Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
J Nephrol ; 35(3): 745-759, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dialysis and kidney transplant patients with moderate-severe COVID-19 have a high mortality rate, around 30%, that is similar in the two populations, despite differences in their baseline characteristics. In these groups, the immunology of the disease has been poorly explored. METHODS: Thirty-two patients on dialysis or with kidney transplant and SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization (COV group) were included in our study. Lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cell (DC) counts and monocyte activation were studied. SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike/anti-nucleocapsid were monitored, and baseline cytokines and chemokines were measured in 10 patients. RESULTS: The COV group, compared to healthy subjects and uninfected dialysis/kidney transplant controls, showed lower numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, Natural-Killer (NK), B cells, plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs, while the proportion of terminally differentiated B-cells was increased. IL6, IL10, IFN-α and chemokines involved in monocyte and neutrophil recruitment were higher in the COV group, compared to uninfected dialysis/kidney transplant controls. Patients with severe disease had lower CD4 + , CD8 + and B-cell counts and lower monocyte HLA-DR expression. Of note, when comparing dialysis and kidney transplant patients with COVID-19, the latter group presented lower NK and pDC counts and monocyte HLA-DR expression. Up to 60 days after symptom onset, kidney transplant recipients showed lower levels of anti-spike antibodies compared to dialysis patients. CONCLUSIONS: During SARS-CoV-2 infection, dialysis and kidney transplant patients manifest immunophenotype abnormalities; these are similar in the two groups, however kidney transplant recipients show more profound alterations of the innate immune system and lower anti-spike antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
2.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 645063, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526780

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, data registered in the European countries revealed increasing cases of infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In the course of this pandemic, we enrolled 17 CF patients for a study evaluating inflammatory markers. One of them developed COVID-19, giving us the possibility to analyze inflammatory markers in the acute phase as compared to levels detected before and after the infectious episode and to levels measured in the other CF patients enrolled to the study who did not experience COVID-19 and 23 patients referred to our center for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 654587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348485

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 occurs in the majority of children as COVID-19, without symptoms or with a paucisymptomatic respiratory syndrome, but a small proportion of children develop the systemic Multi Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C), characterized by persistent fever and systemic hyperinflammation, with some clinical features resembling Kawasaki Disease (KD). Objective: With this study we aimed to shed new light on the pathogenesis of these two SARS-CoV-2-related clinical manifestations. Methods: We investigated lymphocyte and dendritic cells subsets, chemokine/cytokine profiles and evaluated the neutrophil activity mediators, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), in 10 children with COVID-19 and 9 with MIS-C at the time of hospital admission. Results: Patients with MIS-C showed higher plasma levels of C reactive protein (CRP), MPO, IL-6, and of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2 than COVID-19 children. In addition, they displayed higher levels of the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, mainly induced by IFN-γ. By contrast, we detected IFN-α in plasma of children with COVID-19, but not in patients with MIS-C. This observation was consistent with the increase of ISG15 and IFIT1 mRNAs in cells of COVID-19 patients, while ISG15 and IFIT1 mRNA were detected in MIS-C at levels comparable to healthy controls. Moreover, quantification of the number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which constitute the main source of IFN-α, showed profound depletion of this subset in MIS-C, but not in COVID-19. Conclusions: Our results show a pattern of immune response which is suggestive of type I interferon activation in COVID-19 children, probably related to a recent interaction with the virus, while in MIS-C the immune response is characterized by elevation of the inflammatory cytokines/chemokines IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL8 and of the chemokines CXCL9 and CXL10, which are markers of an active Th1 type immune response. We believe that these immunological events, together with neutrophil activation, might be crucial in inducing the multisystem and cardiovascular damage observed in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Chemokine CXCL9/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Plasma Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies
6.
Eur J Immunol ; 50(9): 1412-1414, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615368

ABSTRACT

Study of immunological features of immune response in 14 children (aged from 12 days up to 15 years) and of 10 adults who developed COVID-19 show increased number of activated CD4 and CD8 cells expressing DR and higher plasmatic levels of IL-12 and IL-1ß in adults with COVID-19, but not in children. In addition, plasmatic levels of CCL5/RANTES are higher in children and adults with COVID-19, while CXCL9/MIG was only increased in adults. Higher number of activated T cells and expression of IL-12 and CXCL9 suggest prominent Th1 polarization of immune response against SARS-CoV2 in infected adults as compared with children.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Chemokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Chemokine CCL5/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Chemokine CXCL9/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin-8/blood , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/pathology , Male , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
7.
J Neuroimmunol ; 345: 577282, 2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437267

ABSTRACT

A multiple sclerosis patient infected by SARS-CoV-2 during fingolimod therapy was hospitalized with moderate clinical features, and recovered in 15 days. High levels of CCL5 and CCL10 chemokines and of antibody-secreting B cells were detected, while the levels other B- and T-cell subsets were comparable to that of appropriate controls. However, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were oligoclonally expanded and prone to apoptosis when stimulated in vitro. This study suggests that fingolimod-immunosuppressed patients, despite the low circulating lymphocytes, may rapidly expand antibody-secreting cells and mount an effective immune response that favors COVID-19 recovery after drug discontinuation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31(5): 565-569, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which has recently affected Italy since February 21, constitutes a threat to normal subjects, as the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) can manifest with a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes ranging from asymptomatic cases to pneumonia or even death. There is evidence that older age and several comorbidities can affect the risk to develop severe pneumonia and possibly the need of mechanic ventilation in subjects infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we evaluated the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). METHODS: When the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic has reached Italy, we have activated a surveillance protocol of patients with IEI, to perform SARS-CoV-2 search by nasopharyngeal swab in patients presenting with symptoms that could be a manifestation of COVID-19, such as fever, cough, diarrhea, or vomiting. RESULTS: We describe two patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) aged 34 and 26 years with complete absence of B cells from peripheral blood who developed COVID-19, as diagnosed by SARS-CoV-2 detection by nasopharyngeal swab, while receiving immunoglobulin infusions. Both patients developed interstitial pneumonia characterized by fever, cough, and anorexia and associated with elevation of CRP and ferritin, but have never required oxygen ventilation or intensive care. CONCLUSION: Our report suggests that XLA patients might present with high risk to develop pneumonia after SARS-CoV-2 infection, but can recover from infection, suggesting that B-cell response might be important, but is not strictly required to overcome the disease. However, there is a need for larger observational studies to extend these conclusions to other patients with similar genetic immune defects.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia/complications , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive/methods , Italy , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL