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1.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084367

ABSTRACT

Scarce evidence exists about the best treatment for multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). We analyzed the effects of steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and their combination on the probability of discharge over time, the probability of switching to second-line treatment over time, and the persistence of fever 2 days after treatment. We did a retrospective study to investigate the effect of different treatments on children with MIS-C from 1 March 2020 to 1 June 2021. We estimated the time-to-event probability using a Cox model weighted by propensity score to balance the baseline characteristics. Thirty of 132 (22.7%) patients were initially treated with steroids alone, 29/132 (21.9%) with IVIG alone, and 73/132 (55%) with IVIG plus steroids. The probability of early discharge was higher with IVIG than with IVIG plus steroids (hazard ratio [HR] 1.65, 95% CI 1.11-2.45, p = 0.013), but with a higher probability of needing second-line therapy compared to IVIG plus steroids (HR 3.05, 95% CI 1.12-8.25, p = 0.028). Patients on IVIG had a higher likelihood of persistent fever than patients on steroids (odds ratio [OR] 4.23, 95% CI 1.43-13.5, p = 0.011) or on IVIG plus steroids (OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.05-9.82, p < 0.001). No differences were found for this endpoint between steroids or steroids plus IVIG.    Conclusions: The benefits of each approach may vary depending on the outcome assessed. IVIG seemed to increase the probability of earlier discharge over time but also of needing second-line treatment over time. Steroids seemed to reduce persistent fever, and combination therapy reduced the need for escalating treatment. What is Known: • Steroids plus intravenous immunoglobulin, compared with intravenous immunoglobulin alone for multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) might reduce the need for hemodynamic support and the duration of fever, but the certainty of the evidence is low. What is New: • Intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and their combination for MIS-C may have different outcomes. • In this study, intravenous immunoglobulin increased the probability of discharge over time, steroids reduced persistent fever, while combination therapy reduced the need for second-line treatments.

3.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(10): 471-473, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973209

