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1.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2022 Mar 21.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the causes of death by diseases of the respiratory system in Spain in 2020, with special interest in COVID-19; also its trends and determinants, and compare them with 2019. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. The coding of all those causes of death by diseases of the respiratory system were regrouped. A descriptive analysis of all deaths and by gender, age, and the 17 Autonomous Communities (CCAA) was performed. Also, odds ratios of death in crude and multivariate analysis by logistic regression were estimated. RESULTS: In Spain in 2020, 60,358 deaths were attributed to "COVID-19 virus identified" and another 14,481 to "COVID-19 virus not identified (suspicious)". Regrouping the specific causes of death, in 2020 the diseases of the respiratory system caused a total of 139,880 deaths, which corresponds to 28.3% of all deaths in Spain. Compared to 2019, an increase of 68.5% was observed. By gender, deaths by diseases of the respiratory system were higher in men (32.0%) than in women (24.6%), although in specific causes the percentage was higher in women with suspected COVID-19, asthma, respiratory insufficiency and Other diseases of the respiratory system. Finally, the variables associated with death from COVID-19 in the multivariate analysis were being male, increasing age (maximum at 80 years), completed studies up to Secondary level, employed, and single or widowed marital status, although with a marked variation by Autonomous Community. CONCLUSIONS: In Spain in 2020, COVID-19 produced a large increase (68.5%) in deaths by diseases of the respiratory system compared to the previous year.

2.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(3): 338-345, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722178

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aims to assess the changes in antimicrobial resistance among some critical and high-priority microorganisms collected previously and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Mexico. Methods: We collected antimicrobial susceptibility data for critical and high-priority microorganisms from blood, urine, respiratory samples, and from all specimens, in which the pathogen may be considered a causative agent. Data were stratified and compared for two periods: 2019 versus 2020 and second semester 2019 (prepandemic) versus the second semester 2020 (pandemic). Results: In the analysis of second semester 2019 versus the second semester 2020, in blood samples, increased resistance to oxacillin (15.2% vs. 36.9%), erythromycin (25.7% vs. 42.8%), and clindamycin (24.8% vs. 43.3%) (p ≤ 0.01) was detected for Staphylococcus aureus, to imipenem (13% vs. 23.4%) and meropenem (11.2% vs. 21.4) (p ≤ 0.01), for Klebsiella pneumoniae. In all specimens, increased ampicillin and tetracycline resistance was detected for Enterococcus faecium (p ≤ 0.01). In cefepime, meropenem, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Escherichia coli; and in piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance increased in Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in oxacillin resistance for S. aureus and carbapenem resistance for K. pneumoniae recovered from blood specimens deserves special attention. In addition, an increase in erythromycin resistance in S. aureus was detected, which may be associated with high azithromycin use. In general, for Acinetobacter baumannii and P. aeruginosa, increasing resistance rates were detected.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311479

ABSTRACT

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy to break COVID-19 transmission. Although hydroxychloroquine was evaluated for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, it is not evaluated for COVID-19 PrEP yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine against placebo in healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection during an epidemic period.MethodsWe conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial in three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. From 350 adult healthcare workers screened, we included 269 participants with no active or past SARS-CoV-2 infection (determined by a negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR and a negative serology against SARS-CoV-2). Participants allocated in the intervention arm (PrEP) received 400mg of hydroxychloroquine daily the first four consecutive days and subsequently, 400mg weekly during the study period. Participants in the control group followed the same treatment schedule with placebo tablets. Results52.8% of participants were in the hydroxychloroquine arm and 47.2% in the placebo arm. Both groups showed similar proportion of participants experiencing at least one adverse event (AE) (p=0.548). No serious AE were reported. Almost all AE (96.4%) were mild. Only mild gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly higher in the hydroxychloroquine arm compared to the placebo arm (28.3% vs 16.9%, p=0.044). Given the national epidemic incidence decay, only one participant in each group was COVID-19 diagnosed. Consequently, our study design deemed underpowered to evaluate any benefit regarding PrEP efficacy.ConclusionsFirst month follow-up analysis displayed that PrEP with hydroxychloroquine at low doses is safe.Trial registration  This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04331834) on April 2nd 2020.

