Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
mBio ; : e0375121, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741580

ABSTRACT

The widespread coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Currently, we have limited understanding of which cells become infected with SARS-CoV-2 in human tissues and where viral RNA localizes on the subcellular level. Here, we present a platform for preparing autopsy tissue for visualizing SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with amplification by hybridization chain reaction. We developed probe sets that target different regions of SARS-CoV-2 (including ORF1a and N), as well as probe sets that specifically target SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic mRNAs. We validated these probe sets in cell culture and tissues (lung, lymph node, and placenta) from infected patients. Using this technology, we observe distinct subcellular localization patterns of the ORF1a and N regions. In human lung tissue, we performed multiplexed RNA FISH HCR for SARS-CoV-2 and cell-type-specific marker genes. We found viral RNA in cells containing the alveolar type 2 (AT2) cell marker gene (SFTPC) and the alveolar macrophage marker gene (MARCO) but did not identify viral RNA in cells containing the alveolar type 1 (AT1) cell marker gene (AGER). Moreover, we observed distinct subcellular localization patterns of viral RNA in AT2 cells and alveolar macrophages. In sum, we demonstrate the use of RNA FISH HCR for visualizing different RNA species from SARS-CoV-2 in cell lines and FFPE (formalin fixation and paraffin embedding) autopsy specimens. We anticipate that this platform could be broadly useful for studying SARS-CoV-2 pathology in tissues, as well as extended for other applications, including investigating the viral life cycle, viral diagnostics, and drug screening. IMPORTANCE Here, we developed an in situ RNA detection assay for RNA generated by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We found viral RNA in lung, lymph node, and placenta samples from pathology specimens from COVID patients. Using high-magnification microscopy, we can visualize the subcellular distribution of these RNA in single cells.

2.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 25, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hyperinflammation is a key event with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that often accompanies COVID-19 appears to have worse outcomes than ARDS from other causes. To date, numerous lung histological studies in cases of COVID-19 have shown extensive inflammation and injury, but the extent to which these are a COVID-19 specific, or are an ARDS and/or mechanical ventilation (MV) related phenomenon is not clear. Furthermore, while lung hyperinflammation with ARDS (COVID-19 or from other causes) has been well studied, there is scarce documentation of vascular inflammation in COVID-19 lungs. METHODS: Lung sections from 8 COVID-19 affected and 11 non-COVID-19 subjects, of which 8 were acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) affected (non-COVID-19 ARDS) and 3 were from subjects with non-respiratory diseases (non-COVID-19 non-ARDS) were H&E stained to ascertain histopathological features. Inflammation along the vessel wall was also monitored by expression of NLRP3 and caspase 1. RESULTS: In lungs from COVID-19 affected subjects, vascular changes in the form of microthrombi in small vessels, arterial thrombosis, and organization were extensive as compared to lungs from non-COVID-19 (i.e., non-COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 non-ARDS) affected subjects. The expression of NLRP3 pathway components was higher in lungs from COVID-19 ARDS subjects as compared to non-COVID-19 non-ARDS cases. No differences were observed between COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS lungs. CONCLUSION: Vascular changes as well as NLRP3 inflammasome pathway activation were not different between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS suggesting that these responses are not a COVID-19 specific phenomenon and are possibly more related to respiratory distress and associated strategies (such as MV) for treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammasomes/analysis , Lung/blood supply , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/analysis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(12): 3062-3072, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 produces significant pulmonary pathology including endothelial damage with resultant thrombotic events. While pathologic features were described, there are limited data on the relationship of these changes to the inflammatory response and the production of thromboses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate pathology of COVID-19-related immunothrombosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Tissue samples from lung, kidney, brain and heart that were collected from 45 patients who died of COVID-19. Histopathological examination was performed after H&E and Picro-Mallory staining in combination with (immuno)fluorescence to visualize neutrophil extracellular traps. Ultrastructural alterations in lungs were studied with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Inflammatory changes and thrombosis were substantially more pronounced in the lung than in the kidney, heart, and brain. The most common pathologic finding was diffuse alveolar damage. In addition, most lung samples showed thrombi in vessels. The cause of death in single cases was massive pulmonary embolism. Ultrastructural examination revealed neutrophils attached to endothelium, perhaps as a step towards transendothelial migration. In addition, platelets were identified in the midst of fibrin as individual procoagulant balloon-like cells. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated numerous virion-like particles. CONCLUSIONS: Studying (ultra)structural features of the autopsy lung samples from patients with COVID-19 has provided evidence for a pathogenic link between inflammation and thrombosis. The major features in the lungs of COVID-19 patients comprised primary inflammatory thrombosis associated with diffuse alveolar damage. The lungs had pronounced circulatory changes with inflammation-dependent intravascular blood clotting, whereas heart, brain, and kidneys had predominantly degenerative changes that were distinct from the lung pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Inflammation , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(12): 3062-3072, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 produces significant pulmonary pathology including endothelial damage with resultant thrombotic events. While pathologic features were described, there are limited data on the relationship of these changes to the inflammatory response and the production of thromboses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate pathology of COVID-19-related immunothrombosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Tissue samples from lung, kidney, brain and heart that were collected from 45 patients who died of COVID-19. Histopathological examination was performed after H&E and Picro-Mallory staining in combination with (immuno)fluorescence to visualize neutrophil extracellular traps. Ultrastructural alterations in lungs were studied with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Inflammatory changes and thrombosis were substantially more pronounced in the lung than in the kidney, heart, and brain. The most common pathologic finding was diffuse alveolar damage. In addition, most lung samples showed thrombi in vessels. The cause of death in single cases was massive pulmonary embolism. Ultrastructural examination revealed neutrophils attached to endothelium, perhaps as a step towards transendothelial migration. In addition, platelets were identified in the midst of fibrin as individual procoagulant balloon-like cells. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated numerous virion-like particles. CONCLUSIONS: Studying (ultra)structural features of the autopsy lung samples from patients with COVID-19 has provided evidence for a pathogenic link between inflammation and thrombosis. The major features in the lungs of COVID-19 patients comprised primary inflammatory thrombosis associated with diffuse alveolar damage. The lungs had pronounced circulatory changes with inflammation-dependent intravascular blood clotting, whereas heart, brain, and kidneys had predominantly degenerative changes that were distinct from the lung pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Inflammation , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Br J Haematol ; 194(1): 44-52, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247138

ABSTRACT

The inflammatory response to SARS/CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection may contribute to the risk of thromboembolic complications. α-Defensins, antimicrobial peptides released from activated neutrophils, are anti-fibrinolytic and prothrombotic in vitro and in mouse models. In this prospective study of 176 patients with COVID-19 infection, we found that plasma levels of α-defensins were elevated, tracked with disease progression/mortality or resolution and with plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimers. Immunohistochemistry revealed intense deposition of α-defensins in lung vasculature and thrombi. IL-6 stimulated the release of α-defensins from neutrophils, thereby accelerating coagulation and inhibiting fibrinolysis in human blood, imitating the coagulation pattern in COVID-19 patients. The procoagulant effect of IL-6 was inhibited by colchicine, which blocks neutrophil degranulation. These studies describe a link between inflammation and the risk of thromboembolism, and they identify a potential new approach to mitigate this risk in patients with COVID-19 and potentially in other inflammatory prothrombotic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , alpha-Defensins/blood , Adult , Aged , Animals , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Colchicine/pharmacology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Neutrophils/drug effects , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Tubulin Modulators/pharmacology , alpha-Defensins/pharmacology
6.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1507-1515, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614117

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has altered the health care environment for the management of head and neck cancers. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide direction during the pandemic for rational Head and Neck Cancer management in order to achieve a medically and ethically appropriate balance of risks and benefits. METHODS: Creation of consensus document. RESULTS: The process yielded a consensus statement among a wide range of practitioners involved in the management of patients with head and neck cancer in a multihospital tertiary care health system. CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines support an ethical approach for the management of head and neck cancers during the COVID-19 epidemic consistent with both the local standard of care as well as the head and neck oncological literature.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Infection Control/standards , Medical Oncology/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Ambulatory Care/standards , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Continuity of Patient Care/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Multi-Institutional Systems , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/standards , Palliative Care/standards , Patient Safety , Pennsylvania , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Terminal Care/standards , Tertiary Care Centers
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL