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1.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis ; 17(Supplement 1):i772-i773, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2257914

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccines are pivotal for control of the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha have lower serologic response after two COVID-19 vaccine doses. Data regarding a 3rd vaccine are scarce. Method(s): Aim: To assess immune responses to, and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with IBD, stratified according to therapy, and compared to healthy controls (HC). Subjects were recruited before the 1st vaccine (BNT162b2, Pfizer) and prospectively evaluated after the 2nd and 3rd vaccine doses. Evaluation included: Disease activity, anti-spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N), anti-TNFalpha drug levels and adverse events (AE) Results: Of 198 subjects having the 3rd vaccine dose, 125 had IBD: average age: 39.1+/-14.8 years;40.8% females;82-Crohn's disease (CD), 33 ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 pouch, 3 IBD-U. There were 73 HC: average age 39.4+/-12.5 years, 69.9% females. Among patients with IBD: 51 and 74 (40.8%, 59.2%)) were treated or not with anti-TNFalpha, respectively. A month after the 3rd vaccine dose IBD activity was comparable in all patients regardless of treatment, and no increase in C-reactive protein or white blood cells was observed. Higher but not significant AE rate was registered in all subjects after the 3rd compared to 2nd vaccine dose (81% vs. 76%, respectively). AE rate in IBD and HC was comparable. No serious AE detected. There was a significant increase in anti-S levels one month after compared to pre 3rd vaccine dose in all participants. Furthermore, increase was 2-3 folds higher than that observed one month after the 2nd dose. Importantly, patients treated with anti-TNFalpha compared to non-anti-TNFalpha treated had significantly lower responses: 9219 (6347-13390) vs 16955 (13721-20951) (GMC (95%CI)), p<0.05. Serologic response did not correlate with anti-TNFalpha drug levels, antibodies or interval between drug and vaccine administration. During extended follow-up post 3rd dose, we found that lower serologic response predicts infection over time. Conclusion(s): This prospective study shows that a 3rd dose of BNT162b2 vaccine is effective and safe in patients with IBD. Furthermore, patients treated with anti-TNFalpha had significantly lower serologic responses compared to anti-TNFalpha untreated ones. Lack of correlation between anti-TNFalpha drug levels and immune responses suggests there is no need to modify vaccination timing relatively to anti-TNFalpha administration. The significantly steeper increase in anti-S levels between 2nd and 3rd doses, suggests the 3rd dose is crucial in anti-TNFalpha treated patients, specifically due to the fact that higher serologic response predicts better defense from infection.

2.
United European Gastroenterology Journal ; 10(Supplement 8):239, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2114274

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vaccines are pivotal for control of the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha have significantly lower serologic response after two COVID-19 vaccine doses. Data regarding a 3rd vaccine are scarce. Aims & Methods: We conducted a prospective observational multi-center Israeli study aiming to assess immune responses to, and safety of mRNAbased COVID-19 vaccines in patients with IBD, stratified according to therapy, and compared to healthy controls (HC). Subjects were recruited before the 1st vaccine (BNT162b2, Pfizer) and were prospectively evaluated one and six months after the 2nd vaccine dose, as well as one month after the 3rd vaccine dose. Disease activity was assessed using accepted clinical scores and biomarkers. COVID-19 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antibodies concentrations were analyzed using ELISA. Anti- TNFalpha drug levels were measured using ELISA. Adverse events (AE) were registered. Result(s): Of 198 subjects having the 3rd vaccine dose, 125 had IBD: average age: 39.1+/-14.8 years;40.8% females;82- Crohn's disease (CD), 33 ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 pouch, 3 IBD-U. There were 73 HC: average age 39.4+/-12.5 years, 69.9% females. IBD treatment: 51 (40.8%) patients were treated with anti-TNFalpha: monotherapy 35, concomitant immunomodulators 7, 5ASA 5, steroids 3 and ustekinumab 1. In 74 non-TNFalpha treated patients 5ASA were received by 19, vedolizumab 18, ustekinumab 9, immunomodulators 2, steroids 2, tofacitinib 4, no medication 19 patients. The 3rd vaccine dose was administered 201 (187-216) (median [IQR]) days after the 2nddose and 267 (250-278) days after the 1st dose. A month after the 3rd vaccine dose IBD activity was comparable in all patients regardless of treatment, and no increase in C-reactive protein or white blood cells was observed. Higher but not significant AE rate was registered in all subjects after the 3rd compared to 2nd vaccine dose (81% vs. 76%, respectively). AE proportion in IBD and HC was comparable, mostly local pain. No serious AE detected. Significant increase in anti-S levels one month after compared to pre 3rd vaccine dose was observed in IBD and HC. Furthermore, increase was 2-3 folds higher than that observed one month after the 2nd dose. Importantly, patients treated with anti-TNFalpha compared to non-anti-TNFalpha treated had significantly lower responses: 9219 (6347-13390) vs 16955 (13721- 20951) (GMC (95%CI)), p<0.05. Anti-N levels reflecting infection were positive in only 4 subjects- all with IBD, 2 treated with anti-TNFalpha, 1 ustekinumab, 1 untreated. Serologic response did not correlate with anti-TNFalpha drug levels, antibodies or interval between drug and vaccine administration (p=0.616, p=0.697 and p=0.6, respectively). Conclusion(s): In this prospective study we show that a 3rd dose of BNT162b2 vaccine is effective and safe in patients with IBD, however, patients treated with anti-TNFalpha had significantly lower serologic responses compared to anti-TNFalpha untreated ones. Lack of correlation between anti-TNFalpha drug levels and immune responses suggests there is no need to modify vaccination timing relatively to anti-TNFalpha administration. The significantly steeper increase in anti-S levels between 2nd and 3rd doses, suggests the 3rd dose is crucial in anti-TNFalpha treated patients. Their significantly lower anti-S levels compared to anti-TNFalpha untreated ones may suggest the advantage of a 4th vaccine dose.

3.
Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey ; 77(10):572-574, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2107598

ABSTRACT

As cesarean delivery (CD) rates have exponentially increased worldwide during the last 2 decades, the development of a "gniche,"or a CD scar defect (also called isthmocele), has arisen as a key factor associated with secondary gynecological and obstetrical complications. In terms of subsequent pregnancies, these defects have been indirectly associated with increased rates of placenta accreta, iatrogenic obstetric complications, and preterm birth. Endometrium tethering in a niche can serve as an intermenstrual blood or fluid reservoir. Experts of the European Niche Taskforce participated in a standardization of uterine niche evaluation via a Delphi procedure in 2019, in consideration of nonpregnant women. This evaluation also included a consensus-formed description of ultrasound signs of a uterine niche. This study aimed for a prospective evaluation of ultrasound signs in terms of their relationship with clinical factors for women who had undergone one prior CD. Between December 2019 and December 2020, this prospective cohort study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shamir Medical Centre, Israel. All participants granted written informed consent for enrollment. Women with one previous term(>=37 weeks) CD were offered participation in the study;all CDs performed used a low transverse uterine incision and closed the uterus in 2 unlocked layers. Multiple gestations, more than one prior CD, and previous incisions other than low transverse were excluded. Patients were divided into 2 subgroups based on labor stage at the time of their CD. Women undergoing elective CD or emergent CD at a cervical dilatation <=4 cm (latent phase) were put into subgroup A, whereas women who had their CD at any stage >4 cm (active phase) were included in subgroup B. Of a total 160 women recruited (45 elective CD, 115 emergent CD), 41 women (25.6%) were diagnosed with a uterine niche. Subgroup A had 109 (68.1%) women, whereas subgroup B had 51 (31.9%). Subgroup A also demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of a niche positioned above the vesicovaginal fold in the uterus when compared with subgroup B. (P = 0.0002). Standardized criteria provided by the European Niche Taskforce were used, and the authors found that women with elective CDs were more likely to present with a uterine niche within 4 to 12 months after delivery when compared with those with emergency CD in active labor. In addition, when hysterotomies are performed cervical dilations of .4, niches and simple scars are more often located above the vesicovaginal fold. Study strengths include its prospective design, which allowed standardized transvaginal ultrasound examination for all study participants, who, during the study period, were found to be in the category of having had one previous CD at term. In addition, measurements for the study were made via consensus criteria of the European Niche Taskforce. Limitations included the single-institution design of the study (thereby limiting the generalizability of the results), variable time intervals between delivery and follow-up scan (during the COVID-19 pandemic), a lack of longitudinal data on uterine niche development, and possible changes of the CD scar remodeling with progressing time after hysterotomy. Ultimately, increasing incidence of CD has raised the question as to the value of ultrasound evaluation of the uterine scarification process. This study adds to our understanding of the impact of various CD types and various uterine closure techniques on risks of long-term gynecological and obstetric complications. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

4.
Eye Contact Lens ; 48(9): 362-368, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992379

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of commonly used contact lens disinfectants against severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: The efficacy of five disinfectant solutions against SARS-CoV-2 was tested in the presence and absence of contact lenses (CLs). Three types of unused CLs (hard gas permeable, soft hydrogel, and soft silicone hydrogel) and worn silicone hydrogel CLs were tested. Contact lenses were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and disinfected at various times, with and without rubbing and rinsing, as per manufacturer's instructions. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viability polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and viral infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, respectively. RESULTS: In the presence of SARS-CoV-2-infected CLs, no SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected when disinfectant solutions were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. When SARS-Co-V2-infected CLs were disinfected without the rub-and-rinse step, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected at almost each time interval with each disinfecting solution tested for both new and worn CLs. In the absence of CLs, viable SARS-CoV-2 was detected with all disinfectant solutions except Menicon Progent at all time points. CONCLUSIONS: Disinfectant solutions effectively disinfect CLs from SARS-CoV-2 if manufacturer's instructions are followed. The rub-and-rinse regimen is mainly responsible for disinfection. The viability PCR may be useful to indicate potential infectiousness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic , Disinfectants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Lens Solutions/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogels , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicones
5.
Biomedicines ; 10(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952991

ABSTRACT

Prolonged daily face mask wearing over several months might affect health of the ocular surface and is reported to be associated with complaints of discomfort and dry-eye-like symptoms. We studied the ocular surface clinical parameters, tear soluble factors and immune cell proportions in ophthalmologists practicing within similar environmental conditions (n = 17) at two time points: pre-face-mask period (Pre-FM; end of 2019) and post-face-mask-wearing period (Post-FM; during 2020 COVID-19 pandemic), with continuous (~8 h/day) mask wear. A significant increase in ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores without changes in tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer's test 1 (ST1) and objective scatter index (OSI) was observed Post-FM. Tear soluble factors (increased-IL-1ß, IL-33, IFNß, NGF, BDNF, LIF and TSLP; decreased-IL-12, IL-13, HGF and VEGF-A) and mucins (MUC5AC) were significantly altered Post-FM. Ex vivo, human donor and corneoscleral explant cultures under elevated CO2 stress revealed that the molecular profile, particularly mucin expression, was similar to the Post-FM tear molecular profile, suggesting hypercapnia is a potential contributor to ocular surface discomfort. Among the immune cell subsets determined from ocular surface wash samples, significantly higher proportions of leukocytes and natural killer T cells were observed in Post-FM compared to Pre-FM. Therefore, it is important to note that the clinical parameters, tear film quality, tear molecular factors and immune cells profile observed in prolonged mask-wear-associated ocular surface discomfort were distinct from dry eye disease or other common ocular surface conditions. These observations are important for differential diagnosis as well as selection of appropriate ocular surface treatment in such subjects.

6.
Biomedicines ; 10(5):1160, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857089

ABSTRACT

Prolonged daily face mask wearing over several months might affect health of the ocular surface and is reported to be associated with complaints of discomfort and dry-eye-like symptoms. We studied the ocular surface clinical parameters, tear soluble factors and immune cell proportions in ophthalmologists practicing within similar environmental conditions (n = 17) at two time points: pre-face-mask period (Pre-FM;end of 2019) and post-face-mask-wearing period (Post-FM;during 2020 COVID-19 pandemic), with continuous (~8 h/day) mask wear. A significant increase in ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores without changes in tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer's test 1 (ST1) and objective scatter index (OSI) was observed Post-FM. Tear soluble factors (increased-IL-1β, IL-33, IFNβ, NGF, BDNF, LIF and TSLP;decreased-IL-12, IL-13, HGF and VEGF-A) and mucins (MUC5AC) were significantly altered Post-FM. Ex vivo, human donor and corneoscleral explant cultures under elevated CO2 stress revealed that the molecular profile, particularly mucin expression, was similar to the Post-FM tear molecular profile, suggesting hypercapnia is a potential contributor to ocular surface discomfort. Among the immune cell subsets determined from ocular surface wash samples, significantly higher proportions of leukocytes and natural killer T cells were observed in Post-FM compared to Pre-FM. Therefore, it is important to note that the clinical parameters, tear film quality, tear molecular factors and immune cells profile observed in prolonged mask-wear-associated ocular surface discomfort were distinct from dry eye disease or other common ocular surface conditions. These observations are important for differential diagnosis as well as selection of appropriate ocular surface treatment in such subjects.

7.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(12): 32, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484163

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The putative presence of SARS-CoV-2 in ocular specimen puts healthcare workers at risk. We thoroughly examined conjunctival swabs and tear fluid in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: A total of 243 symptomatic laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this observational multicenter study. Conjunctival swabs were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed to identify viral strains and to determine tissue tropism. Schirmer tear samples from 43 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 25 healthy controls were analyzed by multiplex cytokine immunoassays. Results: Viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in conjunctival swabs from 17 (7.0%) of 243 COVID-19 patients. Conjunctival samples were positive for viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA as long as 12 days after disease onset. Cycle threshold (Ct) values for conjunctival swabs (mean 34.5 ± 5.1) were significantly higher than nasopharyngeal swabs (mean 16.7 ± 3.6). No correlation between Ct values of conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs was observed. The majority of positive conjunctival samples were detected only once and primarily during the first visit. Next-generation sequencing analysis revealed that the virus strain found in the conjunctiva was most often identical to the one found in the nasopharynx. Tear cytokine levels IL-1ß and IL-6 were elevated in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusions: Conjunctival samples that were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA contained the same viral strain as the nasopharynx. Translational Relevance: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA and elevated cytokines in tear fluid confirm the involvement of the ocular surface in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Cohort Studies , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3461, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078603

ABSTRACT

Despite ongoing efforts to characterize the host response toward SARS-CoV-2, a major gap in our knowledge still exists regarding the magnitude and duration of the humoral response. Analysis of the antibody response in mild versus moderate/severe patients, using our new developed quantitative electrochemiluminescent assay for detecting IgM/IgA/IgG antibodies toward SARS-CoV-2 antigens, revealed a rapid onset of IgG/IgA antibodies, specifically in moderate/severe patients. IgM antibodies against the viral receptor binding domain, but not against nucleocapsid protein, were detected at early stages of the disease. Furthermore, we observed a marked reduction in IgM/IgA antibodies over-time. Adapting our assay for ACE2 binding-competition, demonstrated that the presence of potentially neutralizing antibodies is corelated with IgG/IgA. Finally, analysis of the cytokine profile in COVID-19 patients revealed unique correlation of an IL-12p70/IL33 and IgG seroconversion, which correlated with disease severity. In summary, our comprehensive analysis has major implications on the understanding and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interleukin-12/blood , Interleukin-33/blood , Seroconversion/physiology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
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