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1.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 34, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become an established rescue therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in several etiologies including influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. The benefit of receiving ECMO in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still uncertain. The aim of this analysis was to compare the outcome of patients who received veno-venous ECMO for COVID-19 and Influenza A H1N1 associated ARDS. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study including adults with ARDS, receiving ECMO for COVID-19 and influenza A H1N1 pneumonia between 2009 and 2021 in seven Italian ICU. The primary outcome was any-cause mortality at 60 days after ECMO initiation. We used a multivariable Cox model to estimate the difference in mortality accounting for patients' characteristics and treatment factors before ECMO was started. Secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, ICU and hospital length of stay and ECMO associated complications. RESULTS: Data from 308 patients with COVID-19 (N = 146) and H1N1 (N = 162) associated ARDS who had received ECMO support were included. The estimated cumulative mortality at 60 days after initiating ECMO was higher in COVID-19 (46%) than H1N1 (27%) patients (hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.17-2.46). When adjusting for confounders, specifically age and hospital length of stay before ECMO support, the hazard ratio decreased to 1.39, 95% CI 0.78-2.47. ICU and hospital length of stay, duration of ECMO and invasive mechanical ventilation and ECMO-associated hemorrhagic complications were higher in COVID-19 than H1N1 patients. CONCLUSION: In patients with ARDS who received ECMO, the observed unadjusted 60-day mortality was higher in cases of COVID-19 than H1N1 pneumonia. This difference in mortality was not significant after multivariable adjustment; older age and longer hospital length of stay before ECMO emerged as important covariates that could explain the observed difference. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05080933 , retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Aged , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317338

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the lack of validated biomarkers to predict disease progression and mortality in COVID-19 ICU-patients, we tested the effectiveness of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in comparison to C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in predicting outcome. Methods: All consecutive COVID-19 adult patients admitted between March and June 2020 to the ICU of the ‘Città della Salute e della Scienza’ hospital in Turin (Italy) were enrolled. MR-proADM, clinical and routine laboratory test were measured within 48 hours from ICU admission, on day 3, 7 and 14. Survival curves difference with MR-proADM cut-off set to 1.8 nmol/L were tested using log-rank test. Predictive ability was compared using area under the curve and 95% confidence interval of different receiver-operating characteristics curves. Potential confounding effects were tested using a logistic regression model. Results: Fifty-seven patients were enrolled. ICU and overall mortality were 54.4%. Within the first 24 hours, lymphocytopenia was present in 86%;increased D-dimer and CRP levels were found in 84.2% and 87.7% respectively, while PCT values higher than 0.5 μg/L were observed in 47.4%. MR-proADM, CRP and LDH were significantly different between surviving and non-surviving patients and over time, while PCT, D-dimer and NT-pro-BNP did not show any difference between the groups and over time;lymphocytes count was different between surviving and non-surviving patients only.MR-proADM was higher in dying patients (2.65+2.33vs1.18+0.47, p=0.0001) and a higher mortality characterized patients with MR-proADM exceeding 1.8 nmol/L (p=0.0157). The logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and PCT values confirmed an odds ratio equal to 10.274 (95%CI 1.970-53.578) (p=0.0057) for MR-proADM higher than 1.8 nmol/L and equal to 22.206 (95%CI 1.56-316.960) (p=0.0223) for cardiovascular disease. Overall, MR-proADM was found to have the best predictive ability (AUC=0.846 – 95%CI 0.779-0.899). Conclusions: In COVID-19 ICU-patients, MR-proADM seems able to provide a more precise stratification of disease severity and mortality risk than other biomarkers. Repeated MR-proADM measurement may support a rapid and effective decision-making. Further studies are needed to better explain the mechanisms responsible of the increase in MR-proADM observed in COVID-19 patients.

5.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348670

ABSTRACT

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a life-saving rescue therapy in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). ECMO has been associated with development of lymphocytopenia that is also common in COVID-19. Hyperinflammation may complicate SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, prompting therapy with steroids and immunomodulatory drugs. We aimed to evaluate the association of therapies such as steroids and Tocilizumab with trajectories of the total leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulation count, and inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers in COVID-19-related ARDS, requiring or not VV-ECMO support. The association of the trajectories of the leukocytes, lymphocyte subpopulation count, and inflammatory and fibrinolysis markers with treatment with steroids (Steroids), Tocilizumab (Tocilizumab), both drugs (Steroids + Tocilizumab), and absence of treatment (No Treatment) were analyzed using mixed effects regression models, where ECMO was considered as a potential effect modifier. One hundred and thirty-nine leukocyte and eighty-one lymphocyte subpopulation counts were obtained from thirty-one patients who required (VV-ECMO, N = 13) or not (no VV-ECMO, N = 18) extracorporeal support. In both groups, treatment with Steroids + Tocilizumab was independently associated with a significant reduction of 46% and 67% in total lymphocytes, 22% and 60% in CD3+, and 61% and 91% in CD19+ (B lymphocytes) compared to those obtained without treatment, respectively. In the no VV-ECMO group, Tocilizumab was associated with a 79% increase in total lymphocytes and with a reduction in procalcitonin compared to no treatment. CD45+, CD3+CD4+ (Th cell), CD3+CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, the NK cell subpopulation, neutrophils, monocytes, and basophils were significantly reduced by Steroids + Tocilizumab without an effect modification by VV-ECMO support. In critically ill COVID-19 patients with ARDS, concomitant therapies with steroids and Tocilizumab, beside mitigating the inflammation and fibrinolysis, could reduce the total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and subpopulation count. Moreover, the effect of Tocilizumab in increasing the total lymphocytes and reducing procalcitonin might be blunted by VV-ECMO.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy can be performed safely in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, little is known about the optimal timing, effects on outcome, and complications. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, observational study. This study included 153 tracheostomized COVID-19 patients from 11 intensive care units (ICUs). The primary endpoint was the median time to tracheostomy in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Secondary endpoints were survival rate, length of ICU stay, and post-tracheostomy complications, stratified by tracheostomy timing (early versus late) and technique (surgical versus percutaneous). RESULTS: The median time to tracheostomy was 15 (1-64) days. There was no significant difference in survival between critically ill COVID-19 patients who received tracheostomy before versus after day 15, nor between surgical and percutaneous techniques. ICU length of stay was shorter with early compared to late tracheostomy (p < 0.001) and percutaneous compared to surgical tracheostomy (p = 0.050). The rate of lower respiratory tract infections was higher with surgical versus percutaneous technique (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Among critically ill patients with COVID-19, neither early nor percutaneous tracheostomy improved outcomes, but did shorten ICU stay. Infectious complications were less frequent with percutaneous than surgical tracheostomy.

7.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(12): 4861-4867, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228713

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is one of the most encouraging treatments against SARS-CoV-2 infection. After intravenous infusion, RDV is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 1 h) within the cells to its active adenosine triphosphate analogue form (GS-443902) and then it can be found in plasma in its nucleoside analogue form (GS-441524). In this real-life study, we describe the remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations at three time points in nine ICU patients, through a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The observed data confirmed the very rapid conversion of RDV to its metabolite and the quite long half-life of GS-441524. The mean Cmin , Cmax and AUC0-24 , were < 0.24 ng/mL and 122.3 ng/mL, 2637.3 ng/mL and 157.8 ng/mL, and 5171.2 ng*h/mL and 3676.5 ng*h/ml, respectively, for RDV and GS-441524. Three out of nine patients achieved a Cmax  > 2610 ng/mL and 140 ng/mL and AUC0-24  > 1560 ng*h/mL and 2230 ng*h/mL for RDV and GS-441524, respectively. The mean t1/2 value for GS-441524 was 26.3 h. Despite the low number of patients, these data can represent an interesting preliminary report on the variability of RDV and GS-441524 concentrations in a real-life ICU setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217100

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 emergency, the referral Intensive Care Unit for the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) support of Piedmont Region (Italy), in cooperation with infectious disease specialists, perfusionists and cardiac surgeons, developed a protocol to guarantee operator safety during invasive procedures, among which the ECMO positioning or inter-hospital transport. The use of powered air-purifying respirators, filtering facepiece particles (FFP) 2-3 masks, protective suits, disposable sterile surgical gowns, and two pairs of sterile gloves as a part of a protocol seemed effective and feasible for trained healthcare workers and allow all the complex activities connected with the positioning of the ECMO support to be completed effectively. The simulation training on donning and doffing procedures and the presence of a dedicated team member to verify the compliance with the safety procedure effectively reassured operators and likely reduced the risk of self-contamination. From 1 March to 31 December 2020, we used the procedure in 35 severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and one acute respiratory failure caused by neoplastic total tracheal obstruction, all positive to COVID-19, to be connected to veno-venous ECMO in peripheral hospitals and centralized for ECMO management. This preliminary experience seems to confirm that the use of ECMO during COVID-19 outbreaks is feasible and the risks associated with its positioning and management are sustainable for the health-care workers and safe for patients.

9.
ASAIO J ; 67(4): 385-391, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155817

ABSTRACT

An increased need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support is going to become evident as treatment of SARS-CoV-2 respiratory distress syndrome. This is the first report of the Italian Society for Cardiac Surgery (SICCH) on preliminary experience with COVID-19 patients receiving ECMO support. Data from 12 Italian hospitals participating in SICCH were retrospectively analyzed. Between March 1 and September 15, 2020, a veno-venous (VV) ECMO system was installed in 67 patients (94%) and a veno-arterio-venous ECMO in four (6%). Five patients required VA ECMO after initial weaning from VV ECMO. Thirty (42.2%) patients were weaned from ECMO, while 39 (54.9%) died on ECMO, and six (8.5%) died after ECMO removal. Overall hospital survival was 36.6% (n = 26). Main causes of death were multiple organ failure (n = 14, 31.1%) and sepsis (n = 11, 24.4%). On multivariable analysis, predictors of death while on ECMO support were older age (p = 0.048), elevated pre-ECMO C-reactive protein level (p = 0.048), higher positive end-expiratory pressure on ventilator (p = 0.036) and lower lung compliance (p = 0.032). If the conservative treatment is not effective, ECMO support might be considered as life-saving rescue therapy for COVID-19 refractory respiratory failure. However warm caution and thoughtful approaches for timely detection and treatment should be taken for such a delicate patients population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/etiology , Stroke/etiology
10.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246771, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in comparison to C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in predicting mortality in COVID-19-ICU-patients. METHODS: All consecutive COVID-19 adult patients admitted between March and June 2020 to the ICU of a referral, university hospital in Northern-Italy were enrolled. MR-proADM and routine laboratory test were measured within 48 hours from ICU admission, on day 3, 7 and 14. Survival curves difference with MR-proADM cut-off set to 1.8 nmol/L were tested using log-rank test. Predictive ability was compared using area under the curve and 95% confidence interval of different receiver-operating characteristics curves. RESULTS: 57 patients were enrolled. ICU and overall mortality were 54.4%. At admission, lymphocytopenia was present in 86% of patients; increased D-dimer and CRP levels were found in 84.2% and 87.7% of patients respectively, while PCT values > 0.5 µg/L were observed in 47.4% of patients. MR-proADM, CRP and LDH were significantly different between surviving and non-surviving patients and over time, while PCT, D-dimer and NT-pro-BNP did not show any difference between the groups and over time; lymphocytes were different between surviving and non-surviving patients only. MR-proADM was higher in dying patients (2.65±2.33vs1.18±0.47, p<0.001) and a higher mortality characterized patients with MR-proADM >1.8 nmol/L (p = 0.016). The logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and PCT values confirmed an odds ratio = 10.3 [95%CI:1.9-53.6] (p = 0.006) for MR-proADM >1.8 nmol/L and = 22.2 [95%CI:1.6-316.9] (p = 0.022) for cardiovascular disease. Overall, MR-proADM had the best predictive ability (AUC = 0.85 [95%CI:0.78-0.90]). CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 ICU-patients, MR-proADM seems to have constantly higher values in non-survivor patients and predict mortality more precisely than other biomarkers. Repeated MR-proADM measurement may support a rapid and effective decision-making. Further studies are needed to better explain the mechanisms responsible of the increase in MR-proADM in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Calcitonin/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Patient Admission , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(5): 510-513, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084987
12.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

13.
J Vasc Access ; 23(1): 18-23, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927095

ABSTRACT

On April 2020, during the outburst of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, the SIAARTI ("Società Italiana di Anestesia, Analgesia, Rianimazione e Terapia Intensiva") Research Group on Vascular Access has formulated some essential recommendations for the optimization of the selection, insertion, and maintenance of the vascular access devices, with the aim of guarantee the operator safety, ensure the effectiveness of the maneuvers, and reduce the risk of complications. Here we describe the key elements of clinical management of vascular access in patients affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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