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1.
Radiol Med ; 127(2): 162-173, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626023

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the presence of signs of microvascular involvement at the CT scan, such as the vascular tree in bud (TIB) and the vascular enlargement pattern (VEP). Recent evidence suggests that TIB could be associated with an increased duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether microvascular involvement signs could have a prognostic significance concerning liberation from IMV. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the COVID-19 patients requiring IMV admitted to 16 Italian ICUs and having a lung CT scan recorded within 3 days from intubation were enrolled in this secondary analysis. Radiologic, clinical and biochemical data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 139 patients affected by COVID-19 related ARDS were enrolled. After grouping based on TIB or VEP detection, we found no differences in terms of duration of IMV and mortality. Extension of VEP and TIB was significantly correlated with ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and crazy paving pattern extension. A parenchymal extent over 50% of GGO and crazy paving pattern was more frequently observed among non-survivors, while a VEP and TIB extent involving 3 or more lobes was significantly more frequent in non-responders to prone positioning. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of early CT scan signs of microvascular involvement in COVID-19 patients does not appear to be associated with differences in duration of IMV and mortality. However, patients with a high extension of VEP and TIB may have a reduced oxygenation response to prone positioning. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04411459.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Microvessels/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 423, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autoptic pulmonary findings have been described in severe COVID-19 patients, but evidence regarding the correlation between clinical picture and lung histopathologic patterns is still weak. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort observational study conducted at the referral center for infectious diseases in northern Italy. Full lung autoptic findings and clinical data of patients who died from COVID-19 were analyzed. Lung histopathologic patterns were scored according to the extent of tissue damage. To consider coexisting histopathologic patterns, hierarchical clustering of histopathologic findings was applied. RESULTS: Whole pulmonary examination was available in 75 out of 92 full autopsies. Forty-eight hospitalized patients (64%), 44 from ICU and four from the medical ward, had complete clinical data. The histopathologic patterns had a time-dependent distribution with considerable overlap among patterns. Duration of positive-pressure ventilation (p < 0.0001), mean positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (p = 0.007), worst serum albumin (p = 0.017), interleukin 6 (p = 0.047), and kidney SOFA (p = 0.001) differed among histopathologic clusters. The amount of PEEP for long-lasting ventilatory treatment was associated with the cluster showing the largest areas of early and late proliferative diffuse alveolar damage. No pharmacologic interventions or comorbidities affected the lung histopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Our study draws a comprehensive link between the clinical and pulmonary histopathologic findings in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients. These results highlight that the positive end-expiratory pressures and the duration of the ventilatory treatment correlate with lung histopathologic patterns, providing new clues to the knowledge of the pathophysiology of severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Autopsy , Humans , Lung/pathology , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies
3.
Respir Med ; 189: 106665, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment is often reported among COVID-19 ICU survivors, and little is known about their long-term outcomes. We evaluated the HRQoL trajectories between 3 months and 1 year after ICU discharge, the factors influencing these trajectories and the presence of clusters of HRQoL profiles in a population of COVID-19 patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Moreover, pathophysiological correlations of residual dyspnea were tested. METHODS: We followed up 178 survivors from 16 Italian ICUs up to one year after ICU discharge. HRQoL was investigated through the 15D instrument. Available pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and chest CT scans at 1 year were also collected. A linear mixed-effects model was adopted to identify factors associated with different HRQoL trajectories and a two-step cluster analysis was performed to identify HRQoL clusters. RESULTS: We found that HRQoL increased during the study period, especially for the significant increase of the physical dimensions, while the mental dimensions and dyspnea remained substantially unchanged. Four main 15D profiles were identified: full recovery (47.2%), bad recovery (5.1%) and two partial recovery clusters with mostly physical (9.6%) or mental (38.2%) dimensions affected. Gender, duration of IMV and number of comorbidities significantly influenced HRQoL trajectories. Persistent dyspnea was reported in 58.4% of patients, and weakly, but significantly, correlated with both DLCO and length of IMV. CONCLUSIONS: HRQoL impairment is frequent 1 year after ICU discharge, and the lowest recovery is found in the mental dimensions. Persistent dyspnea is often reported and weakly correlated with PFTs alterations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04411459.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Quality of Life , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Aged , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Survivors
4.
Journal of Intensive Medicine ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1474758

ABSTRACT

Background : Accurate risk stratification of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is essential for optimizing resource allocation, delivering targeted interventions, and maximizing patient survival probability. Machine learning (ML) techniques are attracting increased interest for the development of prediction models as they excel in the analysis of complex signals in data-rich environments such as critical care. Methods : We retrieved data on patients with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) between March and October 2020 from the RIsk Stratification in COVID-19 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (RISC-19-ICU) registry. We applied the Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithm to the data to predict as a binary outcome the increase or decrease in patients’ Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on day 5 after ICU admission. The model was iteratively cross-validated in different subsets of the study cohort. Results : The final study population consisted of 675 patients. The XGBoost model correctly predicted a decrease in SOFA score in 320/385 (83%) critically ill COVID-19 patients, and an increase in the score in 210/290 (72%) patients. The area under the mean receiver operating characteristic curve for XGBoost was significantly higher than that for the logistic regression model {0.86 vs. 0.69, P < 0.01 (paired t-test with 95% confidence interval [CI])}. Conclusions : The XGBoost model predicted the change in SOFA score in critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU and can guide clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) aimed at optimizing available resources.

5.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 1512021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320610

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the launch of a large-scale vaccination campaign and virus mutations have hinted at possible changes in transmissibility and the virulence affecting disease progression up to critical illness, and carry potential for future vaccination failure. To monitor disease development over time with respect to critically ill COVID-19 patients, we report near real-time prospective observational data from the RISC-19-ICU registry that indicate changed characteristics of critically ill patients admitted to Swiss intensive care units (ICUs) at the onset of a third pandemic wave. METHODS: 1829 of 3344 critically ill COVID-19 patients enrolled in the international RISC-19-ICU registry as of 31 May 2021 were treated in Switzerland and were included in the present study. Of these, 1690 patients were admitted to the ICU before 1 February 2021 and were compared with 139 patients admitted during the emerging third pandemic wave RESULTS: Third wave patients were a mean of 5.2 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–7.1) younger (median 66.0 years, interquartile range [IQR] 57.0–73.0 vs 62.0 years, IQR 54.5–68.0; p <0.0001) and had a higher body mass index than patients admitted in the previous pandemic period. They presented with lower SAPS II and APACHE II scores, less need for circulatory support and lower white blood cell counts at ICU admission. P/F ratio was similar, but a 14% increase in ventilatory ratio was observed over time (p = 0.03) CONCLUSION: Near real-time registry data show that the latest COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs in Switzerland at the onset of the third wave were on average 5 years younger, had a higher body mass index, and presented with lower physiological risk scores but a trend towards more severe lung failure. These differences may primarily be related to the ongoing nationwide vaccination campaign, but the possibility that changes in virus-host interactions may be a co-factor in the age shift and change in disease characteristics is cause for concern, and should be taken into account in the public health and vaccination strategy during the ongoing pandemic. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04357275).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology
6.
JAMA ; 325(17): 1731-1743, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241490

ABSTRACT

Importance: High-flow nasal oxygen is recommended as initial treatment for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and is widely applied in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To assess whether helmet noninvasive ventilation can increase the days free of respiratory support in patients with COVID-19 compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial in 4 intensive care units (ICUs) in Italy between October and December 2020, end of follow-up February 11, 2021, including 109 patients with COVID-19 and moderate to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure (ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ≤200). Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to receive continuous treatment with helmet noninvasive ventilation (positive end-expiratory pressure, 10-12 cm H2O; pressure support, 10-12 cm H2O) for at least 48 hours eventually followed by high-flow nasal oxygen (n = 54) or high-flow oxygen alone (60 L/min) (n = 55). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days free of respiratory support within 28 days after enrollment. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who required endotracheal intubation within 28 days from study enrollment, the number of days free of invasive mechanical ventilation at day 28, the number of days free of invasive mechanical ventilation at day 60, in-ICU mortality, in-hospital mortality, 28-day mortality, 60-day mortality, ICU length of stay, and hospital length of stay. Results: Among 110 patients who were randomized, 109 (99%) completed the trial (median age, 65 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 55-70]; 21 women [19%]). The median days free of respiratory support within 28 days after randomization were 20 (IQR, 0-25) in the helmet group and 18 (IQR, 0-22) in the high-flow nasal oxygen group, a difference that was not statistically significant (mean difference, 2 days [95% CI, -2 to 6]; P = .26). Of 9 prespecified secondary outcomes reported, 7 showed no significant difference. The rate of endotracheal intubation was significantly lower in the helmet group than in the high-flow nasal oxygen group (30% vs 51%; difference, -21% [95% CI, -38% to -3%]; P = .03). The median number of days free of invasive mechanical ventilation within 28 days was significantly higher in the helmet group than in the high-flow nasal oxygen group (28 [IQR, 13-28] vs 25 [IQR 4-28]; mean difference, 3 days [95% CI, 0-7]; P = .04). The rate of in-hospital mortality was 24% in the helmet group and 25% in the high-flow nasal oxygen group (absolute difference, -1% [95% CI, -17% to 15%]; P > .99). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with COVID-19 and moderate to severe hypoxemia, treatment with helmet noninvasive ventilation, compared with high-flow nasal oxygen, resulted in no significant difference in the number of days free of respiratory support within 28 days. Further research is warranted to determine effects on other outcomes, including the need for endotracheal intubation. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04502576.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Treatment Failure
7.
Clin Epidemiol ; 12: 1421-1431, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013254

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the decision of which ventilation strategy to adopt in COVID-19 patients is crucial, yet the most appropriate means of carrying out this undertaking is not supported by strong evidence. We therefore described the organization of a province-level healthcare system during the occurrence of the COVID-19 epidemic and the 60-day outcomes of the hospitalized COVID-19 patients according to the respiratory strategy adopted given the limited available resources. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All COVID-19 patients (26/02/2020-18/04/2020) in the Rimini Province of Italy were included in this population-based cohort study. The hospitalized patients were classified according to the maximum level of respiratory support: oxygen supplementation (Oxygen group), non-invasive ventilation (NIV-only group), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV-only group), and IMV after an NIV trial (IMV-after-NIV group). Sixty-day mortality risk was estimated with a Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted by age, sex, and administration of steroids, canakinumab, and tocilizumab. RESULTS: We identified a total of 1,424 symptomatic patients: 520 (36.5%) were hospitalized, while 904 (63.5%) were treated at home with no 60-day deaths. Based on the respiratory support, 408 (78.5%) were assigned to the Oxygen group, 46 (8.8%) to the NIV-only group, 25 (4.8%) to the IMV-after-NIV group, and 41 (7.9%) to the IMV-only group. There was no significant difference in the PaO2/FiO2 at IMV inception in the IMV-after-NIV and IMV-only groups (p=0.9). Overall 60-day mortality was 24.2% (Oxygen: 23.0%; NIV-only: 19.6%; IMV-after-NIV: 32.0%; IMV-only: 36.6%; p=0.165). Compared with the Oxygen group, the adjusted 60-day mortality risk significantly increased in the IMV-after-NIV (HR 2.776; p=0.024) and IMV-only groups (HR 2.966; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: This study provided a population-based estimate of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak in a severely affected Italian province. A similar 60-day mortality risk was found for patients undergoing immediate IMV and those intubated after an NIV trial with favorable outcomes after prolonged IMV.

8.
Crit Care Res Pract ; 2020: 4743904, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814264

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In physiological conditions, arterial blood lactate concentration is equal to or lower than central venous blood lactate concentration. A reversal in this rate (i.e., higher lactate concentration in central venous blood), which could reflect a derangement in the mitochondrial metabolism of lung cells induced by inflammation, has been previously reported in patients with ARDS but has been never explored in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to explore if the COVID-19-induced lung cell damage was mirrored by an arterial lactatemia higher than the central venous one; then if the administration of anti-inflammatory therapy (i.e., canakinumab 300 mg subcutaneous) could normalize such abnormal lactate a-cv difference. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted, started on March 25, 2020, for a duration of 10 days, enrolling 21 patients affected by severe COVID-19 pneumonia undergoing mechanical ventilation consecutively admitted to the ICU of the Rimini Hospital, Italy. Arterial and central venous blood samples were contemporarily collected to calculate the difference between arterial and central venous lactate (Delta a-cv lactate) concentrations within 24 h from tracheal intubation (T 0) and 24 hours after canakinumab administration (T 1). RESULTS: At T 0, 19 of 21 (90.5%) patients showed a pathologic Delta a-cv lactate (median 0.15 mmol/L; IQR 0.07-0.25). In the 13 patients undergoing canakinumab administration, at T 1, Delta a-cv lactate decreased in 92.3% of cases, the decrease being statistically significant (T 0: median 0.24, IQR 0.09-0.31 mmol/L; T 1: median -0.01, IQR -0.08-0.04 mmol/L; p=0.002). CONCLUSION: A reversed Delta a-cv lactate might be interpreted as one of the effects of COVID-19-related cytokine storm, which could reflect a derangement in the mitochondrial metabolism of lung cells induced by severe inflammation or other uncoupling mediators. In addition, Delta a-cv lactate decrease might also reflect the anti-inflammatory activity of canakinumab. Our preliminary findings need to be confirmed by larger outcome studies.

9.
Microvasc Res ; 132: 104064, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726798

ABSTRACT

Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a rescue treatment for severe acute respiratory failure refractory to conventional ventilation. We examined the alterations of sublingual microcirculation in patients with SARS-CoV-2 during VV-ECMO treatment and assessed the relationship between microvascular parameters and ventilation, hemodynamics, and laboratory tests. Nine patients were included in the study and the following microcirculatory parameters were estimated: TVD 16.81 (14.46-18.6) mm/mm2; PVD 15.3 (14.09-17.96) mm/mm2; PPV 94.85% (93.82%-97.79%); MFI 2.5 (2.5-2.92); HI 0.4 (0.18-0.4). TVD and PVD were inversely related to D-dimer levels (rho = -0.667, p = 0.05 and rho = -0.733, p = 0.025 respectively), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (rho = -0.886, p = 0.019 and rho = -0.886, p = 0.019 respectively) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (rho = -0.829, p = 0.042 and rho = -0.829, p = 0.042 respectively). Our results showed an altered sublingual microcirculation in patients receiving VV-ECMO for severe SARS-CoV-2 and suggest a potential contribution of endothelia dysfunction to determine microvascular alteration.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Microcirculation , Mouth Floor/blood supply , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Capillaries/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Microscopy, Video , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Veins
10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 25: 100449, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high disease burden with 10% of confirmed cases progressing towards critical illness. Nevertheless, the disease course and predictors of mortality in critically ill patients are poorly understood. METHODS: Following the critical developments in ICUs in regions experiencing early inception of the pandemic, the European-based, international RIsk Stratification in COVID-19 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (RISC-19-ICU) registry was created to provide near real-time assessment of patients developing critical illness due to COVID-19. FINDINGS: As of April 22, 2020, 639 critically ill patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the RISC-19-ICU registry. Of these, 398 had deceased or been discharged from the ICU. ICU-mortality was 24%, median length of stay 12 (IQR, 5-21) days. ARDS was diagnosed in 74%, with a minimum P/F-ratio of 110 (IQR, 80-148). Prone positioning, ECCO2R, or ECMO were applied in 57%. Off-label therapies were prescribed in 265 (67%) patients, and 89% of all bloodstream infections were observed in this subgroup (n = 66; RR=3·2, 95% CI [1·7-6·0]). While PCT and IL-6 levels remained similar in ICU survivors and non-survivors throughout the ICU stay (p = 0·35, 0·34), CRP, creatinine, troponin, d-dimer, lactate, neutrophil count, P/F-ratio diverged within the first seven days (p<0·01). On a multivariable Cox proportional-hazard regression model at admission, creatinine, d-dimer, lactate, potassium, P/F-ratio, alveolar-arterial gradient, and ischemic heart disease were independently associated with ICU-mortality. INTERPRETATION: The European RISC-19-ICU cohort demonstrates a moderate mortality of 24% in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Despite high ARDS severity, mechanical ventilation incidence was low and associated with more rescue therapies. In contrast to risk factors in hospitalized patients reported in other studies, the main mortality predictors in these critically ill patients were markers of oxygenation deficit, renal and microvascular dysfunction, and coagulatory activation. Elevated risk of bloodstream infections underscores the need to exercise caution with off-label therapies.

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