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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324910

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of angiotensin II (ANGII) in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients is controversial. Its effect on markers of organ function is unknown. Methods: We used ANGII either as rescue vasopressor agent or as low dose vasopressor support. Patients treated before ANGII availability or in an adjacent COVID-19 ICU served as controls. For data analysis, we applied Bayesian modelling as appropriate. We assessed the effects of ANG on markers of organ function. Results: We compared 46 ANGII patients with 53 controls. Compared with controls, ANGII increased MAP (median difference, 9.05 mmHg [95% confidence interval, 1.87 to 16.22];p = 0.013) and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio (median difference, 23.17 [95% confidence interval, 3.46 to 42.88];p = 0.021). ANGII had no effect on lactate, urinary output, serum creatinine, C-Reactive protein, platelet count, or thromboembolic complications. However, it significantly decreased the odd ratio of liver dysfunction (odds ratio: 0.32;0.09 to 0.94) and, on Bayesian modelling, in patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine, ANGII carried a 95.7% probability of decreasing renal replacement therapy use. Conclusions: In ventilated COVID-19 patients, ANGII therapy was associated with increased blood pressure and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratios, decreased odds ratio of liver dysfunction, and a high probability of decreasing renal replacement therapy use in patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine.

2.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung damage leading to gas-exchange deficit and sepsis leading to systemic hypoperfusion are well-known features of severe pneumonia. Although frequently described in COVID-19, their prognostic impact in COVID-19-related pneumonia vs COVID-19-urelated pneumonia has never been compared. This study assesses fundamental gas-exchange and hemodynamic parameters and explores their prognostic impact in COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated arterial pO2/FiO2, alveolar to arterial O2 gradient, shock index, and serum lactate in 126 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, aged 18- 65, presenting to the emergency department with acute, non-hypercapnic respiratory failure. As a control group we identified 1:1 age-, sex-, and pO2/FiO2-matched COVID-19-urelated pneumonia patients. Univariate and multivariable predictors of 30-day survival were identified in both groups. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower arterial serum lactate concentration (p<0.001) and shock index (p<0.001) values as compared to non-COVID-19 patients. While we did not observe differences in lactate concentration or in shock index values in deceased vs surviving COVID-19 patients (respectively, p=0.7 and p=0.6), non-COVID-19 deceased patients showed significantly higher lactate and shock index than non-COVID-19 survivors (p<0.001 and p=0.03). The pO2/FiO2 was the most powerful determinant of survival by Cox regression multivariate analysis in COVID-19 patients (p=0.006), while it was lactate in non-COVID-19 patients (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to COVID19-unrelated pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia outcome seems more strictly correlated to the extent of lung damage, rather than to the systemic circulatory and metabolic derangements typical of sepsis.

3.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 66(2): 223-231, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-19 ARDS) is a disease that often requires invasive ventilation. Little is known about COVID-19 ARDS sequelae. We assessed the mid-term lung status of COVID-19 survivors and investigated factors associated with pulmonary sequelae. METHODS: All adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit from 25th February to 27th April 2020 were included. Lung function was evaluated through chest CT scan and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of persisting lung alterations. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (75%) completed lung assessment. Chest CT scan was performed after a median (interquartile range) time of 97 (89-105) days, whilst PFT after 142 (133-160) days. The median age was 58 (52-65) years and most patients were male (90%). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 11 (6-16) days. Median tidal volume/ideal body weight (TV/IBW) was 6.8 (5.71-7.67) ml/Kg. 59% and 63% of patients showed radiological and functional lung sequelae, respectively. The diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO ) was reduced by 59%, with a median per cent of predicted DLCO of 72.1 (57.9-93.9) %. Mean TV/IBW during invasive ventilation emerged as an independent predictor of persistent CT scan abnormalities, whilst the duration of mechanical ventilation was an independent predictor of both CT and PFT abnormalities. The extension of lung involvement at hospital admission (evaluated through Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema, RALE score) independently predicted the risk of persistent alterations in PFTs. CONCLUSIONS: Both the extent of lung parenchymal involvement and mechanical ventilation protocols predict morphological and functional lung abnormalities months after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
4.
J Crit Care ; 66: 14-19, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351740

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether Macklin effect (a linear collection of air contiguous to the bronchovascular sheath) on baseline CT imaging is an accurate predictor for subsequent pneumomediastinum (PMD)/pneumothorax (PNX) development in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. From a prospectively acquired database, all consecutive invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS patients who underwent at least one baseline chest CT scan during the study time period (February 25th, 2020-December 31st, 2020) were identified; those who had tracheal lesion or already had PMD/PNX at the time of the first available chest imaging were excluded. RESULTS: 37/173 (21.4%) patients enrolled had PMD/PNX; specifically, 20 (11.5%) had PMD, 10 (5.8%) PNX, 7 (4%) both. 33/37 patients with subsequent PMD/PNX had Macklin effect on baseline CT (89.2%, true positives) 8.5 days [range, 1-18] before the first actual radiological evidence of PMD/PNX. Conversely, 6/136 patients without PMD/PNX (4.4%, false positives) demonstrated Macklin effect (p < 0.001). Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.6-96.9), a specificity of 95.6% (95% CI: 90.6-98.4), a positive predictive value (PV) of 84.5% (95% CI: 71.3-92.3), a negative PV of 97.1% (95% CI: 74.6-96.9) and an accuracy of 94.2% (95% CI: 89.6-97.2) in predicting PMD/PNX (AUC:0.924). CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect accurately predicts, 8.5 days in advance, PMD/PNX development in COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 72(2): 189-193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous dilation tracheostomy is an aerosol-generating procedure carrying a documented infectious risk during respiratory virus pandemics. For this reason, during the COVID-19 outbreak, surgical tracheostomy was preferred to the percutaneous one, despite the technique related complications increased risk. METHODS: We describe a new sequence for percutaneous dilation tracheostomy procedure that could be considered safe both for patients and healthcare personnel. A fiberscope was connected to a video unit to allow bronchoscopy. Guidewire positioning was performed as usual. While the established standard procedure continues with the creation of the stoma without any change in mechanical ventilation, we retracted the bronchoscope until immediately after the access valve in the mount tube, allowing normal ventilation. After 3 minutes of ventilation with 100% oxygen, mechanical ventilation was stopped without disconnecting the circuit. During apnea, the stoma was created by dilating the trachea and the tracheostomy cannula was inserted. Ventilation was then resumed. We evaluated the safeness of the procedure by recording any severe desaturation and by performing serological tests to all personnel. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (38%) of 96 underwent tracheostomy; 22 (23%) percutaneous dilation tracheostomies with the new approach were performed without any desaturation. All personnel (150 operators) were evaluated for serological testing: 9 (6%) had positive serology but none of them had participated in tracheostomy procedures. CONCLUSION: This newly described percutaneous dilation tracheostomy technique was not related to severe desaturation events and we did not observe any positive serological test in health workers who performed the tracheostomies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Apnea/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/methods
6.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(8): 891-902, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines. We present the characteristics and outcomes of patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with immunosuppressive drugs, either tocilizumab or anakinra compared with controls. METHODS: A single-center observational prospective study on ICU invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome was the clinical improvement at day 28. A Bayesian framework was employed, and all analyses were adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Sixty-one consecutive invasively ventilated patients were included, nine (14.7%) received tocilizumab and 15 (24.6%) received anakinra. Over the first seven days, tocilizumab was associated with a greater decrease in C-reactive protein (P<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, the probability of clinical improvement at day 28 compared to control was 7∙6% (OR=0.36 [95% CrI: 0.09-1.46]) for tocilizumab and 40.9% (OR=0.89 [95% CrI: 0.32-2.43]) for anakinra. At day 28, the probability of being in a better clinical category was 2.5% (OR=2.98 [95% CrI: 1.00-8.88]) for tocilizumab, and 49.5% (OR=1.00 [95% CrI: 0.42-2.42]) for anakinra. CONCLUSIONS: In invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients, treatment with anakinra was associated with a higher probability of clinical improvement compared to tocilizumab; however, treatment with either drug did not result in clinically meaningful improvements compared with controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(7): 912-920, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease can lead to severe functional impairments after discharge. We assessed the quality of life of invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS survivors. METHODS: We carried out a prospective follow-up study of the patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of a teaching hospital. Patients affected by COVID-19 ARDS who required invasive ventilation and were successfully discharged home were assessed through the telephone administration of validated tests. We explored survival, functional outcomes, return to work, quality of life, cognitive and psychological sequelae. The main variables of interest were the following: demographics, severity scores, laboratory values, comorbidities, schooling, working status, treatments received during ICU stay, complications, and psychological, cognitive, functional outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 116 consecutive invasively ventilated patients, overall survival was 65/116 (56%) with no death occurring after hospital discharge. Forty-two patients were already discharged home with a median follow-up time of 61 (51-71) days after ICU discharge and 39 of them accepted to be interviewed. Only one patient (1/39) experienced cognitive decline. The vast majority of patients reported no difficulty in walking (32/35:82%), self-care (33/39:85%), and usual activities (30/39:78%). All patients were either malnourished (15/39:38%) or at risk for malnutrition (24/39:62%). Exertional dyspnea was present in 20/39 (51%) patients. 19/39 (49%) reported alterations in senses of smell and/or taste either before or after hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS survivors have an overall good recovery at a 2-months follow-up which is better than what was previously reported in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Quality of Life , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Eur J Intern Med ; 86: 34-40, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068898

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 cases have a detrimental hyper-inflammatory host response and different cytokine-blocking biologic agents were explored to improve outcomes. Anakinra blocks the activity of both IL-1α and IL­1ß and is approved for different autoinflammatory disorders, but it is used off-label for conditions characterized by an excess of cytokine production. Several studies on anakinra in COVID-19 patients reported positive effects. We performed a meta-analysis of all published evidence on the use of anakinra in COVID19 to investigate its effect on survival and need for mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We searched for any study performed on adult patients with acute hypoxemic failure related to 2019-nCoV infection, receiving anakinra versus any comparator. Primary endpoint was mortality at the longest available follow-up. Adverse effects, need for mechanical ventilation and discharge at home with no limitations were also analysed. RESULTS: Four observational studies involving 184 patients were included. Overall mortality of patients treated with anakinra was significantly lower than mortality in the control group (95% CI 0.14-0.48, p<0.0001). Moreover, patients treated with anakinra had a significantly lower risk of need for mechanical ventilation than controls (95% CI 0.250.74, p=0.002). No difference in adverse events and discharge at home with no limitations was observed. The Trial Sequential Analysis z-cumulative line reached the monitoring boundary for benefit and the required sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of anakinra in COVID-19 patients was safe and might be associated with reductions in both mortality and need for mechanical ventilation. Randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(12): 3642-3651, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, predictors, and outcome of pneumothorax (PNX)/pneumomediastinum (PMD) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred sixteen consecutive critically ill, invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 ARDS. INTERVENTIONS: The authors collected demographic, mechanical ventilation, imaging, laboratory, and outcome data. Primary outcome was the incidence of PNX/PMD. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of PNX/PMD. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: PNX/PMD occurred in a total of 28 patients (24.1%), with 22 patients developing PNX (19.0%) and 13 developing PMD (11.2%). Mean time to development of PNX/PMD was 14 ± 11 days from intubation. The authors found no significant difference in mechanical ventilation parameters between patients who developed PNX/PMD and those who did not. Mechanical ventilation parameters were within recommended limits for protective ventilation in both groups. Ninety-five percent of patients with PNX/PMD had the Macklin effect (linear collections of air contiguous to the bronchovascular sheaths) on a baseline computed tomography scan, and tended to have a higher lung involvement at intensive care unit (ICU) admission (Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema score 32.2 ± 13.4 v 18.7 ± 9.8 in patients without PNX/PMD, p = 0.08). Time from symptom onset to intubation and time from total bilirubin on day two after ICU admission were the only independent predictors of PNX/PMD. Mortality was 60.7% in patients who developed PNX/PMD versus 38.6% in those who did not (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: PNX/PMD occurs frequently in COVID-19 patients with ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation, and is associated with increased mortality. Development of PNX/PMD seems to occur despite use of protective mechanical ventilation and has a radiologic predictor sign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(3): 359-362, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning improves oxygenation in adult respiratory distress syndrome. This procedure has been widely used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. However, this procedure can also be responsible for nerve damage and plexopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a series of 7 infectious patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who underwent prone positioning ventilation at the San Raffaele Hospital of Milan, Italy, during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: Clinical and neurophysiological data of 7 patients with nerve compression injuries have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: Health care workers should take into consideration the risk factors for prone positioning-related plexopathy and nerve damage, especially in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, to prevent this type of complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(3): 359-362, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning improves oxygenation in adult respiratory distress syndrome. This procedure has been widely used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. However, this procedure can also be responsible for nerve damage and plexopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a series of 7 infectious patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who underwent prone positioning ventilation at the San Raffaele Hospital of Milan, Italy, during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: Clinical and neurophysiological data of 7 patients with nerve compression injuries have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: Health care workers should take into consideration the risk factors for prone positioning-related plexopathy and nerve damage, especially in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, to prevent this type of complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(12): 3631-3641, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, dramatic endothelial cell damage with pulmonary microvascular thrombosis have been was hypothesized to occur. The aim was to assess whether pulmonary vascular thrombosis (PVT) is due to recurrent thromboembolism from peripheral deep vein thrombosis or to local inflammatory endothelial damage, with a superimposed thrombotic late complication. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Medical and intensive care unit wards of a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The authors report a subset of patients included in a prospective institutional study (CovidBiob study) with clinical suspicion of pulmonary vascular thromboembolism. INTERVENTIONS: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography and evaluation of laboratory markers and coagulation profile. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-eight of 55 (50.9%) patients showed PVT, with a median time interval from symptom onset of 17.5 days. Simultaneous multiple PVTs were identified in 22 patients, with bilateral involvement in 16, mostly affecting segmental/subsegmental pulmonary artery branches (67.8% and 96.4%). Patients with PVT had significantly higher ground glass opacity areas (31.7% [22.9-41] v 17.8% [10.8-22.1], p < 0.001) compared with those without PVT. Remarkably, in all 28 patients, ground glass opacities areas and PVT had an almost perfect spatial overlap. D-dimer level at hospital admission was predictive of PVT. CONCLUSIONS: The findings identified a specific radiologic pattern of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia with a unique spatial distribution of PVT overlapping areas of ground-glass opacities. These findings supported the hypothesis of a pathogenetic relationship between COVID-19 lung inflammation and PVT and challenged the previous definition of pulmonary embolism associated with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur Radiol ; 31(6): 4031-4041, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Enlarged main pulmonary artery diameter (MPAD) resulted to be associated with pulmonary hypertension and mortality in a non-COVID-19 setting. The aim was to investigate and validate the association between MPAD enlargement and overall survival in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a cohort study on 1469 consecutive COVID-19 patients submitted to chest CT within 72 h from admission in seven tertiary level hospitals in Northern Italy, between March 1 and April 20, 2020. Derivation cohort (n = 761) included patients from the first three participating hospitals; validation cohort (n = 633) included patients from the remaining hospitals. CT images were centrally analyzed in a core-lab blinded to clinical data. The prognostic value of MPAD on overall survival was evaluated at adjusted and multivariable Cox's regression analysis on the derivation cohort. The final multivariable model was tested on the validation cohort. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, the median age was 69 (IQR, 58-77) years and 537 (70.6%) were males. In the validation cohort, the median age was 69 (IQR, 59-77) years with 421 (66.5%) males. Enlarged MPAD (≥ 31 mm) was a predictor of mortality at adjusted (hazard ratio, HR [95%CI]: 1.741 [1.253-2.418], p < 0.001) and multivariable regression analysis (HR [95%CI]: 1.592 [1.154-2.196], p = 0.005), together with male gender, old age, high creatinine, low well-aerated lung volume, and high pneumonia extension (c-index [95%CI] = 0.826 [0.796-0.851]). Model discrimination was confirmed on the validation cohort (c-index [95%CI] = 0.789 [0.758-0.823]), also using CT measurements from a second reader (c-index [95%CI] = 0.790 [0.753;0.825]). CONCLUSION: Enlarged MPAD (≥ 31 mm) at admitting chest CT is an independent predictor of mortality in COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • Enlargement of main pulmonary artery diameter at chest CT performed within 72 h from the admission was associated with a higher rate of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. • Enlargement of main pulmonary artery diameter (≥ 31 mm) was an independent predictor of death in COVID-19 patients at adjusted and multivariable regression analysis. • The combined evaluation of clinical findings, lung CT features, and main pulmonary artery diameter may be useful for risk stratification in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Artery , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 86(11): 1234-1245, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976681

ABSTRACT

With 63,098 confirmed cases on 17 April 2020 and 11,384 deaths, Lombardy has been the most affected region in Italy by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To cope with this emergency, the COVID-19 Lombardy intensive care units (ICU) network was created. The network identified the need of defining a list of clinical recommendations to standardize treatment of patients with COVID-19 admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Three core topics were identified: 1) rational use of intensive care resources; 2) ventilation strategies; 3) non-ventilatory interventions. Identification of patients who may benefit from ICU treatment is challenging. Clinicians should consider baseline performance and frailty status and they should adopt disease-specific staging tools. Continuous positive airway pressure, mainly delivered through a helmet as elective method, should be considered as initial treatment for all patients with respiratory failure associated with COVID-19. In case of persisting dyspnea and/or desaturation despite 4-6 hours of noninvasive ventilation, endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation should be considered. In the early phase, muscle relaxant use and volume-controlled ventilation is recommended. Prone position should be performed in patients with PaO2/FiO2≤100 mmHg. For patients admitted to ICU with COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia, we do not recommend empiric antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. Consultation of an infectious disease specialist is suggested before start of any antiviral therapy. In conclusion, the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network identified a list of best practice statements supported by the available evidence and clinical experience or identified as panel members expert opinions for the management of critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Pandemics
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 451-457, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to describe the incidence and predictive factors of secondary infections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital between 25th February and 6th April 2020 (NCT04318366). We considered secondary bloodstream infections (BSIs) or possible lower respiratory tract infections (pLRTIs) occurring 48 hours after hospital admission until death or discharge. We calculated multivariable Fine-Gray models to assess factors associated with risk of secondary infections. RESULTS: Among 731 patients, a secondary infection was diagnosed in 68 patients (9.3%); 58/731 patients (7.9%) had at least one BSI and 22/731 patients (3.0%) at least one pLRTI. The overall 28-day cumulative incidence was 16.4% (95%CI 12.4-21.0%). Most of the BSIs were due to Gram-positive pathogens (76/106 isolates, 71.7%), specifically coagulase-negative staphylococci (53/76, 69.7%), while among Gram-negatives (23/106, 21.7%) Acinetobacter baumanii (7/23, 30.4%) and Escherichia coli (5/23, 21.7%) predominated. pLRTIs were caused mainly by Gram-negative pathogens (14/26, 53.8%). Eleven patients were diagnosed with putative invasive aspergillosis. At multivariable analysis, factors associated with secondary infections were low baseline lymphocyte count (≤0.7 versus >0.7 per 109/L, subdistribution hazard ratios (sdHRs) 1.93, 95%CI 1.11-3.35), baseline PaO2/FiO2 (per 100 points lower: sdHRs 1.56, 95%CI 1.21-2.04), and intensive-care unit (ICU) admission in the first 48 hours (sdHR 2.51, 95%CI 1.04-6.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had a high incidence of secondary infections. At multivariable analysis, early need for ICU, respiratory failure, and severe lymphopenia were identified as risk factors for secondary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/microbiology
17.