4.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(3): 338-345, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555726

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aims to assess the changes in antimicrobial resistance among some critical and high-priority microorganisms collected previously and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Mexico. Methods: We collected antimicrobial susceptibility data for critical and high-priority microorganisms from blood, urine, respiratory samples, and from all specimens, in which the pathogen may be considered a causative agent. Data were stratified and compared for two periods: 2019 versus 2020 and second semester 2019 (prepandemic) versus the second semester 2020 (pandemic). Results: In the analysis of second semester 2019 versus the second semester 2020, in blood samples, increased resistance to oxacillin (15.2% vs. 36.9%), erythromycin (25.7% vs. 42.8%), and clindamycin (24.8% vs. 43.3%) (p ≤ 0.01) was detected for Staphylococcus aureus, to imipenem (13% vs. 23.4%) and meropenem (11.2% vs. 21.4) (p ≤ 0.01), for Klebsiella pneumoniae. In all specimens, increased ampicillin and tetracycline resistance was detected for Enterococcus faecium (p ≤ 0.01). In cefepime, meropenem, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Escherichia coli; and in piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gentamicin (p ≤ 0.01), resistance was detected for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance increased in Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in oxacillin resistance for S. aureus and carbapenem resistance for K. pneumoniae recovered from blood specimens deserves special attention. In addition, an increase in erythromycin resistance in S. aureus was detected, which may be associated with high azithromycin use. In general, for Acinetobacter baumannii and P. aeruginosa, increasing resistance rates were detected.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Trials ; 22(1): 808, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy to break COVID-19 transmission. Although hydroxychloroquine was evaluated for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, it is not evaluated for COVID-19 PrEP yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine against placebo in healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection during an epidemic period. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial in three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. From 350 adult healthcare workers screened, we included 269 participants with no active or past SARS-CoV-2 infection (determined by a negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR and a negative serology against SARS-CoV-2). Participants allocated in the intervention arm (PrEP) received 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine daily for the first four consecutive days and subsequently, 400 mg weekly during the study period. Participants in the control group followed the same treatment schedule with placebo tablets. RESULTS: 52.8% (142/269) of participants were in the hydroxychloroquine arm and 47.2% (127/269) in the placebo arm. Given the national epidemic incidence decay, only one participant in each group was diagnosed with COVID-19. The trial was stopped due to futility and our study design was deemed underpowered to evaluate any benefit regarding PrEP efficacy. Both groups showed a similar proportion of participants experiencing at least one adverse event (AE) (p=0.548). No serious AEs were reported. Almost all AEs (96.4%, 106/110) were mild. Only mild gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly higher in the hydroxychloroquine arm compared to the placebo arm (27.4% (39/142) vs 15.7% (20/127), p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Although the efficacy of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine for preventing COVID-19 could not be evaluated, our study showed that PrEP with hydroxychloroquine at low doses is safe. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04331834 . Registered on April 2, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480536

ABSTRACT

Drugs are used in veterinary medicine to prevent or treat animal diseases. When rationally administered to livestock following Good Veterinary Practices (GVP), they greatly contribute to improving the production of food of animal origin. Since humans can be exposed chronically to veterinary drugs through the diet, residues in food are evaluated for effects following chronic exposures. Parameters such as an acceptable daily intake (ADI), the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), maximum residue limits (MRLs), and the withdrawal periods (WPs) are determined for each drug used in livestock. Drug residues in food exceeding the MRLs usually appear when failing the GVP application. Different factors related either to the treated animal or to the type of drug administration, and even the type of cooking can affect the level of residues in edible tissues. Residues above the MRLs can have a diverse negative impact, mainly on the consumer's health, and favor antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Drug residue monitoring programmes are crucial to ensure that prohibited or authorized substances do not exceed MRLs. This comprehensive review article addresses different aspects of drug residues in edible tissues produced as food for human consumption and provides relevant information contributing to rational pharmacotherapy in food-producing animals.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 58(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360623

Subject(s)
Interleukin-6 , Humans
8.
JACC Case Rep ; 3(4): 566-572, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163948

ABSTRACT

We present a case of acute myocarditis with left ventricular dysfunction and intracavitary thrombosis in a 55-year-old man with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (coronavirus disease 2019) who was admitted with bilateral atypical pneumonia. The patient was treated with anticoagulation and optimal heart failure therapy and had an improvement of left ventricular function and thrombus resolution. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.).

9.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 62: 455-459, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051438

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID - 19 emerged as a global pandemic in 2020 and affected the teaching methods at all levels. Surgical education has also been significantly affected by this pandemic, but the effect remains unknown. We developed a survey in order to obtain more information on how this pandemic affected the training and education of surgical residency programs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study. We surveyed 195 residents of various surgical programs, from August 20th to September 30th, 2020, in Córdoba, Argentina. The effect of the COVID - 19 pandemic was analyzed on surgical training, on the academic program, and professional burnout. RESULTS: The volume of surgical cases performed during the pandemic decreased dramatically, affecting mainly residents of lower years. Comparing the number of cases (>7) that residents carried out per week (Pre pandemic vs pandemic), we found that PGY - 1: 47% vs 9%; p = 0.01 and PGY - 2: 46% vs 8%; p = 0.03. 83.2% reported that the impact of the pandemic affected their surgical training negatively and 45% were not adequately trained to carry out their surgical activity in the residency program. On the other hand, 71.3% affirmed that this health emergency allowed them to dedicate more time to the development of their academic training. CONCLUSION: This is the first cross - sectional survey study that shows the impact of the pandemic on surgical residences during the first wave in Argentina. Surgical training performed by residents had a negative impact.

10.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 929-933, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046769

ABSTRACT

This is the first study of respiratory infections in Córdoba, Argentina, caused by endemic human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43 and HCOV-229E, which circulated during 2011-2012 at a 3% rate, either as single or multiple infections. They were detected mainly in children, but HCoV-229E was also found in adults. HCoV-229E was detected in five out of 631 samples (0.8%), and HCoV-OC43 was found in 14 out of 631 (2.2%) samples. Clinical manifestations ranged from fever to respiratory distress, and a significant association of HCoV-229E with asthma was observed. Further studies and surveillance are needed to provide better clinical insights, early diagnosis, and medical care of patients, as well as to contribute to epidemiology modeling and prevention.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/epidemiology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Argentina , Child , Child, Preschool , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Young Adult
11.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(4): 363-366, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak originated in Wuhan (China) rapidly turned into a pandemic. Due to a national compulsive decree of quarantine, office visits for chronic disease control were delay. Hypopituitarism includes all clinical conditions that result in partial or complete failure of the pituitary gland's ability to secrete hormones. Pituitary insufficiency per se has been associated with an increase in both morbidity and mortality, particularly due to cardiovascular disease, which is an important risk factor for COVID-19 disease severity. OBJECTIVE: To report the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient with hypopituitarism, discuss the implications of the treatments the patient was taking and grade up the value of telemedicine in the present scenario. METHODS: Report of the clinical record of a patient with hypopituitarism and infection with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: During the span of the infection, the patient remained on the same hormonal therapeutic scheme (thyroid, gonadal and adrenal axis). The dose of hydrocortisone was not changed during the course of the infection as she was asymptomatic. We use telemedicine to control and advise her on the treatment. CONCLUSION: Health care professionals should carefully follow up on the evolution of patients with hypopituitarism to provide them a safer outcome. The use of telemedicine as a methodology for selected patients acquires relevance in the present epidemiological context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypopituitarism/drug therapy , Asymptomatic Infections , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Hypopituitarism/complications
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