ABSTRACT

In this cohort of 42 adolescents with a previous multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) diagnosis, 32 (76.2%) were vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines, with a low incidence of relevant adverse events. More importantly, no new MIS-C or myocarditis occurred after a median of 10 weeks (range 5.3-19.7) post-vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Spain/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 253-263, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized children in Spain and analyze the predictors of the etiology. HYPOTHESIS: The different etiological groups of pediatric CAP are associated with different clinical, radiographic, and analytical data. DESIGN: Observational, multicenter, and prospective study. PATIENT SELECTION: This study included children aged 1 month to 17 years with CAP, who were hospitalized between April 2012 and May 2019. METHODS: An extensive microbiological workup was performed. The clinical, radiographic, and analytical parameters were analyzed for three etiological groups. RESULTS: Among the 495 children included, at least one causative pathogen was identified in 262 (52.9%): pathogenic viruses in 155/262 (59.2%); atypical bacteria (AB), mainly Mycoplasma pneumonia, in 84/262 (32.1%); and typical bacteria (TyB) in 40/262 (15.3%). Consolidation was observed in 89/138 (64.5%) patients with viral CAP, 74/84 (88.1%) with CAP caused by AB, and 40/40 (100%) with CAP caused by TyB. Para-pneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) was observed in 112/495 (22.6%) patients, of which 61/112 (54.5%) presented a likely causative pathogen: viruses in 12/61 (19.7%); AB in 23/61 (37.7%); and TyB in 26/61 (42.6%). Viral etiology was significantly frequent in young patients and in those with low oxygen saturation, wheezing, no consolidation, and high lymphocyte counts. CAP patients with AB as the etiological agent had a significantly longer and less serious course as compared to those with other causative pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Viruses and M. pneumoniae are the main causes of pediatric CAP in Spain. Wheezing, young age, and no consolidation on radiographs are indicative of viral etiology. Viruses and AB can also cause PPE. Since only a few cases can be directly attributed to TyB, the indications for antibiotics must be carefully considered in each patient.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Viruses , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/complications , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
5.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(10): 2374-2382, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a frequent manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hospitalized children. METHODS: The study involved 80 hospitals in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spanish Pediatric National Cohort. Participants were children <18 years, hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We compared the clinical and radiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP with CAP due to other viral etiologies from ValsDance (retrospective) cohort. RESULTS: In total, 151 children with SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP and 138 with other viral CAP were included. Main clinical features of SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP were cough, fever, or dyspnea. Lymphopenia was found in 43% patients and 15% required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Chest X-ray revealed condensation (42%) and other infiltrates (58%). Compared with CAP from other viral pathogens, COVID-19 patients were older, with lower C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, less wheezing, and greater need of mechanical ventilation (MV). There were no differences in the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or HVF, or PICU admission between groups. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP in children presents differently to other virus-associated CAP: children are older and rarely have wheezing or high CRP levels; they need less oxygen but more CPAP or MV. However, several features overlap and differentiating the etiology may be difficult. The overall prognosis is good.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Oxygen , Respiratory Sounds , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(11): 1051-1058, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of oral saliva swab (OSS) reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) compared with RT-PCR and antigen rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT) on nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) for SARS-CoV-2 in children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional multicentre diagnostic study. SETTING: Study nested in a prospective, observational cohort (EPICO-AEP) performed between February and March 2021 including 10 hospitals in Spain. PATIENTS: Children from 0 to 18 years with symptoms compatible with Covid-19 of ≤5 days of duration were included. Two NPS samples (Ag-RDT and RT-PCR) and one OSS sample for RT-PCR were collected. MAIN OUTCOME: Performance of Ag-RDT and RT-PCR on NPS and RT-PCR on OSS sample for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: 1174 children were included, aged 3.8 years (IQR 1.7-9.0); 73/1174 (6.2%) patients tested positive by at least one of the techniques. Sensitivity and specificity of OSS RT-PCR were 72.1% (95% CI 59.7 to 81.9) and 99.6% (95% CI 99 to 99.9), respectively, versus 61.8% (95% CI 49.1 to 73) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.4 to 100) for the Ag-RDT. Kappa index was 0.79 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) for OSS RT-PCR and 0.74 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.84) for Ag-RDT versus NPS RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR on the OSS sample is an accurate option for SARS-CoV-2 testing in children. A less intrusive technique for younger patients, who usually are tested frequently, might increase the number of patients tested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Saliva , Reverse Transcription , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322383

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to identify the spectrum of disease in children with COVID-19, and the risk factors for admission in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Methods: : We conducted a multicentre, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 76 Spanish hospitals. We included children with COVID-19 or multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) younger than 18 years old, attended during the first year of the pandemic. Results: We enrolled 1 200 children. A total of 666 (55.5%) were hospitalized, and 123 (18.4%) required admission to PICU. Most frequent major clinical syndromes in the cohort were: mild syndrome (including upper respiratory tract infection and flu-like syndrome, skin or mucosae problems and asymptomatic), 44.8%;bronchopulmonary syndrome (including pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma flare), 18.5%;fever without a source, 16.2%;MIS-C, 10.6%;and gastrointestinal syndrome, 10%. In hospitalized children, the proportions were: 28.5%, 25.7%, 16.5%, 19.1% and 10.2%, respectively. Risk factors associated with PICU admission were MIS-C (odds ratio [OR]: 37.5,95% CI 22.7 to 57.8), moderate or severe liver disease (OR: 9,95% CI 1.6 to 47.6), chronic cardiac disease (OR: 4.8,95% CI 1.8 to 13) and asthma or recurrent wheezing (OR: 2.8,95% CI 1.3 to 5.8). However, asthmatic children were admitted into the PICU due to MIS-C or pneumonia, not due to asthma flare. Conclusion: Hospitalized children with COVID-19 usually present as one of five major clinical phenotypes of decreasing severity. Risk factors for PICU include MIS-C, elevation of inflammation biomarkers, asthma, moderate or severe liver disease and cardiac disease.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307024

ABSTRACT

Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a frequent cause of consultation at the emergency department and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to those infants. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics and rates of bacterial coinfections of infants < 90 days with FWS as the first manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of infants under 90 days of age with FWS and positive SARS-CoV2 PCR in nasopharyngeal swab/aspirate, attended at the emergency departments of 49 Spanish hospitals (EPICO-AEP cohort) from March 1st to June 26th, 2020. Three hundred and thirty-three children with COVID-19 were included in EPICO-AEP. A total of 67/336 (20%) were infants less than 90 days old, and 27/67(40%) presented with FWS. Blood cultures were performed in 24/27(89%) and were negative in all but one (4%) who presented a Streptococcus mitis bacteremia. Urine culture was performed in 26/27(97%) children and was negative in all, except in two (7%) patients. Lumbar puncture was performed in 6/27(22%) cases, with no growth of bacteria. Two children had bacterial coinfections: 1 had UTI and bacteremia, and 1 had UTI. C-reactive was protein over 20 mg/L in two children (one with bacterial coinfection), and procalcitonin was normal in all. One child was admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit because of apnea episodes. No patients died. Conclusion: FWS was frequent in infants under 90 days of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standardized markers to rule out bacterial infections remain useful in this population, and the outcome is generally good.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296904

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a frequent manifestation of COVID-19 in hospitalized children. Methods The study involved 80 hospitals in the SARS-CoV-2 Spanish Pediatric National Cohort. Participants were children <18 years, hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We compared the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP with CAP due to other viral etiologies from 2012 to 2019. Results In total, 151 children with SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP and 138 with other viral CAP included. Main clinical features of SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP were cough 117/151(77%), fever 115/151(76%) and dyspnea 63/151(46%);22/151(15%) patients were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and 5/151(3%) patients died. Lymphopenia was found in 63/147(43%) patients. Chest X-ray revealed condensation (64/151[42%]) and other infiltrates (87/151[58%]). Compared with CAP from other viral pathogens, COVID-19 patients were older (8 vs.1 year;odds ratio [OR] 1.42 [95% confidence interval, CI 1.23;1.42]), with lower CRP levels (23 vs.48 mg/L;OR 1 [95%CI 0.99;1]), less wheezing (17 vs.53%;OR 0.18 [95%CI 0.11;0.31]) and greater need of mechanical ventilation, MV (7 vs.0.7%, OR 10.8 [95%CI 1.3;85). Patients with non-SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP had a greater need for oxygen therapy (77 vs.44%, OR 0.24 [95%CI 0.14;0.40]). There were no differences in the use of CPAP or HVF or PICU admission between groups. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP in children presents differently to other virus-associated CAP: children are older and rarely have wheezing or high CRP levels;they need less oxygen but more CPAP or MV. However, several features overlap, and differentiating the etiology may be difficult. The overall prognosis is good.

13.
J Pediatr ; 241: 126-132.e3, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the time to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity after the first positive RT-PCR test, factors associated with longer time to RT-PCR negativity, proportion of children seroconverting after proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and factors associated with the lack of seroconversion. STUDY DESIGN: The Epidemiological Study of Coronavirus in Children of the Spanish Society of Pediatrics is a multicenter study conducted in Spanish children to assess the characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019. In a subset of patients, 3 serial RT-PCR tests on nasopharyngeal swab specimens were performed after the first RT-PCR test, and immunoglobulin G serology for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies was performed in the acute and follow-up (<14 and ≥14 days after diagnosis) phase. RESULTS: In total, 324 patients were included in the study. The median time to RT-PCR negativity was 17 days (IQR, 8-29 days), and 35% of patients remained positive more than 4 weeks after the first RT-PCR test. The probability of RT-PCR negativity did not differ across groups defined by sex, disease severity, immunosuppressive drugs, or clinical phenotype. Globally, 24% of children failed to seroconvert after infection. Seroconversion was associated with hospitalization, persistence of RT-PCR positivity, and days of fever. CONCLUSIONS: Time to RT-PCR negativity was long, regardless of the severity of symptoms or other patient features. This finding should be considered when interpreting RT-PCR results in a child with symptoms, especially those with mild symptoms. Seroprevalence and postimmunization studies should consider that 11 in 4 infected children fail to seroconvert.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seroconversion , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Registries , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors
14.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(3): 1105-1115, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504861

