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Cancers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736837


Monoclonal antibodies are among the most powerful therapeutics in modern medicine. Since the approval of the first therapeutic antibody in 1986, monoclonal antibodies keep holding great expectations for application in a range of clinical indications, highlighting the need to provide timely and sustainable access to powerful screening options. However, their application in the past has been limited by time-consuming and expensive steps of discovery and production. The screening of antibody repertoires is a laborious step; however, the implementation of next-generation sequencing-guided screening of single-chain antibody fragments has now largely overcome this issue. This review provides a detailed overview of the current strategies for the identification of monoclonal antibodies from phage display-based libraries. We also discuss the challenges and the possible solutions to improve the limiting selection and screening steps, in order to keep pace with the increasing demand for monoclonal antibodies.

Radiol Med ; 126(3): 498-502, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915235


PURPOSE: In overwhelmed emergency departments (EDs) facing COVID-19 outbreak, a swift diagnosis is imperative. CT role was widely debated for its limited specificity. Here we report the diagnostic role of CT in two EDs in Lombardy, epicenter of Italian outbreak. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Admitting chest CT from 142 consecutive patients with suspected COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. CT scans were classified in "highly likely," "likely," and "unlikely" COVID-19 pneumonia according to the presence of typical, indeterminate, and atypical findings, or "negative" in the absence of findings, or "alternative diagnosis" when a different diagnosis was found. Nasopharyngeal swab results, turnaround time, and time to positive results were collected. CT diagnostic performances were assessed considering RT-PCR as reference standard. RESULTS: Most of cases (96/142, 68%) were classified as "highly likely" COVID-19 pneumonia. Ten (7%) and seven (5%) patients were classified as "likely" and "unlikely" COVID-19 pneumonia, respectively. In 21 (15%) patients a differential diagnosis was provided, including typical pneumonia, pulmonary edema, neoplasia, and pulmonary embolism. CT was negative in 8/142 (6%) patients. Mean turnaround time for the first COVID-19 RT-PCR was 30 ± 13 h. CT diagnostic accuracy in respect of the first test swab was 79% and increased to 91.5% after repeated swabs and/or BAL, for 18 false-negative first swab. CT performance was good with 76% specificity, 99% sensitivity, 90% positive predictive value and 97% negative predictive value. CONCLUSION: Chest CT was useful to streamline patients' triage while waiting for RT-PCR in the ED, supporting the clinical suspicion of COVID-19 or providing alternative diagnosis.

COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Emergency Service, Hospital , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Triage