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1.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(4): 959-974, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365501

ABSTRACT

Neurologic involvement is well-recognized in COVID-19. This article reviews the neuroimaging manifestations of COVID-19 on CT and MRI, presenting cases from the New York City metropolitan region encountered by the authors during the first surge of the pandemic. The most common neuroimaging manifestations are acute infarcts with large clot burden and intracranial hemorrhage, including microhemorrhages. However, a wide range of additional imaging patterns occur, including leukoencephalopathy, global hypoxic injury, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum, olfactory bulb involvement, cranial nerve enhancement, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The described CNS abnormalities largely represent secondary involvement from immune activation that leads to a prothrombotic state and cytokine storm; evidence for direct neuroinvasion is scant. Comorbidities such as hypertension, complications of prolonged illness and hospitalization, and associated supportive treatments also contribute to the CNS involvement in COVID-19. Routine long-term neurologic follow-up may be warranted, given emerging evidence of long-term microstructural and functional changes on brain imaging after COVID-19 recovery.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Brain ; 144(9): 2696-2708, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185655

ABSTRACT

Many patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection develop neurological signs and symptoms; although, to date, little evidence exists that primary infection of the brain is a significant contributing factor. We present the clinical, neuropathological and molecular findings of 41 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections who died and underwent autopsy in our medical centre. The mean age was 74 years (38-97 years), 27 patients (66%) were male and 34 (83%) were of Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity. Twenty-four patients (59%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Hospital-associated complications were common, including eight patients (20%) with deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, seven (17%) with acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and 10 (24%) with positive blood cultures during admission. Eight (20%) patients died within 24 h of hospital admission, while 11 (27%) died more than 4 weeks after hospital admission. Neuropathological examination of 20-30 areas from each brain revealed hypoxic/ischaemic changes in all brains, both global and focal; large and small infarcts, many of which appeared haemorrhagic; and microglial activation with microglial nodules accompanied by neuronophagia, most prominently in the brainstem. We observed sparse T lymphocyte accumulation in either perivascular regions or in the brain parenchyma. Many brains contained atherosclerosis of large arteries and arteriolosclerosis, although none showed evidence of vasculitis. Eighteen patients (44%) exhibited pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases, which was not unexpected given the age range of our patients. We examined multiple fresh frozen and fixed tissues from 28 brains for the presence of viral RNA and protein, using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, RNAscope® and immunocytochemistry with primers, probes and antibodies directed against the spike and nucleocapsid regions. The PCR analysis revealed low to very low, but detectable, viral RNA levels in the majority of brains, although they were far lower than those in the nasal epithelia. RNAscope® and immunocytochemistry failed to detect viral RNA or protein in brains. Our findings indicate that the levels of detectable virus in coronavirus disease 2019 brains are very low and do not correlate with the histopathological alterations. These findings suggest that microglial activation, microglial nodules and neuronophagia, observed in the majority of brains, do not result from direct viral infection of brain parenchyma, but more likely from systemic inflammation, perhaps with synergistic contribution from hypoxia/ischaemia. Further studies are needed to define whether these pathologies, if present in patients who survive coronavirus disease 2019, might contribute to chronic neurological problems.


Subject(s)
Brain Infarction/pathology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteremia/complications , Brain/metabolism , Brain Infarction/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Male , Microglia/pathology , Middle Aged , Neurons/pathology , Phagocytosis , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Renal Dialysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Rate , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/physiopathology
4.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 130(11): 1228-1235, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute neurological sequela in patients with COVID-19 infection include acute thromboembolic infarcts related to cytokine storm and post infectious immune activation resulting in a prothrombotic state. Radiologic imaging studies of the sinonasal tract and mastoid cavity in patients with COVID-19 infection are sparse and limited to case series. In this report, we investigate the radiologic involvement of nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and mastoid cavity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records and neuroradiologic imaging in patients diagnosed with acute COVID-19 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms to assess radiologic prevalence of sinus and mastoid disease and its correlation to upper respiratory tract symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients, 23 (42%) had partial sinus opacification, with no evidence for complete sinus opacification. The ethmoid sinus was the most commonly affected (16/55 or 29%). An air fluid level was noted in 6/55 (11%) patients, most commonly in the maxillary sinus. Olfactory recess and mastoid opacification were uncommon. There was no evidence of bony destruction in any of the studies, Cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and sore throat were not significantly associated with any radiological findings. CONCLUSION: In patients who present with acute neurological symptoms, COVID-19 infection is characterized by limited and mild mucosal disease within the sinuses, nasopharynx and mastoid cavity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Mastoid/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging/methods , Neurologic Examination/methods , New York/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment/methods
5.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(1): e10-e14, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and intralabyrinthine hemorrhage in a patient with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical capsule report. SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center. PATIENT: An adult woman with bilateral SSNHL, aural fullness, and vertigo with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection (IgG serology testing). INTERVENTIONS: High-dose oral prednisone with taper, intratympanic dexamethasone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Audiometric testing, MRI of the internal auditory canal with and without contrast. RESULTS: A patient presented with bilateral SSNHL, bilateral aural fullness, and vertigo. Serology testing performed several weeks after onset of symptoms was positive for IgG COVID-19 antibodies. MRI showed bilateral intralabyrinthine hemorrhage (left worse than right) and no tumor. The patient was treated with two courses of high-dose oral prednisone with taper and a left intratympanic dexamethasone injection, resulting in near-resolution of vestibular symptoms, a fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear, and a severe to profound mixed hearing loss in the left ear. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 may have otologic manifestations including sudden SSNHL, aural fullness, vertigo, and intralabyrinthine hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/virology , Hemorrhage/virology , Labyrinth Diseases/virology , Adolescent , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Female , Hearing Loss, Bilateral/virology , Hearing Loss, Sudden/virology , Humans , Injection, Intratympanic , Prednisone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Laryngoscope ; 130(11): 2595-2597, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726307

ABSTRACT

Acute sialadenitis may be caused by viruses, including coronaviruses. Although there are anecdotal reports of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) salivary gland infections, there have been no well-documented cases of sialadenitis in patients with COVID-19 described in the literature. We report a case of parotitis and submandibular gland sialadenitis, as well as an isolated case of parotitis, in two patients with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 infections. Computed tomography imaging demonstrated parotid and submandibular gland enlargement with heterogenous enhancement and attenuation, consistent with sialadenitis. Medical management was sufficient for successful resolution of the acute sialadenitis. Laryngoscope, 130:2595-2597, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Parotitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sialadenitis/virology , Submandibular Gland Diseases/virology , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Submandibular Gland/virology
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