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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1122367, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300335

ABSTRACT

Background: Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), an endothelium-related peptide, is a predictor of death and multi-organ failure in respiratory infections and sepsis and seems to be effective in identifying COVID-19 severe forms. The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of MR-proADM in comparison to routine inflammatory biomarkers, lymphocyte subpopulations, and immunoglobulin (Ig) at an intensive care unit (ICU) admission and over time in predicting mortality in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: All adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted between March 2020 and June 2021 in the ICUs of a university hospital in Italy were enrolled. MR-proADM, lymphocyte subpopulations, Ig, and routine laboratory tests were measured within 48 h and on days 3 and 7. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves with MR-proADM cutoff value of >1.5 nmol/L. Predictive ability was compared using the area under the curve (AUC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of different receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results: A total of 209 patients, with high clinical severity [SOFA 7, IQR 4-9; SAPS II 52, IQR 41-59; median viral pneumonia mortality score (MuLBSTA)-11, IQR 9-13] were enrolled. ICU and overall mortality were 55.5 and 60.8%, respectively. Procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, the N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, myoglobin, troponin, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and natural killer lymphocyte count were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors, while lymphocyte subpopulations and Ig were not different in the two groups. MR-proADM was significantly higher in non-survivors (1.17 ± 0.73 vs. 2.31 ± 2.63, p < 0.0001). A value of >1.5 nmol/L was an independent risk factor for mortality at day 28 [odds ratio of 1.9 (95% CI: 1.220-3.060)] after adjusting for age, lactate at admission, SOFA, MuLBSTA, superinfections, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease. On days 3 and 7 of the ICU stay, the MR-proADM trend evaluated within 48 h of admission maintained a correlation with mortality (p < 0.0001). Compared to all other biomarkers considered, the MR-proADM value within 48 h had the best accuracy in predicting mortality at day 28 [AUC = 0.695 (95% CI: 0.624-0.759)]. Conclusion: MR-proADM seems to be the best biomarker for the stratification of mortality risk in critically ill patients with COVID-19. The Ig levels and lymphocyte subpopulations (except for natural killers) seem not to be correlated with mortality. Larger, multicentric studies are needed to confirm these findings.

2.
International journal of molecular sciences ; 24(5), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2255590

ABSTRACT

The continuous spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) strains presents a severe challenge to the healthcare system due to limited therapeutic options and high mortality. Since its availability, ceftazidime/avibactam (C/A) has become a first-line option against KPC-Kp, but C/A-resistant strains have been reported increasingly, especially with pneumonia or prior suboptimal blood exposure to C/A treatment. A retrospective, observational study was conducted with all patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) dedicated to COVID-19 patients at the City of Health & Sciences in Turin, between 1 May 2021 and 31 January 2022, with the primary endpoint to study strains with resistance to C/A, and secondly to describe the characteristics of this population, with or without previous exposure to C/A. Seventeen patients with colonization or invasive infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, C/A resistance, and susceptibility to meropenem (MIC = 2 µg/L) were included;the blaKPC genotype was detected in all isolates revealing D179Y mutation in the blaKPC-2 (blaKPC-33) gene. Cluster analysis showed that 16 out of the 17 C/A-resistant KPC-Kp isolates belonged to a single clone. Thirteen strains (76.5%) were isolated in a 60-day period. Only some patients had a previous infection with non-mutant KPC at other sites (5;29.4%). Eight patients (47.1%) underwent previous large-spectrum antibiotic treatment, and four patients (23.5%) had prior treatment with C/A. The secondary spread of the D179Y mutation in the blaKPC-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic needs to be addressed constantly by an interdisciplinary interaction between microbiologists, infection control personnel, clinicians, and infectious diseases consultants to properly diagnose and treat patients.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255591

ABSTRACT

The continuous spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) strains presents a severe challenge to the healthcare system due to limited therapeutic options and high mortality. Since its availability, ceftazidime/avibactam (C/A) has become a first-line option against KPC-Kp, but C/A-resistant strains have been reported increasingly, especially with pneumonia or prior suboptimal blood exposure to C/A treatment. A retrospective, observational study was conducted with all patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) dedicated to COVID-19 patients at the City of Health & Sciences in Turin, between 1 May 2021 and 31 January 2022, with the primary endpoint to study strains with resistance to C/A, and secondly to describe the characteristics of this population, with or without previous exposure to C/A. Seventeen patients with colonization or invasive infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, C/A resistance, and susceptibility to meropenem (MIC = 2 µg/L) were included; the blaKPC genotype was detected in all isolates revealing D179Y mutation in the blaKPC-2 (blaKPC-33) gene. Cluster analysis showed that 16 out of the 17 C/A-resistant KPC-Kp isolates belonged to a single clone. Thirteen strains (76.5%) were isolated in a 60-day period. Only some patients had a previous infection with non-mutant KPC at other sites (5; 29.4%). Eight patients (47.1%) underwent previous large-spectrum antibiotic treatment, and four patients (23.5%) had prior treatment with C/A. The secondary spread of the D179Y mutation in the blaKPC-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic needs to be addressed constantly by an interdisciplinary interaction between microbiologists, infection control personnel, clinicians, and infectious diseases consultants to properly diagnose and treat patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftazidime , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Meropenem , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Meropenem/pharmacology , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(12)2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143312

ABSTRACT

The reported incidence of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) ranges between 2.4% and 35% in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and awareness in the medical community is rising. We performed a regional retrospective observational study including patients diagnosed with CAPA defined according to the Modified AspICU Dutch/Belgian Mycosis Study Group and CAPA-EECMM, from five different ICUs, admitted between March, 2020 and September, 2021. Forty-five patients were included. The median age was 64 (IQR 60-72), mostly (73%) males. At ICU admission, the median Charlson comorbidity index was 3 (2-5), and the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS)-II score was 42 (31-56). The main underlying diseases were hypertension (46%), diabetes (36%) and pulmonary diseases (15%). CAPA was diagnosed within a median of 17 days (IQR 10-21.75) after symptoms onset and 9 days (IQR 3-11) after ICU admission. The overall 28-day mortality rate was 58%, and at univariate analysis, it was significantly associated with older age (p = 0.009) and SAPS-II score at admission (p = 0.032). The use of immunomodulatory agents, p = 0.061; broad-spectrum antibiotics, p = 0.091; positive culture for Aspergillus on BAL, p = 0.065; and hypertension, p = 0.083, were near reaching statistical significance. None of them were confirmed in multivariate analysis. In critically ill COVID-19 patients, CAPA acquired clinical relevance in terms of incidence and reported mortality. However, the risk between underdiagnosis-in the absence of specific invasive investigations, and with a consequent possible increase in mortality-and over-diagnosis (case identification with galactomannan on broncho-alveolar fluid alone) might be considered. Realistic incidence rates, based on local, real-life epidemiological data, might be helpful in guiding clinicians.

5.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 319, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HABSIs) between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 critically ill patients. METHODS: We used data from the Eurobact II study, a prospective observational multicontinental cohort study on HABSI treated in ICU. For the current analysis, we selected centers that included both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 critically ill patients. We performed descriptive statistics between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 in terms of patients' characteristics, source of infection and microorganism distribution. We studied the association between COVID-19 status and mortality using multivariable fragility Cox models. RESULTS: A total of 53 centers from 19 countries over the 5 continents were eligible. Overall, 829 patients (median age 65 years [IQR 55; 74]; male, n = 538 [64.9%]) were treated for a HABSI. Included patients comprised 252 (30.4%) COVID-19 and 577 (69.6%) non-COVID-19 patients. The time interval between hospital admission and HABSI was similar between both groups. Respiratory sources (40.1 vs. 26.0%, p < 0.0001) and primary HABSI (25.4% vs. 17.2%, p = 0.006) were more frequent in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients had more often enterococcal (20.5% vs. 9%) and Acinetobacter spp. (18.8% vs. 13.6%) HABSIs. Bacteremic COVID-19 patients had an increased mortality hazard ratio (HR) versus non-COVID-19 patients (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.49-2.45). CONCLUSIONS: We showed that the epidemiology of HABSI differed between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. Enterococcal HABSI predominated in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients with HABSI had elevated risk of mortality. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.org number NCT03937245 . Registered 3 May 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Aged , Humans , Male , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Sepsis/epidemiology
6.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 221, 2022 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mid-Regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is an inflammatory biomarker that improves the prognostic assessment of patients with sepsis, septic shock and organ failure. Previous studies of MR-proADM have primarily focussed on bacterial infections. A limited number of small and monocentric studies have examined MR-proADM as a prognostic factor in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, however there is need for multicenter validation. An evaluation of its utility in predicting need for hospitalisation in viral infections was also performed. METHODS: An observational retrospective analysis of 1861 patients, with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by RT-qPCR, from 10 hospitals across Europe was performed. Biomarkers, taken upon presentation to Emergency Departments (ED), clinical scores, patient demographics and outcomes were collected. Multiclass random forest classifier models were generated as well as calculation of area under the curve analysis. The primary endpoint was hospital admission with and without death. RESULTS: Patients suitable for safe discharge from Emergency Departments could be identified through an MR-proADM value of ≤ 1.02 nmol/L in combination with a CRP (C-Reactive Protein) of ≤ 20.2 mg/L and age ≤ 64, or in combination with a SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score < 2 if MR-proADM was ≤ 0.83 nmol/L regardless of age. Those at an increased risk of mortality could be identified upon presentation to secondary care with an MR-proADM value of > 0.85 nmol/L, in combination with a SOFA score ≥ 2 and LDH > 720 U/L, or in combination with a CRP > 29.26 mg/L and age ≤ 64, when MR-proADM was > 1.02 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: This international study suggests that for patients presenting to the ED with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, MR-proADM in combination with age and CRP or with the patient's SOFA score could identify patients at low risk where outpatient treatment may be safe.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Adrenomedullin/analysis , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Protein Precursors , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Clin Med ; 11(17)2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010168

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of superinfections in intensive care units (ICUs) has progressively increased, especially carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab). This observational, multicenter, retrospective study was designed to investigate the characteristics of COVID-19 ICU patients developing CR-Ab colonization/infection during an ICU stay and evaluate mortality risk factors in a regional ICU network. A total of 913 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICUs; 19% became positive for CR-Ab, either colonization or infection (n = 176). The ICU mortality rate in CR-Ab patients was 64.7%. On average, patients developed colonization or infection within 10 ± 8.4 days from ICU admission. Scores of SAPS II and SOFA were significantly higher in the deceased patients (43.8 ± 13.5, p = 0.006 and 9.5 ± 3.6, p < 0.001, respectively). The mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (12; 7%, p = 0.03), septic shock (61; 35%, p < 0.001), and in elders (66 ± 10, p < 0.001). Among the 176 patients, 129 (73%) had invasive infection with CR-Ab: 105 (60.7%) Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP), and 46 (26.6%) Bloodstream Infections (BSIs). In 22 cases (6.5%), VAP was associated with concomitant BSI. Colonization was reported in 165 patients (93.7%). Mortality was significantly higher in patients with VAP (p = 0.009). Colonized patients who did not develop invasive infections had a higher survival rate (p < 0.001). Being colonized by CR-Ab was associated with a higher risk of developing invasive infections (p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, risk factors significantly associated with mortality were age (OR = 1.070; 95% CI (1.028-1.115) p = 0.001) and CR-Ab colonization (OR = 5.463 IC95% 1.572-18.988, p = 0.008). Constant infection-control measures are necessary to stop the spread of A. baumannii in the hospital environment, especially at this time of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with active surveillance cultures and the efficient performance of a multidisciplinary team.

8.
J Clin Med ; 11(15)2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969338

ABSTRACT

Mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a new biomarker of endothelial damage and its clinical use is increasing in sepsis and respiratory infections and recently in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the use of MR-proADM in severe COVID-19 disease. After Pubmed, Embase, and Scopus search, registries, and gray literature, deduplication, and selection of full-texts, we found 21 studies addressing the use of proadrenomedullin in COVID-19. All the studies were published between 2020 and 2022 from European countries. A total of 9 studies enrolled Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, 4 were conducted in the Emergency Department, and 8 had mixed populations. Regarding the ICU critically ill patients, 4 studies evaluating survival as primary outcome were available, of which 3 reported completed data. Combining the selected studies in a meta-analysis, a total of 252 patients were enrolled; of these, 182 were survivors and 70 were non-survivors. At the admission to the ICU, the average MR-proADM level in survivor patients was 1.01 versus 1.64 in non-survivor patients. The mean differences of MR-proADM values in survivors vs. non-survivors was -0.96 (95% CI from -1.26, to -0.65). Test for overall effect: Z = 6.19 (p < 0.00001) and heterogeneity was I2 = 0%. MR-proADM ICU admission levels seem to predict mortality among the critical COVID-19 population. Further, prospective studies, focused on critically ill patients and investigating a reliable MR-proADM cut-off, are needed to provide adequate guidance to its use in severe COVID-19.

9.
Microorganisms ; 10(8)2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969382

ABSTRACT

Candida auris is an emerging healthcare-associated infection that can easily cause dissemination in hospitals through colonizing the skin and contaminating environmental surfaces, especially in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Difficulties with identification of this organism, uncertainty about routes of transmission and antifungals resistance have impacted significantly outbreak detection and management. Here, we describe our experience with colonization/infection of C. auris among critically ill patients, admitted to a referral ICU of a University Hospital, in a transitional period (July 2021-March 2022) between management of non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 patients due to the reconversion of the ICU between two waves. A total of 8 patients presented colonization from C. auris, and two of them developed invasive infection from C. auris. The fungal pathogen was cultured from different sites: the skin (7 isolates), urine (2), respiratory tract (1), blood (1). The median time from admission to first detection is 24 days with 100% of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. All 8 patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections before identification of C. auris; 62.5% of the patients had prior antifungal exposure; 87.5% received steroids; 37.5% patients used immunomodulatory; and 75% had severe COVID-19 illness prior to C. auris identification. Only two cases (25%) were treated with antifungals as C. auris infections (1 patient for suspected UTI; 1 patient with candidemia). Infection control measures, including rapid microbiological identification, contact isolation, screening of contacts, antisepsis of colonized patients, dedicated equipment, cleaning and disinfection of the environment and subsequent follow-up sampling, remain essential in critically ill patients. Our experience highlights the importance of establishing a multidisciplinary model and bundling of practices for preventing C. auris' spread.

10.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 34, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become an established rescue therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in several etiologies including influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. The benefit of receiving ECMO in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still uncertain. The aim of this analysis was to compare the outcome of patients who received veno-venous ECMO for COVID-19 and Influenza A H1N1 associated ARDS. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study including adults with ARDS, receiving ECMO for COVID-19 and influenza A H1N1 pneumonia between 2009 and 2021 in seven Italian ICU. The primary outcome was any-cause mortality at 60 days after ECMO initiation. We used a multivariable Cox model to estimate the difference in mortality accounting for patients' characteristics and treatment factors before ECMO was started. Secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, ICU and hospital length of stay and ECMO associated complications. RESULTS: Data from 308 patients with COVID-19 (N = 146) and H1N1 (N = 162) associated ARDS who had received ECMO support were included. The estimated cumulative mortality at 60 days after initiating ECMO was higher in COVID-19 (46%) than H1N1 (27%) patients (hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.17-2.46). When adjusting for confounders, specifically age and hospital length of stay before ECMO support, the hazard ratio decreased to 1.39, 95% CI 0.78-2.47. ICU and hospital length of stay, duration of ECMO and invasive mechanical ventilation and ECMO-associated hemorrhagic complications were higher in COVID-19 than H1N1 patients. CONCLUSION: In patients with ARDS who received ECMO, the observed unadjusted 60-day mortality was higher in cases of COVID-19 than H1N1 pneumonia. This difference in mortality was not significant after multivariable adjustment; older age and longer hospital length of stay before ECMO emerged as important covariates that could explain the observed difference. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05080933 , retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Aged , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348670

ABSTRACT

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a life-saving rescue therapy in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). ECMO has been associated with development of lymphocytopenia that is also common in COVID-19. Hyperinflammation may complicate SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, prompting therapy with steroids and immunomodulatory drugs. We aimed to evaluate the association of therapies such as steroids and Tocilizumab with trajectories of the total leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulation count, and inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers in COVID-19-related ARDS, requiring or not VV-ECMO support. The association of the trajectories of the leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulation count, and inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers with treatment with steroids (Steroids), Tocilizumab (Tocilizumab), both drugs (Steroids + Tocilizumab), and absence of treatment (No Treatment) were analyzed using mixed effects regression models, where ECMO was considered as a potential effect modifier. One hundred and thirty-nine leukocyte and eighty-one lymphocyte subpopulation counts were obtained from thirty-one patients who required (VV-ECMO, N = 13) or not (no VV-ECMO, N = 18) extracorporeal support. In both groups, treatment with Steroids + Tocilizumab was independently associated with a significant reduction of 46% and 67% in total lymphocytes, 22% and 60% in CD3+, and 61% and 91% in CD19+ (B lymphocytes) compared to those obtained without treatment, respectively. In the no VV-ECMO group, Tocilizumab was associated with a 79% increase in total lymphocytes and with a reduction in procalcitonin compared to no treatment. CD45+, CD3+CD4+ (Th cell), CD3+CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, the NK cell subpopulation, neutrophils, monocytes, and basophils were significantly reduced by Steroids + Tocilizumab without an effect modification by VV-ECMO support. In critically ill COVID-19 patients with ARDS, concomitant therapies with steroids and Tocilizumab, beside mitigating the inflammation and fibrinolysis, could reduce the total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and subpopulation count. Moreover, the effect of Tocilizumab in increasing the total lymphocytes and reducing procalcitonin might be blunted by VV-ECMO.

14.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy can be performed safely in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, little is known about the optimal timing, effects on outcome, and complications. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, observational study. This study included 153 tracheostomized COVID-19 patients from 11 intensive care units (ICUs). The primary endpoint was the median time to tracheostomy in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Secondary endpoints were survival rate, length of ICU stay, and post-tracheostomy complications, stratified by tracheostomy timing (early versus late) and technique (surgical versus percutaneous). RESULTS: The median time to tracheostomy was 15 (1-64) days. There was no significant difference in survival between critically ill COVID-19 patients who received tracheostomy before versus after day 15, nor between surgical and percutaneous techniques. ICU length of stay was shorter with early compared to late tracheostomy (p < 0.001) and percutaneous compared to surgical tracheostomy (p = 0.050). The rate of lower respiratory tract infections was higher with surgical versus percutaneous technique (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Among critically ill patients with COVID-19, neither early nor percutaneous tracheostomy improved outcomes, but did shorten ICU stay. Infectious complications were less frequent with percutaneous than surgical tracheostomy.

15.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(12): 4861-4867, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228713

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is one of the most encouraging treatments against SARS-CoV-2 infection. After intravenous infusion, RDV is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 1 h) within the cells to its active adenosine triphosphate analogue form (GS-443902) and then it can be found in plasma in its nucleoside analogue form (GS-441524). In this real-life study, we describe the remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations at three time points in nine ICU patients, through a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The observed data confirmed the very rapid conversion of RDV to its metabolite and the quite long half-life of GS-441524. The mean Cmin , Cmax and AUC0-24 , were < 0.24 ng/mL and 122.3 ng/mL, 2637.3 ng/mL and 157.8 ng/mL, and 5171.2 ng*h/mL and 3676.5 ng*h/ml, respectively, for RDV and GS-441524. Three out of nine patients achieved a Cmax  > 2610 ng/mL and 140 ng/mL and AUC0-24  > 1560 ng*h/mL and 2230 ng*h/mL for RDV and GS-441524, respectively. The mean t1/2 value for GS-441524 was 26.3 h. Despite the low number of patients, these data can represent an interesting preliminary report on the variability of RDV and GS-441524 concentrations in a real-life ICU setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
16.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217100

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 emergency, the referral Intensive Care Unit for the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) support of Piedmont Region (Italy), in cooperation with infectious disease specialists, perfusionists and cardiac surgeons, developed a protocol to guarantee operator safety during invasive procedures, among which the ECMO positioning or inter-hospital transport. The use of powered air-purifying respirators, filtering facepiece particles (FFP) 2-3 masks, protective suits, disposable sterile surgical gowns, and two pairs of sterile gloves as a part of a protocol seemed effective and feasible for trained healthcare workers and allow all the complex activities connected with the positioning of the ECMO support to be completed effectively. The simulation training on donning and doffing procedures and the presence of a dedicated team member to verify the compliance with the safety procedure effectively reassured operators and likely reduced the risk of self-contamination. From 1 March to 31 December 2020, we used the procedure in 35 severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and one acute respiratory failure caused by neoplastic total tracheal obstruction, all positive to COVID-19, to be connected to veno-venous ECMO in peripheral hospitals and centralized for ECMO management. This preliminary experience seems to confirm that the use of ECMO during COVID-19 outbreaks is feasible and the risks associated with its positioning and management are sustainable for the health-care workers and safe for patients.

17.
ASAIO J ; 67(4): 385-391, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155817

ABSTRACT

An increased need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support is going to become evident as treatment of SARS-CoV-2 respiratory distress syndrome. This is the first report of the Italian Society for Cardiac Surgery (SICCH) on preliminary experience with COVID-19 patients receiving ECMO support. Data from 12 Italian hospitals participating in SICCH were retrospectively analyzed. Between March 1 and September 15, 2020, a veno-venous (VV) ECMO system was installed in 67 patients (94%) and a veno-arterio-venous ECMO in four (6%). Five patients required VA ECMO after initial weaning from VV ECMO. Thirty (42.2%) patients were weaned from ECMO, while 39 (54.9%) died on ECMO, and six (8.5%) died after ECMO removal. Overall hospital survival was 36.6% (n = 26). Main causes of death were multiple organ failure (n = 14, 31.1%) and sepsis (n = 11, 24.4%). On multivariable analysis, predictors of death while on ECMO support were older age (p = 0.048), elevated pre-ECMO C-reactive protein level (p = 0.048), higher positive end-expiratory pressure on ventilator (p = 0.036) and lower lung compliance (p = 0.032). If the conservative treatment is not effective, ECMO support might be considered as life-saving rescue therapy for COVID-19 refractory respiratory failure. However warm caution and thoughtful approaches for timely detection and treatment should be taken for such a delicate patients population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/etiology , Stroke/etiology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246771, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in comparison to C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in predicting mortality in COVID-19-ICU-patients. METHODS: All consecutive COVID-19 adult patients admitted between March and June 2020 to the ICU of a referral, university hospital in Northern-Italy were enrolled. MR-proADM and routine laboratory test were measured within 48 hours from ICU admission, on day 3, 7 and 14. Survival curves difference with MR-proADM cut-off set to 1.8 nmol/L were tested using log-rank test. Predictive ability was compared using area under the curve and 95% confidence interval of different receiver-operating characteristics curves. RESULTS: 57 patients were enrolled. ICU and overall mortality were 54.4%. At admission, lymphocytopenia was present in 86% of patients; increased D-dimer and CRP levels were found in 84.2% and 87.7% of patients respectively, while PCT values > 0.5 µg/L were observed in 47.4% of patients. MR-proADM, CRP and LDH were significantly different between surviving and non-surviving patients and over time, while PCT, D-dimer and NT-pro-BNP did not show any difference between the groups and over time; lymphocytes were different between surviving and non-surviving patients only. MR-proADM was higher in dying patients (2.65±2.33vs1.18±0.47, p<0.001) and a higher mortality characterized patients with MR-proADM >1.8 nmol/L (p = 0.016). The logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and PCT values confirmed an odds ratio = 10.3 [95%CI:1.9-53.6] (p = 0.006) for MR-proADM >1.8 nmol/L and = 22.2 [95%CI:1.6-316.9] (p = 0.022) for cardiovascular disease. Overall, MR-proADM had the best predictive ability (AUC = 0.85 [95%CI:0.78-0.90]). CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 ICU-patients, MR-proADM seems to have constantly higher values in non-survivor patients and predict mortality more precisely than other biomarkers. Repeated MR-proADM measurement may support a rapid and effective decision-making. Further studies are needed to better explain the mechanisms responsible of the increase in MR-proADM in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Calcitonin/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Patient Admission , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(5): 510-513, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084987
20.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

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