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Orthopedics ; 44(4): 223-228, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320604


Geriatric hip fractures benefit from timely surgery. At the onset of the corona-virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, shelter-in-place (SIP) orders were mandated in high-risk cities. The authors hypothesized that geriatric patients with hip fractures were more likely to present to the hospital greater than 24 hours after injury during SIP orders. They retrospectively reviewed patients 65 years or older who presented with hip fractures between March 20, 2020, and May 24, 2020 (SIP group), and between March 20, 2019, and May 24, 2019 (historical group). Primary outcomes were incidence of presentation greater than 24 hours after injury and mean number of days between injury and presentation. Secondary outcomes were incidence of preoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and 30- and 90-day mortality rates. Thirty-three patients comprised the SIP group, and 50 patients comprised the historical group. There were no significant differences in their demographics or medical comorbidities. The SIP group was more likely to present greater than 24 hours after injury (P=.05) and presented a greater number of days after injury (P=.02). There was a significant difference in the incidence of preoperative DVT (P=.03). There were no significant differences in 30- and 90-day mortality rates. Geriatric patients who sustained hip fractures during SIP restrictions for COVID-19 were more likely to present greater than 24 hours after injury, have a greater number of days between injury and presentation, and be diagnosed with a preoperative DVT. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(4):223-228.].

COVID-19 , Hip Fractures , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Delayed Diagnosis , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(2): 459-504, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760837


COVID-19 is a severe infectious disease that has claimed >150,000 lives and infected millions in the United States thus far, especially the elderly population. Emerging evidence has shown the virus to cause hemorrhagic and immunologic responses, which impact all organs, including lungs, kidneys, and the brain, as well as extremities. SARS-CoV-2 also affects patients', families', and society's mental health at large. There is growing evidence of re-infection in some patients. The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of SARS-CoV-2-induced disease, its mechanism of infection, diagnostics, therapeutics, and treatment strategies, while also focusing on less attended aspects by previous studies, including nutritional support, psychological, and rehabilitation of the pandemic and its management. We performed a systematic review of >1,000 articles and included 425 references from online databases, including, PubMed, Google Scholar, and California Baptist University's library. COVID-19 patients go through acute respiratory distress syndrome, cytokine storm, acute hypercoagulable state, and autonomic dysfunction, which must be managed by a multidisciplinary team including nursing, nutrition, and rehabilitation. The elderly population and those who are suffering from Alzheimer's disease and dementia related illnesses seem to be at the higher risk. There are 28 vaccines under development, and new treatment strategies/protocols are being investigated. The future management for COVID-19 should include B-cell and T-cell immunotherapy in combination with emerging prophylaxis. The mental health and illness aspect of COVID-19 are among the most important side effects of this pandemic which requires a national plan for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Mental Health , Nutritional Support , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy