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Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918799

ABSTRACT

Objective In the light of the current COVID-19 epidemic and the availability of effective vaccines, this study aims to identify factors associated with non-response to anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines as immunological alteration associated with immune rheumatic diseases (IRD) and immunosuppressive medications may impair the response to vaccination. Methods Volunteers in the health profession community with IRD, age, and sex-matched controls (CTRL) who underwent vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 were recruited for this study. Anti-Trimeric Spike protein antibodies were assayed eight ± one weeks after the second vaccine dose. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with non-response and low antibody titers. Results Samples were obtained from 237 IRD patients (m/f 73/164, mean age 57, CI 95% [56-59]): 4 autoinflammatory diseases (AI), 62 connective tissue diseases (CTD), 86 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 71 spondylarthritis (SpA) and 14 vasculitis (Vsc). 232 CTRL were recruited (m/f 71/161, mean age 57, CI 95% [56-58]). Globally, IRD had a lower seroconversion rate (88.6% vs 99.6%, CI 95% OR [1.61-5.73], p<0.001) and lower antibody titer compared to controls (median (IQR) 403 (131.5-1012) versus 1160 (702.5-1675), p<0.001). After logistic regression, age, corticosteroid (CCS), Abatacept and Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) use were associated with non-response. Lower antibody titer was associated with the use of MMF, ABA, CCS, Rituximab, tumor necrosis factor inhibitor, JAK inhibitors, and higher age. Conclusion The response to anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is often impaired in IRD patients under treatment and may pose them at higher risk of severe COVID-19. Specific vaccination protocols are desirable for these patients.

3.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of the pandemic on the disruption of a persuasive educational antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) conducted in a university hospital in southern Italy. METHODS: In March 2020, the ASP, which began in January 2017 and was carried out at different times in 10 wards, was stopped due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted an observational study with interrupted time series analysis to compare the antibiotic consumption and costs, average length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality between 12 months before and 9 months after the interruption. RESULTS: Four medical, four surgical wards and two ICUs were included in the study, for a total of 35,921 patient days. Among the medical wards we observed after the interruption a significant increase in fluoroquinolone use, with a change in trend (CT) of 0.996, p = 0.027. In the surgical wards, we observed a significant increase in the overall consumption, with a change in level (CL) of 24.4, p = 0.005, and in the use of third and fourth generation cephalosporins (CL 4.7, p = 0.003). In two ICUs, we observed a significant increase in piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolone consumption (CT 9.28, p = 0.019, and 2.4, p = 0.047). In the wards with a duration of ASP less than 30 months, we observed a significant increase in antibiotic consumption in the use of piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolones (CT 12.9, p = 0.022: 4.12, p = 0.029; 1.004, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The interruption of ASP during COVID-19 led to an increase in the consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly in surgical wards and in those with a duration of ASP less than 30 months.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a Southern Italian population. METHODS: The study was performed among students and workers of the University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" and the relative Teaching Hospital. Participants were invited to undergo a blood sampling, an interview or to complete a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 140 participants (5.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Positive SARS-CoV-2 test results increased significantly during the months of testing, and those who had had at least one symptom among fever, cough, dyspnea, loss of taste or smell and who had had contact with a family member/cohabitant with confirmed COVID-19 were more likely to test positive. Faculty members were less likely to have a positive test result compared to the healthcare workers (HCWs). Among HCWs, physicians showed the lowest rate of seroconversion (5.2%) compared to nurses (8.9%) and other categories (10%). Nurses and other HCWs compared to the physicians, those who had had at least one symptom among fever, cough, dyspnea, loss of taste or smell, and who had had contact with a family member/cohabitant with confirmed COVID-19 were more likely to test positive. CONCLUSIONS: The results have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection is rapidly spreading even in Southern Italy and confirm the substantial role of seroprevalence studies for the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection circulation and potential for further spreading.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Health Personnel , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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