF virus does this and how the cells respond. To understand more about the relationship between the cell's metabolism and viral replication, Neogi, Elaldi et al. studied immune cells taken from patients during an infection and one year later. The gene activity of the cells showed that the virus prefers to hijack processes known as central carbon and energy metabolism. These are the main regulator of the cellular energy supply and the production of essential chemicals. By using cancer drugs to block these key pathways, Neogi, Elaldi et al. could reduce the viral reproduction in laboratory cells. These findings provide a clearer understanding of how the CCHF virus replicates inside human cells. By interfering with these processes, researchers could develop new antiviral strategies to treat the disease. One of the cancer drugs tested in cells, 2-DG, has been approved for emergency use against COVID-19 in some countries. Neogi, Elaldi et al. are now studying this further in animals with the hope of reaching clinical trials in the future.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo , Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo/genetics , Humans , Interferons , Leukocytes, Mononuclear
5.
Pathogens ; 11(2)2022 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715598

ABSTRACT

The handling of highly pathogenic viruses, whether for diagnostic or research purposes, often requires an inactivation step. This article reviews available inactivation techniques published in peer-reviewed journals and their benefits and limitations in relation to the intended application. The bulk of highly pathogenic viruses are represented by enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Filoviridae, Arenaviridae, Hantaviridae, Peribunyaviridae, Phenuiviridae, Nairoviridae and Orthomyxoviridae families. Here, we summarize inactivation methods for these virus families that allow for subsequent molecular and serological analysis or vaccine development. The techniques identified here include: treatment with guanidium-based chaotropic salts, heat inactivation, photoactive compounds such as psoralens or 1.5-iodonaphtyl azide, detergents, fixing with aldehydes, UV-radiation, gamma irradiation, aromatic disulfides, beta-propiolacton and hydrogen peroxide. The combination of simple techniques such as heat or UV-radiation and detergents such as Tween-20, Triton X-100 or Sodium dodecyl sulfate are often sufficient for virus inactivation, but the efficiency may be affected by influencing factors including quantity of infectious particles, matrix constitution, pH, salt- and protein content. Residual infectivity of the inactivated virus could have disastrous consequences for both laboratory/healthcare personnel and patients. Therefore, the development of inactivation protocols requires careful considerations which we review here.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322046

ABSTRACT

Baricitinib, is an oral Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that was independently hypothesized, using artificial intelligence (AI)-algorithms, to be useful for the treatment of COVID-19 infection via a proposed anti-cytokine effects and as an inhibitor of host cell viral propagation 1,2 . We validated the AI-predicted biochemical inhibitory effects of baricitinib on human numb-associated kinase (hNAK) members measuring nanomolar affinities for AAK1, BIKE, and GAK. Inhibition of NAKs led to reduced viral infectivity with baricitinib using human primary liver spheroids, which express hAAK1 and hGAK. We evaluated the in vitro pharmacology of baricitinib across relevant leukocyte subpopulations coupled to its in vivo pharmacokinetics and showed it inhibited signaling of cytokines implicated in COVID-19 infection. In a case series of patients with bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, baricitinib treatment was associated with clinical and radiologic recovery, a rapid decline in SARS-CoV-2 viral load, inflammatory markers, and IL-6 levels. This represents an important example of an AI-predicted treatment showing scientific and clinical promise during a global health crisis. Collectively, these data support further evaluation of the AI-derived hypothesis on anti-cytokine and anti-viral activity and supports its assessment in randomized trials in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

7.
Elife ; 102021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592091

ABSTRACT

Infection and viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 crucially depends on the binding of its Spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) presented on host cells. Glycosylation of both proteins is critical for this interaction. Recombinant soluble human ACE2 can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and is currently undergoing clinical tests for the treatment of COVID-19. We used 3D structural models and molecular dynamics simulations to define the ACE2 N-glycans that critically influence Spike-ACE2 complex formation. Engineering of ACE2 N-glycosylation by site-directed mutagenesis or glycosidase treatment resulted in enhanced binding affinities and improved virus neutralization without notable deleterious effects on the structural stability and catalytic activity of the protein. Importantly, simultaneous removal of all accessible N-glycans from recombinant soluble human ACE2 yields a superior SARS-CoV-2 decoy receptor with promise as effective treatment for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Glycosylation , Humans , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Engineering , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
8.
Cell Genomics ; 1(3):100065, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1561400

ABSTRACT

Summary Formalin-fixed paraffin embedding (FFPE) is the most widespread long-term tissue preservation approach. Here, we report a procedure to perform genome-wide spatial analysis of mRNA in FFPE-fixed tissue sections, using well-established, commercially available methods for imaging and spatial barcoding using slides spotted with barcoded oligo(dT) probes to capture the 3′ end of mRNA molecules in tissue sections. We applied this method for expression profiling and cell type mapping in coronal sections from the mouse brain to demonstrate the method’s capability to delineate anatomical regions from a molecular perspective. We also profiled the spatial composition of transcriptomic signatures in two ovarian carcinosarcoma samples, exemplifying the method’s potential to elucidate molecular mechanisms in heterogeneous clinical samples. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of the assay to characterize human lung and kidney organoids and a human lung biopsy specimen infected with SARS-CoV-2. We anticipate that genome-wide spatial gene expression profiling in FFPE biospecimens will be used for retrospective analysis of biobank samples, which will facilitate longitudinal studies of biological processes and biomarker discovery.

9.
Sci Adv ; 7(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388432

ABSTRACT

Using AI, we identified baricitinib as having antiviral and anticytokine efficacy. We now show a 71% (95% CI 0.15 to 0.58) mortality benefit in 83 patients with moderate-severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with few drug-induced adverse events, including a large elderly cohort (median age, 81 years). An additional 48 cases with mild-moderate pneumonia recovered uneventfully. Using organotypic 3D cultures of primary human liver cells, we demonstrate that interferon-α2 increases ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in parenchymal cells by greater than fivefold. RNA-seq reveals gene response signatures associated with platelet activation, fully inhibited by baricitinib. Using viral load quantifications and superresolution microscopy, we found that baricitinib exerts activity rapidly through the inhibition of host proteins (numb-associated kinases), uniquely among antivirals. This reveals mechanistic actions of a Janus kinase-1/2 inhibitor targeting viral entry, replication, and the cytokine storm and is associated with beneficial outcomes including in severely ill elderly patients, data that incentivize further randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Liver/virology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/metabolism , Italy , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Platelet Activation , Proportional Hazards Models , RNA-Seq , Spain , Virus Internalization/drug effects
10.
EMBO J ; 40(19): e108375, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348811

ABSTRACT

New SARS-CoV-2 variants are continuously emerging with critical implications for therapies or vaccinations. The 22 N-glycan sites of Spike remain highly conserved among SARS-CoV-2 variants, opening an avenue for robust therapeutic intervention. Here we used a comprehensive library of mammalian carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) to probe critical sugar residues on the full-length trimeric Spike and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Two lectins, Clec4g and CD209c, were identified to strongly bind to Spike. Clec4g and CD209c binding to Spike was dissected and visualized in real time and at single-molecule resolution using atomic force microscopy. 3D modelling showed that both lectins can bind to a glycan within the RBD-ACE2 interface and thus interferes with Spike binding to cell surfaces. Importantly, Clec4g and CD209c significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 infections. These data report the first extensive map and 3D structural modelling of lectin-Spike interactions and uncovers candidate receptors involved in Spike binding and SARS-CoV-2 infections. The capacity of CLEC4G and mCD209c lectins to block SARS-CoV-2 viral entry holds promise for pan-variant therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Receptors, Mitogen/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization
11.
Biotechnol J ; 16(6): e2000566, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041418

ABSTRACT

Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary host cell receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binding and cell entry. Administration of high concentrations of soluble ACE2 can be utilized as a decoy to block the interaction of the virus with cellular ACE2 receptors and potentially be used as a strategy for treatment or prevention of coronavirus disease 2019. Human ACE2 is heavily glycosylated and its glycans impact on binding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and virus infectivity. Here, we describe the production of a recombinant soluble ACE2-fragment crystallizable (Fc) variant in glycoengineered Nicotiana benthamiana. Our data reveal that the produced dimeric ACE2-Fc variant is glycosylated with mainly complex human-type N-glycans and functional with regard to enzyme activity, affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain, and wild-type virus neutralization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tobacco/genetics , Tobacco/metabolism
12.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(1): e13426, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024813

ABSTRACT

There is a critical need for safe and effective drugs for COVID-19. Only remdesivir has received authorization for COVID-19 and has been shown to improve outcomes but not decrease mortality. However, the dose of remdesivir is limited by hepatic and kidney toxicity. ACE2 is the critical cell surface receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Here, we investigated additive effect of combination therapy using remdesivir with recombinant soluble ACE2 (high/low dose) on Vero E6 and kidney organoids, targeting two different modalities of SARS-CoV-2 life cycle: cell entry via its receptor ACE2 and intracellular viral RNA replication. This combination treatment markedly improved their therapeutic windows against SARS-CoV-2 in both models. By using single amino-acid resolution screening in haploid ES cells, we report a singular critical pathway required for remdesivir toxicity, namely, Adenylate Kinase 2. The data provided here demonstrate that combining two therapeutic modalities with different targets, common strategy in HIV treatment, exhibit strong additive effects at sub-toxic concentrations. Our data lay the groundwork for the study of combinatorial regimens in future COVID-19 clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Synergism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
Euro Surveill ; 25(28)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874407

