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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024332

ABSTRACT

The Ebola virus disease outbreak that occurred in Western Africa from 2013-2016, and subsequent smaller but increasingly frequent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in recent years, spurred an unprecedented effort to develop and deploy effective vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. This effort led to the U.S. regulatory approval of a diagnostic test, two vaccines, and two therapeutics for Ebola virus disease indications. Moreover, the establishment of fieldable diagnostic tests improved the speed with which patients can be diagnosed and public health resources mobilized. The United States government has played and continues to play a key role in funding and coordinating these medical countermeasure efforts. Here, we describe the coordinated U.S. government response to develop medical countermeasures for Ebola virus disease and we identify lessons learned that may improve future efforts to develop and deploy effective countermeasures against other filoviruses, such as Sudan virus and Marburg virus.

2.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(8): 863-870, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a worldwide shortage of N95 respirators, prompting the development of decontamination methods to enable limited reuse. Countries lacking reliable supply chains would also benefit from the ability to safely reuse PPE. Methylene blue (MB) is a light-activated dye with demonstrated antimicrobial activity used to sterilize blood plasma. Decontamination of respirators using photoactivated MB requires no specialized equipment, making it attractive for use in the field during outbreaks. METHODS: We examined decontamination of N95 and KN95 respirators using photoactivated MB and 3 variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19; and 4 World Health Organization priority pathogens: Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Nipah virus, and Lassa virus. Virus inactivation by pretreating respirator material was also tested. RESULTS: Photoactivated MB inactivated all tested viruses on respirator material, albeit with varying efficiency. Virus applied to respirator material pre-treated with MB was also inactivated, thus MB pretreatment may potentially protect respirator wearers from virus exposure in real-time. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that photoactivated MB represents a cost-effective, rapid, and widely deployable method to decontaminate N95 respirators for reuse during supply shortages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nipah Virus , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Reuse , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , N95 Respirators , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0153721, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532984

ABSTRACT

The necessity for intravenous administration of remdesivir confines its utility for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to hospitalized patients. We evaluated the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of ODBG-P-RVn, an orally available, lipid-modified monophosphate prodrug of the remdesivir parent nucleoside (GS-441524), against viruses that cause diseases of human public health concern, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). ODBG-P-RVn showed 20-fold greater antiviral activity than GS-441524 and had activity nearly equivalent to that of remdesivir in primary-like human small airway epithelial cells. Our results warrant in vivo efficacy evaluation of ODBG-P-RVn. IMPORTANCE While remdesivir remains one of the few drugs approved by the FDA to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), its intravenous route of administration limits its use to hospital settings. Optimizing the stability and absorption of remdesivir may lead to a more accessible and clinically potent therapeutic. Here, we describe an orally available lipid-modified version of remdesivir with activity nearly equivalent to that of remdesivir against emerging viruses that cause significant disease, including Ebola and Nipah viruses. Our work highlights the importance of such modifications to optimize drug delivery to relevant and appropriate human tissues that are most affected by such diseases.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , Prodrugs/therapeutic use , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Glyceryl Ethers/therapeutic use , Humans , Lipids , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12330, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265968

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and has since spread around the world, causing a pandemic of the respiratory disease COVID-19. Detecting antibodies against the virus is an essential tool for tracking infections and developing vaccines. Such tests, primarily utilizing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) principle, can be either qualitative (reporting positive/negative results) or quantitative (reporting a value representing the quantity of specific antibodies). Quantitation is vital for determining stability or decline of antibody titers in convalescence, efficacy of different vaccination regimens, and detection of asymptomatic infections. Quantitation typically requires two-step ELISA testing, in which samples are first screened in a qualitative assay and positive samples are subsequently analyzed as a dilution series. To overcome the throughput limitations of this approach, we developed a simpler and faster system that is highly automatable and achieves quantitation in a single-dilution screening format with sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of ELISA.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/economics , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/economics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26946-26954, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841854

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral nucleotide prodrug that has been clinically evaluated in Ebola virus patients and recently received emergency use authorization (EUA) for treatment of COVID-19. With approvals from the Federal Select Agent Program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Institutional Biosecurity Board, we characterized the resistance profile of remdesivir by serially passaging Ebola virus under remdesivir selection; we generated lineages with low-level reduced susceptibility to remdesivir after 35 passages. We found that a single amino acid substitution, F548S, in the Ebola virus polymerase conferred low-level reduced susceptibility to remdesivir. The F548 residue is highly conserved in filoviruses but should be subject to specific surveillance among novel filoviruses, in newly emerging variants in ongoing outbreaks, and also in Ebola virus patients undergoing remdesivir therapy. Homology modeling suggests that the Ebola virus polymerase F548 residue lies in the F-motif of the polymerase active site, a region that was previously identified as susceptible to resistance mutations in coronaviruses. Our data suggest that molecular surveillance of this region of the polymerase in remdesivir-treated COVID-19 patients is also warranted.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Ebolavirus/enzymology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Cell Line , Drug Tolerance/genetics , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Ebolavirus/genetics , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-658119

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Reported cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection likely underestimate the prevalence of infection in affected communities. Large-scale seroprevalence studies provide better estimates of the proportion of the population previously infected. OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in convenience samples from several geographic sites in the US. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study performed serologic testing on a convenience sample of residual sera obtained from persons of all ages. The serum was collected from March 23 through May 12, 2020, for routine clinical testing by 2 commercial laboratory companies. Sites of collection were San Francisco Bay area, California; Connecticut; south Florida; Louisiana; Minneapolis-St Paul-St Cloud metro area, Minnesota; Missouri; New York City metro area, New York; Philadelphia metro area, Pennsylvania; Utah; and western Washington State. EXPOSURES: Infection with SARS-CoV-2. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was estimated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and estimates were standardized to the site populations by age and sex. Estimates were adjusted for test performance characteristics (96.0% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity). The number of infections in each site was estimated by extrapolating seroprevalence to site populations; estimated infections were compared with the number of reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases as of last specimen collection date. RESULTS: Serum samples were tested from 16 025 persons, 8853 (55.2%) of whom were women; 1205 (7.5%) were 18 years or younger and 5845 (36.2%) were 65 years or older. Most specimens from each site had no evidence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Adjusted estimates of the proportion of persons seroreactive to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies ranged from 1.0% in the San Francisco Bay area (collected April 23-27) to 6.9% of persons in New York City (collected March 23-April 1). The estimated number of infections ranged from 6 to 24 times the number of reported cases; for 7 sites (Connecticut, Florida, Louisiana, Missouri, New York City metro area, Utah, and western Washington State), an estimated greater than 10 times more SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred than the number of reported cases. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: During March to early May 2020, most persons in 10 diverse geographic sites in the US had not been infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus. The estimated number of infections, however, was much greater than the number of reported cases in all sites. The findings may reflect the number of persons who had mild or no illness or who did not seek medical care or undergo testing but who still may have contributed to ongoing virus transmission in the population.

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