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2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 821-828, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although mRNA-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines report >90% efficacy, breakthrough infections occur. Little is known about their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the highly prevalent B.1.427/B.1.429 variant. METHODS: In this quality improvement project, we collected demographic and clinical information from post-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 cases (PVSCs), defined as healthcare personnel (HCP) with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test after receiving ≥1 vaccine dose. Available specimens were tested for L452R, N501Y, and E484K mutations using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Mutation prevalence was compared among unvaccinated, early post-vaccinated (≤14 days after dose 1), partially vaccinated (positive test >14 days after dose 1 and <14 days after dose 2), and fully vaccinated (>14 days after dose 2) PVSCs. RESULTS: From December 2020 to April 2021, ≥23 090 HCP received ≥1 dose of an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and 660 HCP cases of SARS-CoV-2 occurred, of which 189 were PVSCs. Among the PVSCs, 114 (60.3%), 49 (25.9%), and 26 (13.8%) were early post-vaccination, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated, respectively. Of 261 available samples from vaccinated and unvaccinated HCP, 103 (39.5%), including 42 PVSCs (36.5%), had the L452R mutation presumptive of B.1.427/B.1.429. When adjusted for community prevalence of B.1.427/B.1.429, PVSCs did not have significantly elevated risk of B.1.427/B.1.429 compared with unvaccinated HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Most PVSCs occurred prior to expected onset of full, vaccine-derived immunity. Presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429 was not more prevalent in post-vaccine cases than in unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 HCP. Continued infection control measures, particularly <14 days post-vaccination, and continued variant surveillance in PVSCs are imperative to control future SARS-CoV-2 surges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(3): 371-378, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections after vaccination are related to the level of postvaccine circulating antibody is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine longitudinal antibody-based response and risk for breakthrough infection after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS: 4791 patients receiving dialysis. MEASUREMENTS: Remainder plasma from a laboratory processing routine monthly tests was used to measure qualitative and semiquantitative antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate whether peak or prebreakthrough RBD values were associated with breakthrough infection, a nested case-control analysis matched each breakthrough case patient to 5 control patients by age, sex, and vaccination month and adjusted for diabetes status and region of residence. RESULTS: Of the 4791 patients followed with monthly RBD assays, 2563 were vaccinated as of 14 September 2021. Among the vaccinated patients, the estimated proportion with an undetectable RBD response increased from 6.6% (95% CI, 5.5% to 7.8%) 14 to 30 days after vaccination to 20.2% (CI, 17.0% to 23.3%) 5 to 6 months after vaccination. Estimated median index values decreased from 91.9 (CI, 78.6 to 105.2) 14 to 30 days after vaccination to 8.4 (CI, 7.6 to 9.3) 5 to 6 months after vaccination. Breakthrough infections occurred in 56 patients, with samples collected a median of 21 days before breakthrough infection. Compared with prebreakthrough index RBD values of 23 or higher (equivalent to ≥506 binding antibody units per milliliter), prebreakthrough RBD values less than 10 and values from 10 to less than 23 were associated with higher odds for breakthrough infection (rate ratios, 11.6 [CI, 3.4 to 39.5] and 6.0 [CI, 1.5 to 23.6], respectively). LIMITATIONS: Single measure of vaccine response; ascertainment of COVID-19 diagnosis from electronic health records. CONCLUSION: The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination wanes rapidly in persons receiving dialysis. In this population, the circulating antibody response is associated with risk for breakthrough infection. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ascend Clinical Laboratory.

