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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008525

ABSTRACT

We characterized COVID-19 breakthrough cases admitted to a single center in Florida. With the emergence of delta variant, an increased number of hospitalizations was seen due to breakthrough infections. These patients were older and more likely to have comorbidities. Preventive measures should be maintained even after vaccination.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 120: 88-95, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern has led to significant phenotypical changes in transmissibility, virulence, and public health measures. Our study used clinical data to compare characteristics between a Delta variant wave and a pre-Delta variant wave of hospitalized patients. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study defined a wave as an increasing number of COVID-19 hospitalizations, which peaked and later decreased. Data from the United States Department of Health and Human Services were used to identify the waves' primary variant. Wave 1 (August 8, 2020-April 1, 2021) was characterized by heterogeneous variants, whereas Wave 2 (June 26, 2021-October 18, 2021) was predominantly the Delta variant. Descriptive statistics, regression techniques, and machine learning approaches supported the comparisons between waves. RESULTS: From the cohort (N = 1318), Wave 2 patients (n = 665) were more likely to be younger, have fewer comorbidities, require more care in the intensive care unit, and show an inflammatory profile with higher C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, activated thromboplastin time, and international normalized ratio compared with Wave 1 patients (n = 653). The gradient boosting model showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.854 (sensitivity 86.4%; specificity 61.5%; positive predictive value 73.8%; negative predictive value 78.3%). CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory characteristics can be used to estimate the COVID-19 variant regardless of genomic testing availability. This finding has implications for variant-driven treatment protocols and further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
J Hosp Med ; 17(5): 350-357, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient Safety Indicator (PSI)-12, a hospital quality measure designed by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to capture potentially preventable adverse events, captures perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is unclear how COVID-19 has affected PSI-12 performance. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the cumulative incidence of PSI-12 in patients with and without acute COVID-19 infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cohort study including PSI-12-eligible events at three Mayo Clinic medical centers (4/1/2020-10/5/2021). EXPOSURE, MAIN OUTCOMES, AND MEASURES: We compared the unadjusted rate and adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for PSI-12 events among patients with and without COVID-19 infection using Fisher's exact χ2  test and the AHRQ risk-adjustment software, respectively. We summarized the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with a PSI-12 event. RESULTS: Our cohort included 50,400 consecutive hospitalizations. Rates of PSI-12 events were significantly higher among patients with acute COVID-19 infection (8/257 [3.11%; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.35%-6.04%]) compared to patients without COVID-19 (210/50,143 [0.42%; 95% CI, 0.36%-0.48%]) with a PSI-12 event during the encounter (p < .001). The risk-adjusted rate of PSI-12 was significantly higher in patients with acute COVID-19 infection (1.50% vs. 0.38%; aRR, 3.90; 95% CI, 2.12-7.17; p < .001). All COVID-19 patients with PSI-12 events had severe disease and 4 died. The most common procedure was tracheostomy (75%); the mean (SD) days from surgical procedure to VTE were 0.12 (7.32) days. CONCLUSION: Patients with acute COVID-19 infection are at higher risk for PSI-12. The present definition of PSI-12 does not account for COVID-19. This may impact hospitals' quality performance if COVID-19 infection is not accounted for by exclusion or risk adjustment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Patient Safety , Retrospective Studies
4.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 775-789, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730419