Blood Purif ; 50(1): 102-109, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no information on acute kidney injury (AKI) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) among invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Western healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and outcome of AKI and CRRT among invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study in a tertiary care hospital in Milan, Italy. RESULTS: Among 99 patients, 72 (75.0%) developed AKI and 17 (17.7%) received CRRT. Most of the patients developed stage 1 AKI (33 [45.8%]), while 15 (20.8%) developed stage 2 AKI and 24 (33.4%) a stage 3 AKI. Patients who developed AKI or needed CRRT at latest follow-up were older, and among CRRT treated patients a greater proportion had preexisting CKD. Hospital mortality was 38.9% for AKI and 52.9% for CRRT patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients, AKI is very common and CRRT use is common. Both carry a high risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical
18.
Clin Immunol ; 217: 108509, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: National health-system hospitals of Lombardy faced a heavy burden of admissions for acute respiratory distress syndromes associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Data on patients of European origin affected by COVID-19 are limited. METHODS: All consecutive patients aged ≥18 years, coming from North-East of Milan's province and admitted at San Raffaele Hospital with COVID-19, between February 25th and March 24th, were reported, all patients were followed for at least one month. Clinical and radiological features at admission and predictors of clinical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 500 patients admitted to the Emergency Unit, 410 patients were hospitalized and analyzed: median age was 65 (IQR 56-75) years, and the majority of patients were males (72.9%). Median (IQR) days from COVID-19 symptoms onset was 8 (5-11) days. At hospital admission, fever (≥ 37.5 °C) was present in 67.5% of patients. Median oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 93% (range 60-99), with median PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 267 (IQR 184-314). Median Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score was 9 (IQR 4-16). More than half of the patients (56.3%) had comorbidities, with hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and chronic kidney failure being the most common. The probability of overall survival at day 28 was 66%. Multivariable analysis showed older age, coronary artery disease, cancer, low lymphocyte count and high RALE score as factors independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of COVID-19 patients of European origin, main risk factors for mortality were older age, comorbidities, low lymphocyte count and high RALE.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/immunology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Italy/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Edema/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
19.
Eur J Intern Med ; 76: 43-49, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-483014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, has been proposed for the treatment of COVID-19 patients; however, limited data are available on the safety and efficacy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on severe COVID-19 patients with hyper-inflammatory features admitted outside intensive care units (ICUs). Patients treated with intravenous TCZ in addition to standard of care were compared to patients treated with standard of care alone. Safety and efficacy were assessed over a 28-day follow-up. RESULTS: 65 patients were included. Among them, 32 were treated with TCZ. At baseline, all patients were on high-flow supplemental oxygen and most (78% of TCZ patients and 61% of standard treatment patients) were on non-invasive ventilation. During the 28-day follow-up, 69% of TCZ patients experienced a clinical improvement compared to 61% of standard treatment patients (p = 0.61). Mortality was 15% in the tocilizumab group and 33% in standard treatment group (p = 0.15). In TCZ group, at multivariate analysis, older age was a predictor of death, whereas higher baseline PaO2:FiO2 was a predictor of clinical improvement at day 28. The rate of infection and pulmonary thrombosis was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: At day 28, clinical improvement and mortality were not statistically different between tocilizumab and standard treatment patients in our cohort. Bacterial or fungal infections were recorded in 13% of tocilizumab patients and in 12% of standard treatment patients. Confirmation of efficacy and safety will require ongoing controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Coronavirus Infections , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Critical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-154948
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