ABSTRACT

BackgroundA novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which emerged at the end of 2019 and causes COVID-19, has resulted in worldwide human infections. While genetically distinct, SARS-CoV-1, the aetiological agent responsible for an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003, utilises the same host cell receptor as SARS-CoV-2 for entry: angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Parts of the SARS-CoV-1 spike glycoprotein (S protein), which interacts with ACE2, appear conserved in SARS-CoV-2.AimThe cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated against the S protein of SARS-CoV-1 was assessed.MethodsThe SARS-CoV-2 S protein sequence was aligned to those of SARS-CoV-1, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and common-cold coronaviruses. Abilities of mAbs generated against SARS-CoV-1 S protein to bind SARS-CoV-2 or its S protein were tested with SARS-CoV-2 infected cells as well as cells expressing either the full length protein or a fragment of its S2 subunit. Quantitative ELISA was also performed to compare binding of mAbs to recombinant S protein.ResultsAn immunogenic domain in the S2 subunit of SARS-CoV-1 S protein is highly conserved in SARS-CoV-2 but not in MERS and human common-cold coronaviruses. Four murine mAbs raised against this immunogenic fragment could recognise SARS-CoV-2 S protein expressed in mammalian cell lines. In particular, mAb 1A9 was demonstrated to detect S protein in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and is suitable for use in a sandwich ELISA format.ConclusionThe cross-reactive mAbs may serve as useful tools for SARS-CoV-2 research and for the development of diagnostic assays for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Blotting, Western , COS Cells , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods , Genome, Viral , Mice , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Plasmids , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transfection , Vero Cells , Virus Integration
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 225, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613161

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip, an immunochromatographic (ICT) assay for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen on nasopharyngeal specimen, has been developed to identify positive COVID-19 patients allowing prompt clinical and quarantine decisions. In this original research article, we describe the conception, the analytical and clinical performances as well as the risk management of implementing the COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip in a diagnostic decision algorithm. Materials and Methods: Development of the COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip resulted in a ready-to-use ICT assay based on a membrane technology with colloidal gold nanoparticles using monoclonal antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 highly conserved nucleoprotein antigen. Four hundred observations were recorded for the analytical performance study and thirty tests were analyzed for the cross-reactivity study. The clinical performance study was performed in a retrospective multi-centric evaluation on aliquots of 328 nasopharyngeal samples. COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip results were compared with qRT-PCR as golden standard for COVID-19 diagnostics. Results: In the analytical performance study, the reproducibility showed a between-observer disagreement of 1.7%, a robustness of 98%, an overall satisfying user friendliness and no cross-reactivity with other virus-infected nasopharyngeal samples. In the clinical performance study performed in three different clinical laboratories during the ascendant phase of the epidemiological curve, we found an overall sensitivity and specificity of 57.6 and 99.5%, respectively with an accuracy of 82.6%. The cut-off of the ICT was found at CT <22. User-friendliness analysis and risk management assessment through Ishikawa diagram demonstrate that COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip may be implemented in clinical laboratories according to biosafety recommendations. Conclusion: The COVID-19 Ag Respi-Strip represents a promising rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen assay for the first-line diagnosis of COVID-19 in 15 min at the peak of the pandemic. Its role in the proposed diagnostic algorithm is complementary to the currently-used molecular techniques.

15.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(8): e12697, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-434202

ABSTRACT

Baricitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that was independently predicted, using artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, to be useful for COVID-19 infection via proposed anti-cytokine effects and as an inhibitor of host cell viral propagation. We evaluated the in vitro pharmacology of baricitinib across relevant leukocyte subpopulations coupled to its in vivo pharmacokinetics and showed it inhibited signaling of cytokines implicated in COVID-19 infection. We validated the AI-predicted biochemical inhibitory effects of baricitinib on human numb-associated kinase (hNAK) members measuring nanomolar affinities for AAK1, BIKE, and GAK. Inhibition of NAKs led to reduced viral infectivity with baricitinib using human primary liver spheroids. These effects occurred at exposure levels seen clinically. In a case series of patients with bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, baricitinib treatment was associated with clinical and radiologic recovery, a rapid decline in SARS-CoV-2 viral load, inflammatory markers, and IL-6 levels. Collectively, these data support further evaluation of the anti-cytokine and anti-viral activity of baricitinib and support its assessment in randomized trials in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artificial Intelligence , Azetidines/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/pharmacokinetics , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Female , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Leukocytes/drug effects , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Purines , Pyrazoles , SARS-CoV-2 , Spheroids, Cellular/drug effects , Spheroids, Cellular/virology , Sulfonamides/pharmacokinetics , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
16.
Cell ; 181(4): 905-913.e7, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-30638

ABSTRACT

We have previously provided the first genetic evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the critical receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and ACE2 protects the lung from injury, providing a molecular explanation for the severe lung failure and death due to SARS-CoV infections. ACE2 has now also been identified as a key receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infections, and it has been proposed that inhibiting this interaction might be used in treating patients with COVID-19. However, it is not known whether human recombinant soluble ACE2 (hrsACE2) blocks growth of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we show that clinical grade hrsACE2 reduced SARS-CoV-2 recovery from Vero cells by a factor of 1,000-5,000. An equivalent mouse rsACE2 had no effect. We also show that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect engineered human blood vessel organoids and human kidney organoids, which can be inhibited by hrsACE2. These data demonstrate that hrsACE2 can significantly block early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Blood Vessels/virology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Kidney/cytology , Kidney/virology , Mice , Organoids/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
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