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Chem Sci ; 13(13): 3674-3687, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778651


We report a fast-track computationally driven discovery of new SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors whose potency ranges from mM for the initial non-covalent ligands to sub-µM for the final covalent compound (IC50 = 830 ± 50 nM). The project extensively relied on high-resolution all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and absolute binding free energy calculations performed using the polarizable AMOEBA force field. The study is complemented by extensive adaptive sampling simulations that are used to rationalize the different ligand binding poses through the explicit reconstruction of the ligand-protein conformation space. Machine learning predictions are also performed to predict selected compound properties. While simulations extensively use high performance computing to strongly reduce the time-to-solution, they were systematically coupled to nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to drive synthesis and for in vitro characterization of compounds. Such a study highlights the power of in silico strategies that rely on structure-based approaches for drug design and allows the protein conformational multiplicity problem to be addressed. The proposed fluorinated tetrahydroquinolines open routes for further optimization of Mpro inhibitors towards low nM affinities.

Chem Sci ; 12(13): 4889-4907, 2021 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387505


We provide an unsupervised adaptive sampling strategy capable of producing µs-timescale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of large biosystems using many-body polarizable force fields (PFFs). The global exploration problem is decomposed into a set of separate MD trajectories that can be restarted within a selective process to achieve sufficient phase-space sampling. Accurate statistical properties can be obtained through reweighting. Within this highly parallel setup, the Tinker-HP package can be powered by an arbitrary large number of GPUs on supercomputers, reducing exploration time from years to days. This approach is used to tackle the urgent modeling problem of the SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (Mpro) producing more than 38 µs of all-atom simulations of its apo (ligand-free) dimer using the high-resolution AMOEBA PFF. The first 15.14 µs simulation (physiological pH) is compared to available non-PFF long-timescale simulation data. A detailed clustering analysis exhibits striking differences between FFs, with AMOEBA showing a richer conformational space. Focusing on key structural markers related to the oxyanion hole stability, we observe an asymmetry between protomers. One of them appears less structured resembling the experimentally inactive monomer for which a 6 µs simulation was performed as a basis for comparison. Results highlight the plasticity of the Mpro active site. The C-terminal end of its less structured protomer is shown to oscillate between several states, being able to interact with the other protomer, potentially modulating its activity. Active and distal site volumes are found to be larger in the most active protomer within our AMOEBA simulations compared to non-PFFs as additional cryptic pockets are uncovered. A second 17 µs AMOEBA simulation is performed with protonated His172 residues mimicking lower pH. Data show the protonation impact on the destructuring of the oxyanion loop. We finally analyze the solvation patterns around key histidine residues. The confined AMOEBA polarizable water molecules are able to explore a wide range of dipole moments, going beyond bulk values, leading to a water molecule count consistent with experimental data. Results suggest that the use of PFFs could be critical in drug discovery to accurately model the complexity of the molecular interactions structuring Mpro.