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1.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927815

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases affecting the lung interstitium often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The Australasian Interstitial Lung Disease Registry (AILDR) launched in 2016 with the concurrent aims to: a) provide a valuable resource for high quality ILD research to further understanding of ILD and b) improve care for ILD patients across Australia and NZ. Consisting initially of four pilot sites, over time the registry has expanded to 21 sites across Australasia. Methods: Consecutive ILD patients attending any of the registered ILD centres across Australia and NZ are eligible to enrol in the AILDR following provision of informed consent. Comprehensive data including demographics, ILD diagnosis, objective functional markers (baseline and subsequent tests) and treatment parameters are collected and stored on a secure online platform. We report data from the AILDR since initiation in May 2016 to 30th September 2021 inclusive. Results: In total 2140 participants were enrolled from 16 sites at a mean rate of 43/month (mean age 65.8±13.3years;1185 (55.4%) male;982 (45.9%) ever-smokers;mean BMI 29.4±5.9kg/m2). Baseline functional parameters demonstrated mean FVC 85.6±21.7% predicted, mean DLCO 60.5±19.4%predicted, and mean six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance 434.3±126.5metres. ILD diagnoses included: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) n=545 (30.3%), connective tissue disease associated ILD (CTD-ILD) n=326 (18.1%), chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) n=155 (8.6%), sarcoidosis n=120 (6.7%) and unclassifiable ILD n=190 (10.6%). Patients with IPF were more likely to be male (n=403, 73.9%, p<0.001) and older (72.6±8.3years, p<0.001) compared to all other ILD subtypes. A female predominance was observed for CHP (n=92, 59%, p=0.001) and CTD-ILD (n=206, 63%, p<0.001). Baseline functional parameters were lowest for those with CHP (FVC 76.8±22.4% predicted, DLCO 54.1±16.9% predicted), significantly lower comparable to the IPF group (FVC 84.8±19.6%predicted, DLCO 58.7±17.8%predicted, p<0.001). The highest baseline functional parameters were observed in those with sarcoidosis. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of a bi-national ILD registry evidenced by steady recruitment despite the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, lower functional baseline parameters were detected in the CHP group suggesting priority research should be afforded to this group. Through a routine approach across Australasia, the AILDR aims to improve standardisation of diagnosis and management of ILD patients.

2.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine efficacy against the B.1.351 variant following mRNA-1273 vaccination in humans has not been determined. Nonhuman primates (NHP) are a useful model for demonstrating whether mRNA-1273 mediates protection against B.1.351. METHODS: Nonhuman primates received 30 or 100 microg of mRNA-1273 as a prime-boost vaccine at 0 and 4 weeks, a single immunization of 30 microg at week 0, or no vaccine. Antibody and T cell responses were assessed in blood, bronchioalveolar lavages (BAL), and nasal washes. Viral replication in BAL and nasal swabs were determined by qRT-PCR for sgRNA, and histopathology and viral antigen quantification were performed on lung tissue post-challenge. RESULTS: Eight weeks post-boost, 100 microg x2 of mRNA-1273 induced reciprocal ID 50 neutralizing geometric mean titers against live SARS-CoV-2 D614G and B.1.351 of 3300 and 240, respectively, and 430 and 84 for the 30 microg x2 group. There were no detectable neutralizing antibodies against B.1351 after the single immunization of 30 microg. On day 2 following B.1.351 challenge, sgRNA in BAL was undetectable in 6 of 8 NHP that received 100 microg x2 of mRNA-1273, and there was a ~2-log reduction in sgRNA in NHP that received two doses of 30 microg compared to controls. In nasal swabs, there was a 1-log 10 reduction observed in the 100 microg x2 group. There was limited inflammation or viral antigen in lungs of vaccinated NHP post-challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with two doses of mRNA-1273 achieves effective immunity that rapidly controls lower and upper airway viral replication against the B.1.351 variant in NHP.

3.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-329294

ABSTRACT

Immune correlates of protection can be used as surrogate endpoints for vaccine efficacy. The nonhuman primate (NHP) model of SARS-CoV-2 infection replicates key features of human infection and may be used to define immune correlates of protection following vaccination. Here, NHP received either no vaccine or doses ranging from 0.3 - 100 mug of mRNA-1273, a mRNA vaccine encoding the prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike (S-2P) protein encapsulated in a lipid nanoparticle. mRNA-1273 vaccination elicited robust circulating and mucosal antibody responses in a dose-dependent manner. Viral replication was significantly reduced in bronchoalveolar lavages and nasal swabs following SARS-CoV-2 challenge in vaccinated animals and was most strongly correlated with levels of anti-S antibody binding and neutralizing activity. Consistent with antibodies being a correlate of protection, passive transfer of vaccine-induced IgG to naive hamsters was sufficient to mediate protection. Taken together, these data show that mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced humoral immune responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHP. One-Sentence Summary: mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibody responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHP.

4.
Blood ; 138:3279, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582216

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of infection with the novel SARS-CoV-2 in humans are widely varied, ranging from asymptomatic to COVID-19 respiratory failure and multiorgan damage. Profound inflammation is the hallmark of severe COVID-19 disease, and commonly does not occur until the second week of infection. Although risk factors for this late hyperinflammatory disease have been identified, most notably age and pre-existing co-morbidities, even within high-risk groups the specific factors leading to severe COVID-19 illness remain elusive. Acquired somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), termed clonal hematopoiesis (CH), are associated with advanced age, and loss of function (LOF) mutations in certain genes, most commonly DNMT3A and TET2, have been linked to a marked hyperinflammatory phenotype as well as clonal expansion of mutant HSPCs. Given the similar age range of frequent CH and severe COVID-19 disease, the presence of CH could impact the risk of severe COVID-19. Several human cohort studies have suggested this relationship may exist, but results to date are conflicting. Rhesus macaques (RM) have been established as a model for SARS-CoV infection and are being utilized to test therapies and vaccine development, but up to now, macaques have not been reported to develop late hyperinflammatory COVID-19 disease. We have created a robust RM model of CH by introducing LOF TET2 mutations into young adult HSPC via CRISPR/Cas9 followed by autologous transplantation, recapitulating the clonal expansion and hyperinflammatory phenotype. Thus, we hypothesized that macaques with CH could develop severe late COVID-19 disease and be utilized as a model to study disease pathophysiology or test therapeutic approaches. Macaques with either engineered (n=2) or natural CH (n=1) along with age-matched transplanted controls (n=3) were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 and monitored clinically and via laboratory studies until 12 days post-inoculation (dpi). Macaques normally clear infection and symptoms within 3-5 days of infection. No significant differences in clinical symptoms and blood counts were noted, however, an aged animal with natural DNMT3A CH died on 10 dpi. IL-6 levels were somewhat higher in sera of the CH animals until 12 dpi, and in BAL, mean concentrations of MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1b were consistently higher in CH macaques compared to controls. Interestingly, we found the median copy number of subgenomic SARS-CoV-2 RNA was higher at every timepoint in the CH group as compared with the control group, in both upper and lower respiratory samples. Lung sections from euthanasia at 10 or 12 dpi showed evidence of mild inflammation in all animals. However, in the immunohistochemical analysis, the viral antigen was detected in the lung tissues of all three animals in the CH group even at the time of autopsy, whereas only one animal of three controls had detectable viral antigen. Although the striking inflammation and serious disease have not been observed, data so far provide evidence of potential pathophysiological differences with or without CH upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. We continue to expand sample size and conduct further analyses to draw a solid conclusion, but we believe this model may be of benefit to understand the relationship between COVID-19 disease and CH. Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

5.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296604

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody responses gradually wane after vaccination with mRNA-1273 against several variants of concern (VOC), and additional boost vaccinations may be required to sustain immunity and protection. Here, we evaluated the immune responses in nonhuman primates that received 100 microg of mRNA-1273 vaccine at 0 and 4 weeks and were boosted at week 29 with mRNA-1273 (homologous) or mRNA-1273.beta (heterologous), which encompasses the spike sequence of the B.1.351 (beta or beta) variant. Reciprocal ID 50 pseudovirus neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMT) against live SARS-CoV-2 D614G and the beta variant, were 4700 and 765, respectively, at week 6, the peak of primary response, and 644 and 553, respectively, at a 5-month post-vaccination memory time point. Two weeks following homologous or heterologous boost beta-specific reciprocal ID 50 GMT were 5000 and 3000, respectively. At week 38, animals were challenged in the upper and lower airway with the beta variant. Two days post-challenge, viral replication was low to undetectable in both BAL and nasal swabs in most of the boosted animals. These data show that boosting with the homologous mRNA-1273 vaccine six months after primary immunization provides up to a 20-fold increase in neutralizing antibody responses across all VOC, which may be required to sustain high-level protection against severe disease, especially for at-risk populations. One-sentence summary: mRNA-1273 boosted nonhuman primates have increased immune responses and are protected against SARS-CoV-2 beta infection.

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