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Colchicine, because of its anti-inflammatory and possible anti-viral properties, has been proposed as potential therapeutic option for COVID-19. The role of colchicine to mitigate "cytokine storm" and to decrease the severity and mortality associated with COVID-19 has been evaluated in many studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of colchicine on morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA recommendations. The literature search was conducted in 6 medical databases from inception to February 17, 2021 to identify studies evaluating colchicine as a therapeutic agent in COVID-19. All included studies were evaluated for risk of bias (ROB) using the Revised Cochrane ROB tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for case-control and cohort studies. RESULTS: Four RCTs and four observational studies were included in the final analysis. One study evaluated colchicine in outpatients, while all others evaluated inpatient use of colchicine. There was significant variability in treatment protocols for colchicine and standard of care in all studies. A statistically significant decrease in all-cause mortality was observed in three observational studies. The risk of mechanical ventilation was significantly reduced only in one observational study. Length of hospitalisation was significantly reduced in two RCTs. Risk for hospitalisation was not significantly decreased in the study evaluating colchicine in outpatients. Very few studies had low risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Based on the available data, colchicine shall not be recommended to treat COVID-19. Further high-quality and multi-center RCTs are required to assess the meaningful impact of this drug in COVID-19.KEY MESSAGESColchicine, an anti-inflammatory agent has demonstrated anti-viral properties in in-vitro studies by degrading the microtubules, as well as by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.Colchicine has been studied as a potential therapeutic option for COVID-19, with variable results.Until further research can establish the efficacy of colchicine in COVID-19, the use of colchicine in COVID-19 shall be restricted to clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Morbidity , Observational Studies as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(3): 578-584.e2, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the radiographic resolution of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) examinations in patients diagnosed with acute PE while hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to understand the mid-term and long-term implications of anticoagulation therapy. METHODS: We identified patients with acute PE per CECT and at least one follow-up CECT from March 11, 2020, to May 27, 2021, using a prospective registry of all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection receiving care within a multicenter Health System. Initial and follow-up CECT examinations were reviewed independently by two radiologists to evaluate for PE resolution. The Modified Miller Score was used to assess for thrombus burden at diagnosis and on follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 6070 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection, 5.7% (348/6070) were diagnosed with acute PE and 13.5% (47/348) had a follow-up CECT examination. The mean ± standard deviation time to follow-up imaging was 44 ± 48 days (range, 3-161 days). Of 47 patients, 47 (72.3%) had radiographic resolution of PE, with a mean time to follow-up of 48 ± 43 days (range, 6-239 days). All patients received anticoagulation monotherapy for a mean of 149 ± 95 days and this included apixaban (63.8%), warfarin (12.8%), and rivaroxaban (8.5%), among others. The mean Modified Miller Score at PE diagnosis and follow-up was 4.8 ± 4.2 (range, 1-14) and 1.4 ± 3.3 (range, 0-16; P < .0001), respectively. Nine patients (19%) died at a mean of 13 ± 8 days after follow-up CECT (range, 1-27 days) and at a mean of 28 ± 16 days after admission (range, 11-68 days). Seen of the nine deaths (78%) deaths were associated with progression of COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 have a clinically apparent 5.7% rate of developing PE. In patients with follow-up imaging, 72.3% had radiographic thrombus resolution at a mean of 44 days while on anticoagulation. Prospective studies of the natural history of PEs with COVID-19 that include systematic follow-up imaging are warranted to help guide anticoagulation recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493775

ABSTRACT

We characterized COVID-19 breakthrough cases admitted to a single center in Florida. With the emergence of delta variant, an increased number of hospitalizations was seen due to breakthrough infections. These patients were older and more likely to have comorbidities. Preventive measures should be maintained even after vaccination.

8.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(6): 1361-1370.e1, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared with that in a matched cohort with similar cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of DVT and PE on the hospital course. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from COVID-19 patients who had been hospitalized from March 11, 2020 to September 4, 2020. The patients were randomly matched in a 1:1 ratio by age, sex, hospital of admission, smoking history, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease with a cohort of patients without COVID-19. The primary end point was the incidence of DVT/PE and the odds of developing DVT/PE using a conditional logistic regression model. The secondary end point was the hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients with and without DVT/PE, including mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU stay, and length of hospitalization (LOH). Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify the variables associated with mortality, ICU admission, discharge disposition, ICU duration, and LOH. RESULTS: A total of 13,310 patients had tested positive for COVID-19, 915 of whom (6.9%) had been hospitalized across our multisite health care system. The mean age of the hospitalized patients was 60.8 ± 17.0 years, and 396 (43.3%) were women. Of the 915 patients, 82 (9.0%) had had a diagnosis of DVT/PE confirmed by ultrasound examination of the extremities and/or computed tomography angiography of the chest. The odds of presenting with DVT/PE in the setting of COVID-19 infection was greater than that without COVID-19 infection (0.6% [5 of 915] vs 9.0% [82 of 915]; odds ratio [OR], 18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.0-51.2; P < .001). The vascular risk factors were not different between the COVID-19 patients with and without DVT/PE. Mortality (P = .02), the need for ICU stay (P < .001), duration of ICU stay (P < .001), and LOH (P < .001) were greater in the DVT/PE cohort than in the cohort without DVT/PE. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, the hemoglobin (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; P = .04) and D-dimer (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.33-1.56; P = .03) levels were associated with higher mortality. Higher activated partial thromboplastin times (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.00-1.12; P = .03) and higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07; P = .05) were associated with a greater risk of ICU admission. IL-6 (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02; P = .05) was associated with a greater risk of rehabilitation placement after discharge. On multivariable gamma regression analysis, hemoglobin (coefficient, -3.0; 95% CI, 0.03-0.08; P = .005) was associated with a prolonged ICU stay, and the activated partial thromboplastin time (coefficient, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.003-0.006; P = .05), international normalized ratio (coefficient, -3.2; 95% CI, 0.06-0.19; P = .002) and IL-6 (coefficient, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.0011-0.0027; P = .02) were associated with a prolonged LOH. CONCLUSIONS: A significantly greater incidence of DVT/PE occurred in hospitalized COVID-19-positive patients compared with a non-COVID-19 cohort matched for cardiovascular risk factors. Patients affected by DVT/PE were more likely to experience greater mortality, to require ICU admission, and experience prolonged ICU stays and LOH compared with COVID-19-positive patients without DVT/PE. Advancements in DVT/PE prevention are needed for patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Venous Thrombosis/virology
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