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1.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 12(2):478, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2216453

ABSTRACT

[...]we mentioned this phenomenon that uniquely defines COVID-19 patients. [...]a recent review of the literature using the MeSH term COVID associated coagulopathy reveals that this term was a standard descriptor for the singular observation of these patients to develop early clots that required delicate and closely monitored anti-coagulation [8,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37]. [...]the "1.5 to 2.5 times control” UFH therapeutic range was established is instructive regarding the history of RCTs in offering guidance for heparin anticoagulation. [...]the guidelines and algorithms are still in a state of evolution [51].

2.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(7): 858-868, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050628

ABSTRACT

Earlier variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been associated with hypercoagulability and an extensive formation of fibrin amyloid microclots, which are considered to contribute to the pathology of the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19). The newer omicron variants appear to be far more transmissible, but less virulent, even when taking immunity acquired from previous infections or vaccination into account. We here show that while the clotting parameters associated with omicron variants are significantly raised over those of healthy, matched controls, they are raised to levels significantly lower than those seen with more severe variants such as beta and delta. We also observed that individuals infected with omicron variants manifested less extensive microclot formation in platelet-poor plasma compared with those harboring the more virulent variants. The measurement of clotting effects between the different variants acts as a kind of "internal control" that demonstrates the relationship between the extent of coagulopathies and the virulence of the variant of interest. This adds to the evidence that microclots may play an important role in reflecting the severity of symptoms observed in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Fibrin
3.
Am Surg ; 88(7): 1689-1693, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improvements in health care innovations have resulted in an enhanced ability to extend patient viability. As a consequence, resources are being increasingly utilized at an unsustainable level. As we implement novel treatments, identifying futility should be a focus. The "death diamond" (DD) is a unique thrombelastography (TEG) tracing that is indicative of failure of the coagulation system, with a mortality rate exceeding 90%. The purpose of this study was to determine if the DD was a consistent marker of poor survival in a multicenter study population. We hypothesize that the DD, while an infrequent occurrence, predicts poor survival and can be used to stratify patients in whom resuscitation efforts are futile. METHODS: A retrospective multi-institutional study of trauma patients presenting with TEG DDs between 8/2008 and 12/2018 at four American College of Surgeons trauma centers was completed. Demographics, injury mechanisms, TEG results, management, and survival were examined. RESULTS: A total of 50 trauma patients presented with DD tracings, with a 94% (n = 47) mortality rate. Twenty-six (52%) patients received a repeat TEG with 10 patients re-demonstrating the DD tracing. There was 100% mortality in patients with serial DD tracings. The median use of total blood products was 18 units (interquartile range 6, 34.25) per patient. DISCUSSION: The DD is highly predictive of trauma-associated mortality. This multicenter study highlights that serial DDs may represent a possible biomarker of futility.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Wounds and Injuries , Biomarkers , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Thrombelastography/methods , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
4.
Front Surg ; 9: 889999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862702

ABSTRACT

Early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, global governing bodies prioritized transmissibility-based precautions and hospital capacity as the foundation for delay of elective procedures. As elective surgical volumes increased, convalescent COVID-19 patients faced increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and clinicians had limited evidence for stratifying individual risk in this population. Clear evidence now demonstrates that those recovering from COVID-19 have increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. These data-in conjunction with the recent American Society of Anesthesiologists guidelines-offer the evidence necessary to expand the early pandemic guidelines and guide the surgeon's preoperative risk assessment. Here, we argue elective surgeries should still be delayed on a personalized basis to maximize postoperative outcomes. We outline a framework for stratifying the individual COVID-19 patient's fitness for surgery based on the symptoms and severity of acute or convalescent COVID-19 illness, coagulopathy assessment, and acuity of the surgical procedure. Although the most common manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is COVID-19 pneumonitis, every system in the body is potentially afflicted by an endotheliitis. This endothelial derangement most often manifests as a hypercoagulable state on admission with associated occult and symptomatic venous and arterial thromboembolisms. The delicate balance between hyper and hypocoagulable states is defined by the local immune-thrombotic crosstalk that results commonly in a hemostatic derangement known as fibrinolytic shutdown. In tandem, the hemostatic derangements that occur during acute COVID-19 infection affect not only the timing of surgical procedures, but also the incidence of postoperative hemostatic complications related to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC). Traditional methods of thromboprophylaxis and treatment of thromboses after surgery require a tailored approach guided by an understanding of the pathophysiologic underpinnings of the COVID-19 patient. Likewise, a prolonged period of risk for developing hemostatic complications following hospitalization due to COVID-19 has resulted in guidelines from differing societies that recommend varying periods of delay following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, we propose the perioperative, personalized assessment of COVID-19 patients' CAC using viscoelastic hemostatic assays and fluorescent microclot analysis.

5.
Crit Care Explor ; 4(4): e0670, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769405

ABSTRACT

A proof-of-concept study using thrombolysis with catheter-directed tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and pulmonary angiography imaging was performed to visualize perfusion deficits and reperfusion/therapeutic effects of tPA. DESIGN: A prospective, open-label, compassionate study. Descriptive statistics were presented for categorical variables and as means with sds for continuous variables. The Wilcoxon test was used to determine the differences between the two-related samples and a t test for continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at p value of less than 0.05. Agreement between observations was evaluated using the Kappa Cohen index and overall agreement using the Fleiss Kappa coefficient. SETTING: A single COVID-19 ICU of Mexico´s General Hospital Dr Eduardo Liceaga. SUBJECTS: Fifteen patients with severe Delta variant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, 18-75 years old, requiring mechanical ventilation with a persistent Fio2 requirement of 70% or higher and Pao2/Fio2 ratio (or imputed ratio) less than 150 for more than 4 hours. The coagulation inclusion criteria were International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis score greater than 5, and presence of a d-dimer greater than 1,200, with viscoelastic testing using rotational thromboelastometry (Instrumentation Laboratories, Mexico City, Mexico) showing both hypercoagulability (EXTEM amplitude at 5 min > 65 FIBTEM > 30) and hypofibrinolysis (EXTEM maximum lysis < 8%). INTERVENTIONS: Catheter-directed tPA angiography and iFlow system analysis to assess pre-tPA baseline pulmonary perfusion and changes in response to thrombolysis. RESULTS: Nine patients had microvascular filling defects demonstrated by angiography, and good agreement was found with iFlow analysis (ƙ = 0.714). Statistically significant differences were identified in the area under the curve (AUC) region of interest/AUC reference tissue with and without filling defects in phase 2 DM -0.09206 (sd ± 0.16684) (p = 0.003). The Pao2/Fio2 values measured immediately and 48 hours after the procedure were significantly higher (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Statistically significant differences were found in d-dimer values (p = 0.007), Fio2 (p = 0.002), and oxygen saturation in arterial blood/Fio2 (p = 0.045), as well as in the number of patients who required prone positioning before, immediately after the procedure, and at 48 hours after the procedure (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Thrombolysis with catheter-directed tPA resulted in imaging evidence via pulmonary angiography and iFlow technology of improved lung perfusion in COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure.

6.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(2): e12669, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756641

ABSTRACT

Background: Few therapies exist to treat severe COVID-19 respiratory failure once it develops. Given known diffuse pulmonary microthrombi on autopsy studies of COVID-19 patients, we hypothesized that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may improve pulmonary function in COVID-19 respiratory failure. Methods: A multicenter, retrospective, observational study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 and severe respiratory failure who received systemic tPA (alteplase) was performed. Seventy-nine adults from seven medical centers were included in the final analysis after institutional review boards' approval; 23 were excluded from analysis because tPA was administered for pulmonary macroembolism or deep venous thrombosis. The primary outcome was improvement in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio from baseline to 48 h after tPA. Linear mixed modeling was used for analysis. Results: tPA was associated with significant PaO2/FiO2 improvement at 48 h (estimated paired difference = 23.1 ± 6.7), which was sustained at 72 h (interaction term p < 0.00). tPA administration was also associated with improved National Early Warning Score 2 scores at 24, 48, and 72 h after receiving tPA (interaction term p = 0.00). D-dimer was significantly elevated immediately after tPA, consistent with lysis of formed clot. Patients with declining respiratory status preceding tPA administration had more marked improvement in PaO2/FiO2 ratios than those who had poor but stable (not declining) respiratory status. There was one intracranial hemorrhage, which occurred within 24 h following tPA administration. Conclusions: These data suggest tPA is associated with significant improvement in pulmonary function in severe COVID-19 respiratory failure, especially in patients whose pulmonary function is in decline, and has an acceptable safety profile in this patient population.

7.
Turk J Surg ; 37(4): 387-393, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689504

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the COVID-19 pandemic, several studies have reported a decrease in in the admission surgical patients and emergency surgical procedures, and an increase in more severe septic surgical diseases, such as necrotic cholecystitis. It was probably due to to a critical delay in time-to- diagnosis and time-to-intervention resulting to limited access to the operating theatres as well as intensive care units. Early laparoscopic cholecystec- tomy is the standard of care for acute cholecystitis. Moreover early data from COVID-19 pandemic reported an increase in the incidence of necrotic cholecystitis among COVID-19 patients. The ChoCO-W prospective observational collaborative study was conceived to investigate the incidence and management of acute cholecystitis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: The present research protocol was. conceived and designed as a prospective observational international collaborative study focusing on the management of patients with to the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis under the COVID-19 pandemic. The study obtained the approval of the local Ethics Committee (Nimes, France) and meet and conform to the standards outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. Eligible patients will be prospectively enrolled in the recruitment period and data entered in an online case report form. Results: The ChoCO-W study will be the largest prospective study carried out during the first period of the COVID-19 pandemic with the aim to inves- tigate the management of patients with acute cholecystitis, in the lack of studies focusing on COVID-19 positive patients. Conclusion: The ChoCO-W study is conceived to be the largest prospective study to assess the management of patients presenting with acute chol- ecystitis during the COVID-19 pandemic and risk factors correlated with necrotic cholecystitis to improve the management of high-risk patients.

8.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674681

ABSTRACT

Viscoelastic hemostatic assay (VHAs) are whole blood point-of-care tests that have become an essential method for assaying hemostatic competence in liver transplantation, cardiac surgery, and most recently, trauma surgery involving hemorrhagic shock. It has taken more than three-quarters of a century of research and clinical application for this technology to become mainstream in these three clinical areas. Within the last decade, the cup and pin legacy devices, such as thromboelastography (TEG® 5000) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM® delta), have been supplanted not only by cartridge systems (TEG® 6S and ROTEM® sigma), but also by more portable point-of-care bedside testing iterations of these legacy devices (e.g., Sonoclot®, Quantra®, and ClotPro®). Here, the legacy and new generation VHAs are compared on the basis of their unique hemostatic parameters that define contributions of coagulation factors, fibrinogen/fibrin, platelets, and clot lysis as related to the lifespan of a clot. In conclusion, we offer a brief discussion on the meteoric adoption of VHAs across the medical and surgical specialties to address COVID-19-associated coagulopathy.

9.
Chest ; 161(3): 710-727, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vascular microthrombi are a proposed mechanism of COVID-19 respiratory failure. We hypothesized that early administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) followed by therapeutic heparin would improve pulmonary function in these patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does tPA improve pulmonary function in severe COVID-19 respiratory failure, and is it safe? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults with COVID-19-induced respiratory failure were randomized from May14, 2020 through March 3, 2021, in two phases. Phase 1 (n = 36) comprised a control group (standard-of-care treatment) vs a tPA bolus (50-mg tPA IV bolus followed by 7 days of heparin; goal activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], 60-80 s) group. Phase 2 (n = 14) comprised a control group vs a tPA drip (50-mg tPA IV bolus, followed by tPA drip 2 mg/h plus heparin 500 units/h over 24 h, then heparin to maintain aPTT of 60-80 s for 7 days) group. Patients were excluded from enrollment if they had not undergone a neurologic examination or cross-sectional brain imaging within the previous 4.5 h to rule out stroke and potential for hemorrhagic conversion. The primary outcome was Pao2 to Fio2 ratio improvement from baseline at 48 h after randomization. Secondary outcomes included Pao2 to Fio2 ratio improvement of > 50% or Pao2 to Fio2 ratio of ≥ 200 at 48 h (composite outcome), ventilator-free days (VFD), and mortality. RESULTS: Fifty patients were randomized: 17 in the control group and 19 in the tPA bolus group in phase 1 and eight in the control group and six in the tPA drip group in phase 2. No severe bleeding events occurred. In the tPA bolus group, the Pao2 to Fio2 ratio values were significantly (P < .017) higher than baseline at 6 through 168 h after randomization; the control group showed no significant improvements. Among patients receiving a tPA bolus, the percent change of Pao2 to Fio2 ratio at 48 h (16.9% control [interquartile range (IQR), -8.3% to 36.8%] vs 29.8% tPA bolus [IQR, 4.5%-88.7%]; P = .11), the composite outcome (11.8% vs 47.4%; P = .03), VFD (0.0 [IQR, 0.0-9.0] vs 12.0 [IQR, 0.0-19.0]; P = .11), and in-hospital mortality (41.2% vs 21.1%; P = .19) did not reach statistically significant differences when compared with those of control participants. The patients who received a tPA drip did not experience benefit. INTERPRETATION: The combination of tPA bolus plus heparin is safe in severe COVID-19 respiratory failure. A phase 3 study is warranted given the improvements in oxygenation and promising observations in VFD and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04357730; URL: www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1752-1755, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317980

ABSTRACT

A prothrombotic coagulopathy is commonly found in critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A unique feature of COVID-19 respiratory failure is a relatively preserved lung compliance and high Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, with pathology reports consistently demonstrating diffuse pulmonary microthrombi on autopsy, all consistent with a vascular occlusive etiology of respiratory failure rather than the more classic findings of low-compliance in ARDS. The COVID-19 pandemic is overwhelming the world's medical care capacity with unprecedented needs for mechanical ventilators and high rates of mortality once patients progress to needing mechanical ventilation, and in many environments including in parts of the United States the medical capacity is being exhausted. Fibrinolytic therapy has previously been used in a Phase 1 clinical trial that led to reduced mortality and marked improvements in oxygenation. Here we report a series of three patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory failure who were treated with tissue plasminogen activator. All three patients had a temporally related improvement in their respiratory status, with one of them being a durable response.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Clin Med ; 10(14)2021 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The treatment of COVID-19 patients with heparin is not always effective in preventing thrombotic complications, but can also be associated with bleeding complications, suggesting a balanced approach to anticoagulation is needed. A prior pilot study supported that thromboelastography and conventional coagulation tests could predict hemorrhage in COVID-19 in patients treated with unfractionated heparin or enoxaparin, but did not evaluate the risk of thrombosis. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective study included 79 severely ill COVID-19 patients anticoagulated with intermediate or therapeutic dose unfractionated heparin. Two stepwise logistic regression models were performed with bleeding or thrombosis as the dependent variable, and thromboelastography parameters and conventional coagulation tests as the independent variables. RESULTS: Among all 79 patients, 12 (15.2%) had bleeding events, and 20 (25.3%) had thrombosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a prediction model for bleeding (adjusted R2 = 0.787, p < 0.001) comprised of increased reaction time (p = 0.016), decreased fibrinogen (p = 0.006), decreased D-dimer (p = 0.063), and increased activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.084). Multivariate analysis of thrombosis identified a weak prediction model (adjusted R2 = 0.348, p < 0.001) comprised of increased D-dimer (p < 0.001), decreased reaction time (p = 0.002), increased maximum amplitude (p < 0.001), and decreased alpha angle (p = 0.014). Adjunctive thromboelastography decreased the use of packed red cells (p = 0.031) and fresh frozen plasma (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly, this study demonstrates the need for a precision-based titration strategy of anticoagulation for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Since severely ill COVID-19 patients may switch between thrombotic or hemorrhagic phenotypes or express both simultaneously, institutions may reduce these complications by developing their own titration strategy using daily conventional coagulation tests with adjunctive thromboelastography.

12.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(6): 984-996, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184616

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a large surge of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prior phase I trials (non-COVID-19) demonstrated improvement in pulmonary function in patients ARDS using fibrinolytic therapy. A follow-up trial using the widely available tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) alteplase is now needed to assess optimal dosing and safety in this critically ill patient population. Objective: To describe the design and rationale of a phase IIa trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of alteplase treatment for moderate/severe COVID-19-induced ARDS. Patients/Methods: A rapidly adaptive, pragmatic, open-label, randomized, controlled, phase IIa clinical trial will be conducted with 3 groups: intravenous alteplase 50 mg, intravenous alteplase 100 mg, and control (standard-of-care). Inclusion criteria are known/suspected COVID-19 infection with PaO2/FiO2 ratio <150 mm Hg for > 4 hours despite maximal mechanical ventilation management. Alteplase will be delivered through an initial bolus of 50 mg or 100 mg followed by heparin infusion for systemic anticoagulation, with alteplase redosing if there is a >20% PaO2/FiO2 improvement not sustained by 24 hours. Results: The primary outcome is improvement in PaO2/FiO2 at 48 hours after randomization. Other outcomes include ventilator- and intensive care unit-free days, successful extubation (no reintubation ≤3 days after initial extubation), and mortality. Fifty eligible patients will be enrolled in a rapidly adaptive, modified stepped-wedge design with 4 looks at the data. Conclusion: Findings will provide timely information on the safety, efficacy, and optimal dosing of t-PA to treat moderate/severe COVID-19-induced ARDS, which can be rapidly adapted to a phase III trial (NCT04357730; FDA IND 149634).

13.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 14, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic has occurred, nations showed their unpreparedness to deal with a mass casualty incident of this proportion and severity, which resulted in a tremendous number of deaths even among healthcare workers. The World Society of Emergency Surgery conceived this position paper with the purpose of providing evidence-based recommendations for the management of emergency surgical patients under COVID-19 pandemic for the safety of the patient and healthcare workers. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) through the MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and SCOPUS databases. Synthesis of evidence, statements and recommendations were developed in accordance with the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: Given the limitation of the evidence, the current document represents an effort to join selected high-quality articles and experts' opinion. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this position paper is to provide an exhaustive guidelines to perform emergency surgery in a safe and protected environment for surgical patients and for healthcare workers under COVID-19 and to offer the best management of COVID-19 patients needing for an emergency surgical treatment. We recommend screening for COVID-19 infection at the emergency department all acute surgical patients who are waiting for hospital admission and urgent surgery. The screening work-up provides a RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab test and a baseline (non-contrast) chest CT or a chest X-ray or a lungs US, depending on skills and availability. If the COVID-19 screening is not completed we recommend keeping the patient in isolation until RT-PCR swab test result is not available, and to manage him/she such as an overt COVID patient. The management of COVID-19 surgical patients is multidisciplinary. If an immediate surgical procedure is mandatory, whether laparoscopic or via open approach, we recommend doing every effort to protect the operating room staff for the safety of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Perioperative Care/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Emergencies , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laparoscopy/methods , Laparoscopy/standards , Pandemics , Perioperative Care/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods
14.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(6): 995-1003, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144761

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a global public health threat unparalleled in our history. The most severe cases are marked by ARDS attributed to microvascular thrombosis. Hypercoagulability, resulting in a profoundly prothrombotic state, is a distinct feature of COVID-19 and is accentuated by a high incidence of fibrinolysis shutdown. The aims of this review were to describe the manifestations of fibrinolysis shutdown in COVID-19 and its associated outcomes, review the molecular mechanisms of dysregulated fibrinolysis associated with COVID-19, and discuss potential implications and therapeutic targets for patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis , Thrombophilia/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Thrombophilia/therapy , Thrombophilia/virology
15.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 13, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143232

ABSTRACT

We present the New Year letter from the WSES board to wish everyone a new year full of positive surprises and good news, despite COVID-19 pandemic.We confirm the WSES primary aim: to promote education in emergency surgery putting together all the world experts on emergency surgery without restrictions or boundaries, in inclusivity, equality, and equal opportunities. This will be the year of innovations and WSES will assess the application of artificial intelligence technologies in emergency and trauma surgery.Thank you All for trusting us with your collaboration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Emergency Medicine/trends , Societies, Medical/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Am Coll Surg ; 231(2), 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 predisposes patients to a prothrombotic state with demonstrated microvascular involvement. The degree of hypercoagulability appears to correlate with outcomes;however, optimal criteria to assess for the highest-risk patients for thrombotic events remain unclear;we hypothesized that deranged thromboelastography measurements of coagulation would correlate with thromboembolic events. STUDY DESIGN: Patients admitted to an ICU with COVID-19 diagnoses who had thromboelastography analyses performed were studied. Conventional coagulation assays, d-dimer levels, and viscoelastic measurements were analyzed using a receiver operating characteristic curve to predict thromboembolic outcomes and new-onset renal failure. RESULTS: Forty-four patients with COVID-19 were included in the analysis. Derangements in coagulation laboratory values, including elevated d-dimer, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time, were confirmed;viscoelastic measurements showed an elevated maximum amplitude and low lysis of clot at 30 minutes. A complete lack of lysis of clot at 30 minutes was seen in 57% of patients and predicted venous thromboembolic events with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.742 (p = 0.021). A d-dimer cutoff of 2,600 ng/mL predicted need for dialysis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.779 (p = 0.005). Overall, patients with no lysis of clot at 30 minutes and a d-dimer > 2,600 ng/mL had a venous thromboembolic event rate of 50% compared with 0% for patients with neither risk factor (p = 0.008), and had a hemodialysis rate of 80% compared with 14% (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinolysis shutdown, as evidenced by elevated d-dimer and complete failure of clot lysis at 30 minutes on thromboelastography predicts thromboembolic events and need for hemodialysis in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional clinical trials are required to ascertain the need for early therapeutic anticoagulation or fibrinolytic therapy to address this state of fibrinolysis shutdown.

17.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(4): 524-531, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601382

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused respiratory failure and associated mortality in numbers that have overwhelmed global health systems. Thrombotic coagulopathy is present in nearly three quarters of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit, and both the clinical picture and pathologic findings are consistent with microvascular occlusive phenomena being a major contributor to their unique form of respiratory failure. Numerous studies are ongoing focusing on anticytokine therapies, antibiotics, and antiviral agents, but none to date have focused on treating the underlying thrombotic coagulopathy in an effort to improve respiratory failure in COVID-19. There are animal data and a previous human trial demonstrating a survival advantage with fibrinolytic therapy to treat acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here, we review the extant and emerging literature on the relationship between thrombotic coagulopathy and pulmonary failure in the context of COVID-19 and present the scientific rationale for consideration of targeting the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems to improve pulmonary function in these patients.

20.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 29, 2020 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-88636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 threatens to quickly overwhelm our existing critical care infrastructure in the USA. Systemic tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been previously demonstrated to improve PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg) when given to critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is unclear to what extent tPA may impact population-based survival during the current US COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A decision analytic Markov state transition model was created to simulate the life critically ill COVID-19 patients as they transitioned to either recovery or death. Two patient groups were simulated (50,000 patients in each group); (1) Patients received tPA immediately upon diagnosis of ARDS and (2) patients received standard therapy for ARDS. Base case critically ill COVID-19 patients were defined as having a refractory PaO2/FiO2 of < 60 mmHg (salvage use criteria). Transition from severe to moderate to mild ARDS, recovery, and death were estimated. Markov model parameters were extracted from existing ARDS/COVID-19 literature. RESULTS: The use of tPA was associated with reduced mortality (47.6% [tTPA] vs. 71.0% [no tPA]) for base case patients. When extrapolated to the projected COVID-19 eligible for salvage use tPA in the USA, peak mortality (deaths/100,000 patients) was reduced for both optimal social distancing (70.5 [tPA] vs. 75.0 [no tPA]) and no social distancing (158.7 [tPA] vs. 168.8 [no tPA]) scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage use of tPA may improve recovery of ARDS patients, thereby reducing COVID-19-related mortality and ensuring sufficient resources to manage this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Salvage Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Decision Support Techniques , Humans , Markov Chains , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , United States
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