5.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1073-1080, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 immune response among patients receiving dialysis can define its durability in a highly clinically relevant context because patients receiving dialysis share the characteristics of persons most susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG in seroprevalent patients receiving dialysis. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS: 2215 patients receiving dialysis who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as of July 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Remainder plasma from routine monthly laboratories was used to measure semiquantitative RBD IgG index value over 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 2063 (93%) seroprevalent patients reached an assay detectable response (IgG index value ≥1). Most (n = 1323, 60%) had responses in July with index values classified as high (IgG ≥10); 1003 (76%) remained within this stratum. Adjusted median index values declined slowly but continuously (July vs. December values were 21 vs. 13; P < 0.001). The trajectory of the response did not vary by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, or diabetes status. Patients without an assay detectable response (n = 137) were more likely to be White and in the younger (18 to 44 years) or older (≥80 years) age groups and less likely to have diabetes and hypoalbuminemia. LIMITATION: Lack of data on symptoms or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, cohort of persons who survived infection, and use of a semiquantitative assay. CONCLUSION: Despite impaired immunity, most seropositive patients receiving dialysis maintained RBD antibody levels over 6 months. A slow and continual decline in median antibody levels over time was seen, but no indication that subgroups with impaired immunity had a shorter-lived humoral response was found. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ascend Clinical Laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Protein Domains/immunology , Renal Dialysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients on dialysis are at increased risk for COVID-19-related complications. However, a substantial fraction of patients on dialysis belong to groups more likely to be hesitant about vaccination. METHODS: With the goal of identifying strategies to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake among patients on hemodialysis, we conducted a nationwide vaccine acceptability survey, partnering with a dialysis network to distribute an anonymized English and Spanish language online survey in 150 randomly selected facilities in the United States. We used logistic regression to evaluate characteristics of vaccine-hesitant persons. RESULTS: A total of 1515 (14% of eligible) patients responded; 20% of all responders, 29% of patients aged 18-44 years, and 29% of Black responders reported being hesitant to seek the COVID-19 vaccine, even if the vaccine was considered safe for the general population. Odds of vaccine hesitancy were higher among patients aged 18-44 years versus those 45-64 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.0 to 2.3), Black patients versus non-Hispanic White patients (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.7), Native Americans or Pacific Islanders versus non-Hispanic White patients (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.7), and women versus men (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.0). About half (53%) of patients who were vaccine hesitant expressed concerns about side effects. Responders' main information sources about COVID-19 vaccines were television news and dialysis staff (68% and 38%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of patients receiving in-center hemodialysis in the United States are hesitant about seeking COVID-19 vaccination. Facilitating uptake requires outreach to younger patients, women, and Black, Native American, or Pacific Islander patients, and addressing concerns about side effects.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 821-828, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although mRNA-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines report >90% efficacy, breakthrough infections occur. Little is known about their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the highly prevalent B.1.427/B.1.429 variant. METHODS: In this quality improvement project, we collected demographic and clinical information from post-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 cases (PVSCs), defined as healthcare personnel (HCP) with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test after receiving ≥1 vaccine dose. Available specimens were tested for L452R, N501Y, and E484K mutations using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Mutation prevalence was compared among unvaccinated, early post-vaccinated (≤14 days after dose 1), partially vaccinated (positive test >14 days after dose 1 and <14 days after dose 2), and fully vaccinated (>14 days after dose 2) PVSCs. RESULTS: From December 2020 to April 2021, ≥23 090 HCP received ≥1 dose of an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and 660 HCP cases of SARS-CoV-2 occurred, of which 189 were PVSCs. Among the PVSCs, 114 (60.3%), 49 (25.9%), and 26 (13.8%) were early post-vaccination, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated, respectively. Of 261 available samples from vaccinated and unvaccinated HCP, 103 (39.5%), including 42 PVSCs (36.5%), had the L452R mutation presumptive of B.1.427/B.1.429. When adjusted for community prevalence of B.1.427/B.1.429, PVSCs did not have significantly elevated risk of B.1.427/B.1.429 compared with unvaccinated HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Most PVSCs occurred prior to expected onset of full, vaccine-derived immunity. Presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429 was not more prevalent in post-vaccine cases than in unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 HCP. Continued infection control measures, particularly <14 days post-vaccination, and continued variant surveillance in PVSCs are imperative to control future SARS-CoV-2 surges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249466, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186603

ABSTRACT

Patients on dialysis are at high risk for death due to COVID-19, yet a significant proportion do survive as evidenced by presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 8% of patients in the U.S. in July 2020. It is unclear whether patients with seropositivity represent the subgroup with robust health status, who would be more likely to mount a durable antibody response. Using data from a July 2020 sample of 28,503 patients receiving dialysis, we evaluated the cross-sectional association of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity with laboratory surrogates of patient health. In separate logistic regression models, we assessed the association of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity with seven laboratory-based covariates (albumin, creatinine, hemoglobin, sodium, potassium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone), across the entire range of the laboratory and in comparison to a referent value. Models accounted for age, sex, region, race and ethnicity, and county-level COVID-19 deaths per 100,000. Odds of seropositivity for albumin 3 and 3.5 g/dL were 2.1 (95% CI 1.9-2.3) and 1.3 (1.2-1.4) respectively, compared with 4 g/dL. Odds of seropositivity for serum creatinine 5 and 8 mg/dL were 1.8 (1.6-2.0) and 1.3 (1.2-1.4) respectively, compared with 12.5 mg/dL. Lower values of hemoglobin, sodium, potassium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone were associated with higher odds of seropositivity. Laboratory values associated with poorer health status and higher risk for mortality were also associated with higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients receiving dialysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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