ABSTRACT

We aimed to identify the spectrum of disease in children with COVID-19, and the risk factors for admission in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs). We conducted a multicentre, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 76 Spanish hospitals. We included children with COVID-19 or multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) younger than 18 years old, attended during the first year of the pandemic. We enrolled 1200 children. A total of 666 (55.5%) were hospitalised, and 123 (18.4%) required admission to PICU. Most frequent major clinical syndromes in the cohort were mild syndrome (including upper respiratory tract infection and flu-like syndrome, skin or mucosae problems and asymptomatic), 44.8%; bronchopulmonary syndrome (including pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma flare), 18.5%; fever without a source, 16.2%; MIS-C, 10.6%; and gastrointestinal syndrome, 10%. In hospitalised children, the proportions were 28.5%, 25.7%, 16.5%, 19.1% and 10.2%, respectively. Risk factors associated with PICU admission were age in months (OR: 1.007; 95% CI 1.004 to 1.01), MIS-C (OR: 14.4, 95% CI 8.9 to 23.8), chronic cardiac disease (OR: 4.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 13), asthma or recurrent wheezing (OR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.2) and after excluding MIS-C patients, moderate/severe liver disease (OR: 8.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 47.6). However, asthmatic children were admitted into the PICU due to MIS-C or pneumonia, not due to asthma flare.Conclusion: Hospitalised children with COVID-19 usually present as one of five major clinical phenotypes of decreasing severity. Risk factors for PICU include MIS-C, elevation of inflammation biomarkers, asthma, moderate or severe liver disease and cardiac disease. What is Known: • All studies suggest that children are less susceptible to serious SARS-CoV-2 infection when compared to adults. Most studies describe symptoms at presentation. However, it remains unclear how these symptoms group together into clinically identifiable syndromes and the severity associated with them. What is New: • We have gathered the primary diagnoses into five major syndromes of decreasing severity: MIS-C, bronchopulmonary syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome, fever without a source and mild syndrome. Classification of the children in one of the syndromes is unique and helps to assess the risk of critical illness and to define the spectrum of the disease instead of just describing symptoms and signs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
15.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 57-65, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473908

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Endemic coronaviruses have been found in acute bronchiolitis, mainly as a coinfecting virus. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for respiratory illness in hospitalized children. The characteristics of patients with bronchiolitis have not been extensively described. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients with bronchiolitis and SARS-CoV-2 infection enrolled in a prospective multicenter cohort of children hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain from March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021. RESULTS: Twelve of 666 children infected with SARS-CoV-2 who required hospital admission met the diagnostic criteria for bronchiolitis (1.8%). Median age was 1.9 months (range: 0.4-10.1). Six cases had household contact with a confirmed or probable COVID-19 case. Main complaints were cough (11 patients), rhinorrhea (10), difficulty breathing (8), and fever (8). Eleven cases were classified as mild or moderate and one as severe. Laboratory tests performed in seven patients did not evidence anemia, lymphopenia, or high C-reactive protein levels. Chest X-rays were performed in six children, and one case showed remarkable findings. Coinfection with metapneumovirus was detected in the patient with the most severe course; Bordetella pertussis was detected in another patient. Seven patients required oxygen therapy. Albuterol was administered in four patients. One patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Median length of admission was 4 days (range: 3-14). No patient died or showed any sequelae at discharge. Two patients developed recurrent bronchospasms. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection does not seem to be a main trigger of severe bronchiolitis, and children with this condition should be managed according to clinical practice guidelines.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis , COVID-19 , Bronchiolitis/complications , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(9): e397-e401, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387751

ABSTRACT

Some clusters of children with a multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported. We describe the epidemiological and clinical features of children with MIS-C in Spain. MIS-C is a potentially severe condition that presents in children with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Spain/epidemiology , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
17.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(8): e287-e293, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify risk factors causing critical disease in hospitalized children with COVID-19 and to build a predictive model to anticipate the probability of need for critical care. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 52 Spanish hospitals. The primary outcome was the need for critical care. We used a multivariable Bayesian model to estimate the probability of needing critical care. RESULTS: The study enrolled 350 children from March 12, 2020, to July 1, 2020: 292 (83.4%) and 214 (73.7%) were considered to have relevant COVID-19, of whom 24.2% required critical care. Four major clinical syndromes of decreasing severity were identified: multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) (17.3%), bronchopulmonary (51.4%), gastrointestinal (11.6%), and mild syndrome (19.6%). Main risk factors were high C-reactive protein and creatinine concentration, lymphopenia, low platelets, anemia, tachycardia, age, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and low oxygen saturation. These risk factors increased the risk of critical disease depending on the syndrome: the more severe the syndrome, the more risk the factors conferred. Based on our findings, we developed an online risk prediction tool (https://rserver.h12o.es/pediatria/EPICOAPP/, username: user, password: 0000). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for severe COVID-19 include inflammation, cytopenia, age, comorbidities, and organ dysfunction. The more severe the syndrome, the more the risk factor increases the risk of critical illness. Risk of severe disease can be predicted with a Bayesian model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
18.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(11): 1129-1132, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209813

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of thrombosis in children with SARS-CoV-2 is scarce. In this multicentre national cohort of children with SARS-CoV-2 involving 49 hospitals, 4 patients out of 537 infected children developed a thrombotic complication (prevalence of 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2% to 1.9%) out of the global cohort and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.3% to 2.8%) out of the hospitalised patients). We describe their characteristics and review other published paediatric cases. Three out of the four patients were adolescent girls, and only two cases had significant thrombotic risk factors. In this paediatric cohort, D-dimer value was not specific enough to predict thrombotic complications. Adolescence and previous thrombotic risk factors may be considered when initiating anticoagulant prophylaxis on children with SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Young Adult
19.
J Pediatr ; 232: 287-289.e4, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126937

ABSTRACT

We conducted a multicenter clinical validity study of the Panbio coronavirus disease 2019 Antigen Rapid Test of nasopharyngeal samples in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019-compatible symptoms of ≤5 days of evolution. Our study showed limited accuracy in nasopharyngeal antigen testing: overall sensitivity was 45.4%, and 99.8% of specificity, positive-predictive value was 92.5%.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA, Viral/analysis , Nasopharynx/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(7): 2099-2106, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092067

ABSTRACT

Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a frequent cause of consultation at the emergency department, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to those infants. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics and rates of bacterial coinfections of infants < 90 days with FWS as the first manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of infants under 90 days of age with FWS and positive SARS-CoV2 PCR in nasopharyngeal swab/aspirate, attended at the emergency departments of 49 Spanish hospitals (EPICO-AEP cohort) from March 1 to June 26, 2020. Three hundred and thirty-three children with COVID-19 were included in EPICO-AEP. A total of 67/336 (20%) were infants less than 90 days old, and 27/67(40%) presented with FWS. Blood cultures were performed in 24/27(89%) and were negative in all but one (4%) who presented a Streptococcus mitis bacteremia. Urine culture was performed in 26/27(97%) children and was negative in all, except in two (7%) patients. Lumbar puncture was performed in 6/27(22%) cases, with no growth of bacteria. Two children had bacterial coinfections: 1 had UTI and bacteremia, and 1 had UTI. C-reactive was protein over 20 mg/L in two children (one with bacterial coinfection), and procalcitonin was normal in all. One child was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of apnea episodes. No patients died.Conclusion: FWS was frequent in infants under 90 days of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standardized markers to rule out bacterial infections remain useful in this population, and the outcome is generally good. What is Known: • Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a common cause of consultation at the emergency department, and young infants have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections (SBI). • The emergence of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to young infants with FWS in the emergency department. management of those children is a challenge because information about bacterial coinfection and prognosis is scarce. What is New: • SARS-CoV-2 infection should be ruled out in young infants (< 90 days of age) with FWS in areas with community transmission. • Bacterial coinfection rarely coexists in those infants. • Inflammatory markers were not increased in children without bacterial coinfection. • Outcome is good in most patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , RNA, Viral
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