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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(8): 921-932, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476910

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Current guidelines recommend patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia receive empirical antibiotics for suspected bacterial superinfection on the basis of weak evidence. Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in clinical trials of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are unexpectedly low. Objectives: We conducted an observational single-center study to determine the prevalence and etiology of bacterial superinfection at the time of initial intubation and the incidence and etiology of subsequent bacterial VAP in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods: Bronchoscopic BAL fluid samples from all patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation were analyzed using quantitative cultures and a multiplex PCR panel. Actual antibiotic use was compared with guideline-recommended therapy. Measurements and Main Results: We analyzed 386 BAL samples from 179 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. Bacterial superinfection within 48 hours of intubation was detected in 21% of patients. Seventy-two patients (44.4%) developed at least one VAP episode (VAP incidence rate = 45.2/1,000 ventilator days); 15 (20.8%) initial VAPs were caused by difficult-to-treat pathogens. The clinical criteria did not distinguish between patients with or without bacterial superinfection. BAL-based management was associated with significantly reduced antibiotic use compared with guideline recommendations. Conclusions: In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation, bacterial superinfection at the time of intubation occurs in <25% of patients. Guideline-based empirical antibiotic management at the time of intubation results in antibiotic overuse. Bacterial VAP developed in 44% of patients and could not be accurately identified in the absence of microbiologic analysis of BAL fluid.

2.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(8): 921-932, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365264

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Current guidelines recommend patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia receive empirical antibiotics for suspected bacterial superinfection on the basis of weak evidence. Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in clinical trials of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are unexpectedly low. Objectives: We conducted an observational single-center study to determine the prevalence and etiology of bacterial superinfection at the time of initial intubation and the incidence and etiology of subsequent bacterial VAP in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods: Bronchoscopic BAL fluid samples from all patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation were analyzed using quantitative cultures and a multiplex PCR panel. Actual antibiotic use was compared with guideline-recommended therapy. Measurements and Main Results: We analyzed 386 BAL samples from 179 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. Bacterial superinfection within 48 hours of intubation was detected in 21% of patients. Seventy-two patients (44.4%) developed at least one VAP episode (VAP incidence rate = 45.2/1,000 ventilator days); 15 (20.8%) initial VAPs were caused by difficult-to-treat pathogens. The clinical criteria did not distinguish between patients with or without bacterial superinfection. BAL-based management was associated with significantly reduced antibiotic use compared with guideline recommendations. Conclusions: In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation, bacterial superinfection at the time of intubation occurs in <25% of patients. Guideline-based empirical antibiotic management at the time of intubation results in antibiotic overuse. Bacterial VAP developed in 44% of patients and could not be accurately identified in the absence of microbiologic analysis of BAL fluid.

3.
Hum Pathol ; 113: 92-103, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201239

ABSTRACT

Information on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with COVID-19 is limited, and clinical correlation has not been reported. This study investigated the key features of BAL fluids from COVID-19 patients and assessed their clinical significance. A total of 320 BAL samples from 83 COVID-19 patients and 70 non-COVID-19 patients (27 patients with other respiratory viral infections) were evaluated, including cell count/differential, morphology, flow cytometric immunophenotyping, and immunohistochemistry. The findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. Compared to non-COVID-19 patients, BAL from COVID-19 patients was characterized by significant lymphocytosis (p < 0.001), in contrast to peripheral blood lymphopenia commonly observed in COVID-19 patients and the presence of atypical lymphocytes with plasmacytoid/plasmablastic features (p < 0.001). Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that BAL lymphocytes, including plasmacytoid and plasmablastic cells, were composed predominantly of T cells with a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Both populations had increased expression of T-cell activation markers, suggesting important roles of helper and cytotoxic T-cells in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lung. More importantly, BAL lymphocytosis was significantly associated with longer hospital stay (p < 0.05) and longer requirement for mechanical ventilation (p < 0.05), whereas the median atypical (activated) lymphocyte count was associated with shorter hospital stay (p < 0.05), shorter time on mechanical ventilation (p < 0.05) and improved survival. Our results indicate that BAL cellular analysis and morphologic findings provide additional important information for diagnostic and prognostic work-up, and potential new therapeutic strategies for patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JCI Insight ; 6(6)2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088356

ABSTRACT

Regulatory T (Treg) cells orchestrate resolution and repair of acute lung inflammation and injury after viral pneumonia. Compared with younger patients, older individuals experience impaired recovery and worse clinical outcomes after severe viral infections, including influenza and SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Whether age is a key determinant of Treg cell prorepair function after lung injury remains unknown. Here, we showed that aging results in a cell-autonomous impairment of reparative Treg cell function after experimental influenza pneumonia. Transcriptional and DNA methylation profiling of sorted Treg cells provided insight into the mechanisms underlying their age-related dysfunction, with Treg cells from aged mice demonstrating both loss of reparative programs and gain of maladaptive programs. Strategies to restore youthful Treg cell functional programs could be leveraged as therapies to improve outcomes among older individuals with severe viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/pathology , Age Factors , Aging/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Lung/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism
5.
Nature ; 590(7847): 635-641, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019856

ABSTRACT

Some patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome1 (ARDS). Distinct clinical features in these patients have led to speculation that the immune response to virus in the SARS-CoV-2-infected alveolus differs from that in other types of pneumonia2. Here we investigate SARS-CoV-2 pathobiology by characterizing the immune response in the alveoli of patients infected with the virus. We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 88 patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory failure and 211 patients with known or suspected pneumonia from other pathogens, and analysed them using flow cytometry and bulk transcriptomic profiling. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on 10 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) within 48 h of intubation. In the majority of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the alveolar space was persistently enriched in T cells and monocytes. Bulk and single-cell transcriptomic profiling suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar macrophages, which in turn respond by producing T cell chemoattractants. These T cells produce interferon-γ to induce inflammatory cytokine release from alveolar macrophages and further promote T cell activation. Collectively, our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 causes a slowly unfolding, spatially limited alveolitis in which alveolar macrophages containing SARS-CoV-2 and T cells form a positive feedback loop that drives persistent alveolar inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Cohort Studies , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Time Factors
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