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1.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e698-e706, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence on the association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases, therapies related to these diseases, and COVID-19 outcomes are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the potential association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and COVID-19 early in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We did an exposure-driven, propensity score-matched study using a South Korean nationwide cohort linked to general health examination records. We analysed all South Korean patients aged older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, and received general health examination results from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. We defined autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (inflammatory arthritis and connective tissue diseases) based on the relevant ICD-10 codes, with at least two claims (outpatient or inpatient) within 1 year. The outcomes were positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, severe COVID-19 (requirement of oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission, application of invasive ventilation, or death), and COVID-19-related death. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were estimated after adjusting for the potential confounders. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, 133 609 patients (70 050 [52·4%] female and 63 559 [47·6%] male) completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 4365 (3·3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 8297 (6·2%) were diagnosed with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After matching, patients with an autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease showed an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted OR 1·19, 95% CI 1·03-1·40; p=0·026), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·26, 1·02-1·59; p=0·041), and COVID-19-related death (1·69, 1·01-2·84; p=0·046). Similar results were observed in patients with connective tissue disease and inflammatory arthritis. Treatment with any dose of systemic corticosteroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes, but those receiving high dose (≥10 mg per day) of systemic corticosteroids had an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted OR 1·47, 95% CI 1·05-2·03; p=0·022), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·76, 1·06-2·96; p=0·031), and COVID-19-related death (3·34, 1·23-8·90; p=0·017). INTERPRETATION: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases were associated with an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19, and COVID-19-related deaths in South Korea. A high dose of systemic corticosteroid, but not DMARDs, showed an adverse effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related clinical outcomes. FUNDING: National Research Foundation of Korea.

2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e29379, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that statins as add-on therapy may benefit patients with COVID-19; however, real-world evidence of such a beneficial association is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (composite endpoint: admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) between statin users and nonusers. METHODS: Two independent population-based cohorts were analyzed, and we investigated the differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death, between statin users and nonusers. One group comprised an unmatched cohort of 214,207 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the Global Research Collaboration Project (GRCP)-COVID cohort, and the other group comprised an unmatched cohort of 74,866 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID cohort. RESULTS: The GRCP-COVID cohort with propensity score matching had 29,701 statin users and 29,701 matched nonusers. The SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with statin use (statin users, 2.82% [837/29,701]; nonusers, 2.65% [787/29,701]; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the GRCP-COVID cohort, 804 were statin users and 1573 were matched nonusers. Statin users were associated with a decreased likelihood of severe clinical outcomes (statin users, 3.98% [32/804]; nonusers, 5.40% [85/1573]; aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.91) and length of hospital stay (statin users, 23.8 days; nonusers, 26.3 days; adjusted mean difference -2.87; 95% CI -5.68 to -0.93) than nonusers. The results of the NHIS-COVID cohort were similar to the primary results of the GRCP-COVID cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that prior statin use is related to a decreased risk of worsening clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and length of hospital stay but not to that of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322785

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea. METHODS: Data regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Out of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500-1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.

4.
Am J Ophthalmol ; : 11881, 2021 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential association of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a representative chronic age-related degenerative disease of the retina associated with inflammation and aging, with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study with propensity-score matching. SETTING: Population-based nationwide cohort in Korea. STUDY POPULATION: Data were obtained from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service of Korea, including all patients older than 40 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing in South Korea between January 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020 (excluding self-referral). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 test positivity was the primary outcome and severe clinical outcome of COVID-19 was the secondary outcome. RESULTS: The unmatched cohort consisted of 135,435 patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 4531 (3.3%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2; 5493 (4.1%) patients had AMD. After propensity score matching, exudative AMD was associated with an increased likelihood of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.25), and a considerably greater risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (aOR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.02 to 5.26), but not any AMD and non-exudative AMD. CONCLUSIONS: In a Korean nationwide cohort, our data suggest that clinicians should be aware of the greater risk of susceptibility to severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with exudative AMD. Our findings provide an improved understanding of the relationship between the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and chronic neurological disorders.

5.
The Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(4):e12, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1226390

ABSTRACT

Reports an error in ""Association between mental illness and COVID-19 susceptibility and clinical outcomes in South Korea: A nationwide cohort study": Reply" by Seung Won Lee, Jee Myung Yang, Sung Yong Moon, Namwoo Kim, Yong Min Ahn, Jae-Min Kim, Jae Il Shin, Dong In Suh and Dong Keon Yon (The Lancet Psychiatry, 2021[Apr], Vol 8[4], 271-272). In the original article, Namwoo Ki's name has been corrected to Namwoo Kim. This correction has been made to the online version as of Feb 26, 2021, and will be made to the printed version. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2021-30527-010). Reply by the current author to the comments made by Jewel Park & Hye Chang Rhim (see record 2021-30527-008) and Hirofumi Hirakawa & Nobuyoshi Ishii (see record 2021-30527-009) on the original article (see record 2020-88514-024). We are honoured to respond to the letters by Hirofumi Hirakawa et al. and Jewel Park et al. regarding our Article, which investigated the potential association between pre-existing mental illness and positivity for SARS-CoV-2 and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in a South Korean nationwide cohort. The authors proposed the need for further analysis stratified by subtype of psychiatric disorders and region of residence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

6.
The Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(4):271-272, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1226388

ABSTRACT

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 8(4) of The Lancet Psychiatry (see record 2021-30527-033). In the original article, Namwoo Ki's name has been corrected to Namwoo Kim. This correction has been made to the online version as of Feb 26, 2021, and will be made to the printed version. The name appears correctly in this record.] Reply by the current author to the comments made by Jewel Park & Hye Chang Rhim (see record 2021-30527-008) and Hirofumi Hirakawa & Nobuyoshi Ishii (see record 2021-30527-009) on the original article (see record 2020-88514-024). The present authors are honoured to respond to the letters by Hirofumi Hirakawa et al. and Jewel Park et al. regarding their Article, which investigated the potential association between pre-existing mental illness and positivity for SARS-CoV-2 and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in a South Korean nationwide cohort. The authors proposed the need for further analysis stratified by subtype of psychiatric disorders and region of residence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(6): 2262-2271.e2, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can affect chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), but there is unclear real-world evidence regarding the association of underlying CRS with the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether CRS is associated with increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19. METHODS: Altogether, 219,959 adult patients who tested for SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea from January 1 to May 15, 2020 (excluding self-referral) were identified in this nested case-control study with propensity score matching. Data on SARS-CoV-2 test results and COVID-19 worsened outcomes (ie, the need for oxygen therapy, intensive care, or mechanical ventilation, and death) were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. RESULTS: In this matched cohort, 380 of 12,217 patients with CRS (3.1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared with 310 patients without CRS (2.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.42). Moreover, 60 of 286 COVID-19 patients with CRS (21.0%) had severe COVID-19 outcomes, compared with 38 without CRS (13.3%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.71). Subgroup analysis identified that CRS patients with an absence of nasal polyps, prior intranasal corticosteroid use, or nonatopic type had a greater risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CRS, prior intranasal corticosteroid use, the absence of nasal polyps, or nonatopic type was associated with increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 in the Korean nationwide cohort. Clinicians should be cautious in determining prognosis and care for patients with CRS amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
The Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12):1025-1031, 2020.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1032512

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence for the associations between mental illness and the likelihood of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to investigate these associations with data from a national register in South Korea. Methods: A nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching was done in South Korea using data collected from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. We defined mental illness as present if one of the relevant ICD-10 codes was recorded at least twice within 1 year for an outpatient or inpatient. Severe mental illness was considered as non-affective or affective disorders with psychotic features. We included all patients aged older than 20 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 through services facilitated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, South Korea. We investigated the primary outcome (SARS-CoV-2 test positivity) in the entire cohort and the secondary outcomes (severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19: death, admission to the intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation) among those who tested positive. Findings: Between Jan 1 and May 15, 2020, 216 418 people were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 7160 (3.3%) tested positive. In the entire cohort with propensity score matching, 1391 (3.0%) of 47 058 patients without a mental illness tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared with 1383 (2.9%) of 48 058 with a mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.00, 95% CI 0.93-1.08). Among the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, after propensity score matching, 109 (8.3%) of 1320 patients without a mental illness had severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 compared with 128 (9.7%) of 1320 with a mental illness (adjusted OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Interpretation: Diagnosis of a mental illness was not associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with a severe mental illness had a slightly higher risk for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 than patients without a history of mental illness. Clinicians treating patients with COVID-19 should be aware of the risk associated with pre-existing mental illness. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1025-1031, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the associations between mental illness and the likelihood of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to investigate these associations with data from a national register in South Korea. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching was done in South Korea using data collected from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea. We defined mental illness as present if one of the relevant ICD-10 codes was recorded at least twice within 1 year for an outpatient or inpatient. Severe mental illness was considered as non-affective or affective disorders with psychotic features. We included all patients aged older than 20 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 through services facilitated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, South Korea. We investigated the primary outcome (SARS-CoV-2 test positivity) in the entire cohort and the secondary outcomes (severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19: death, admission to the intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation) among those who tested positive. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and May 15, 2020, 216 418 people were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 7160 (3·3%) tested positive. In the entire cohort with propensity score matching, 1391 (3·0%) of 47 058 patients without a mental illness tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared with 1383 (2·9%) of 48 058 with a mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·00, 95% CI 0·93-1·08). Among the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, after propensity score matching, 109 (8·3%) of 1320 patients without a mental illness had severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 compared with 128 (9·7%) of 1320 with a mental illness (adjusted OR 1·27, 95% CI 1·01-1·66). INTERPRETATION: Diagnosis of a mental illness was not associated with increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with a severe mental illness had a slightly higher risk for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 than patients without a history of mental illness. Clinicians treating patients with COVID-19 should be aware of the risk associated with pre-existing mental illness. FUNDING: National Research Foundation of Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Propensity Score , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk , Severity of Illness Index
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(4): 790-798, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is inconclusive and controversial evidence of the association between allergic diseases and the risk of adverse clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association of allergic disorders with the likelihood of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and with clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (admission to intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation, and death). METHODS: A propensity-score-matched nationwide cohort study was performed in South Korea. Data obtained from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service of Korea from all adult patients (age, >20 years) who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea between January 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, were analyzed. The association of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and allergic diseases in the entire cohort (n = 219,959) and the difference in clinical outcomes of COVID-19 were evaluated in patients with allergic diseases and SARS-CoV-2 positivity (n = 7,340). RESULTS: In the entire cohort, patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing were evaluated to ascertain whether asthma and allergic rhinitis were associated with an increased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. After propensity score matching, we found that asthma and allergic rhinitis were associated with worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. Patients with nonallergic asthma had a greater risk of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 than patients with allergic asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In a Korean nationwide cohort, allergic rhinitis and asthma, especially nonallergic asthma, confers a greater risk of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma/complications , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dermatitis, Atopic/complications , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Adult , Aged , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/mortality , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Dermatitis, Atopic/mortality , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/immunology , Rhinitis, Allergic/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
13.
Gut ; 70(1): 76-84, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been documented for pneumonia; however, there is no consensus regarding whether the use of PPIs might be harmful regarding the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this regard, we aimed to measure the potential associations of the current use of PPIs with the infection rates of COVID-19 among patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. DESIGN: Data were derived from a Korean nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching. We included 132 316 patients older than 18 years who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 January and 15 May 2020. Endpoints were SARS-CoV-2 positivity (primary) and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (secondary: admission to intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation or death). RESULTS: In the entire cohort, there were 111 911 non-users, 14 163 current PPI users and 6242 past PPI users. After propensity score matching, the SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with the current or past use of PPIs. Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, the current use of PPIs conferred a 79% greater risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, while the relationship with the past use of PPIs remained insignificant. Current PPI use starting within the previous 30 days was associated with a 90% increased risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Patients taking PPIs are at increased risk for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 but not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This suggests that physicians need to assess benefit-risk assessments in the management of acid-related diseases amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Stomach Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Stomach Diseases/drug therapy , Stomach Diseases/epidemiology
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