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1.
Journal of Infection ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814751

ABSTRACT

Background Variations in the ACE2 activity in saliva could explain the striking differences of susceptibility to infection and risk of severe disease. Methods We analyze the activity of ACE2 in saliva in different population groups across a wide age range and disease status during April to June 2020, and we establish differences between infected people and participants considered resistant (highly exposed healthcare workers and children who cohabited with parents with COVID-19 without isolation and remain IgG negative). Results We included 74 adults, of which 47 (64%) were susceptible and 27 (36%) were resistant, and 79 children, of which 41 (52%) were susceptible and 38 (48%) were resistant. Resistant adults have significantly lower ACE2 activity in saliva than susceptible adults and non-significant higher values than susceptible and resistant children. ACE2 activity is similar in the susceptible and resistant pediatric population (p=0.527). In contrast, we observe an increase in activity as the disease's severity increases among the adult population (mild disease vs. severe disease, 39 vs. 105 FU, p=0.039;severe disease vs. resistant, 105 vs. 31 FU, p<0.001). Conclusions using an enzymatic test, we show that ACE2 activity in saliva correlates with the susceptibility to SARS-Cov-2 infection and disease severity. Children and adults with low-susceptibility to SARS-Cov-2 infection showed the lowest ACE2 activity. These findings could inform future strategies to identify at-risk individuals.

2.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 827-841, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775529

ABSTRACT

The aim of this report is to review the literature and shed light on the uncertainties surrounding the use of antiviral agents in general and remdesivir in COVID-19 patients. This review evaluated a battery of antiviral compounds and their effectiveness in the treatment of COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic. Remdesivir is the only antiviral approved by the EMA and FDA for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This work extensively reviews remdesivir data generated from clinical trials and observational studies, paying attention to the most recent data, and focusing on outcomes to give readers a more comprehensive understanding of the results. This review also discusses the recommendations issued by official bodies during the pandemic in the light of the current knowledge. The use of remdesivir in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection is justified because a virus is the causative agent that triggers the inflammatory responses and its consequences. More trials are needed to improve the management of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
3.
AIDS ; 36(2): 161-168, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672442

ABSTRACT

The relative susceptibility of people with HIV (PWH) to Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is debated. Numerous studies have been published with apparently contradictory findings, but comparisons are difficult because they have been conducted in populations with different characteristics (e.g. age, prevalence comorbidities) and have used different comparison groups (e.g. HIV-negative cohorts, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized patients, general population), and because of challenges to measure the most important confounders. Here, we review the evidence regarding risk and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PWH compared with persons without HIV. Publications originate largely from high-income settings where the majority of the PWH are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite early evidence supporting higher frequency of SARS-CoV-2 testing in PWH on ART, HIV infection is not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, once confounding by socioeconomic characteristic is taken into account. Most publications identify increased COVID-19 severity in PWH compared with people without HIV from the general population or compared with COVID-19 hospitalized patients. The only study with an adequate comparison group to reduce confounding, has not identified differences in COVID-19 disease severity by HIV. Publications consistently identify that COVID-19 severity in PWH is not homogeneous and increases with age and baseline comorbidities. As PWH have a higher prevalence of comorbidities than people without HIV, examining their respective contribution to poor health outcomes is not straight forward as comorbidities could mediate the effect of HIV on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Proteome Res ; 21(3): 623-634, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671479

ABSTRACT

Despite the scientific and human efforts to understand COVID-19, there are questions still unanswered. Variations in the metabolic reaction to SARS-CoV-2 infection could explain the striking differences in the susceptibility to infection and the risk of severe disease. Here, we used untargeted metabolomics to examine novel metabolic pathways related to SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 clinical severity using capillary electrophoresis coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CE-TOF-MS) in plasma samples. We included 27 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 29 healthcare workers heavily exposed to SARS-CoV-2 but with low susceptibility to infection ("nonsusceptible"). We found a total of 42 metabolites of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility or COVID-19 clinical severity. We report the discovery of new plasma biomarkers for COVID-19 that provide mechanistic explanations for the clinical consequences of SARS-CoV-2, including mitochondrial and liver dysfunction as a consequence of hypoxemia (citrulline, citric acid, and 3-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA)), energy production and amino acid catabolism (phenylalanine and histidine), and endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis (citrulline, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and 2-aminobutyric acid (2-AB)), and we found interconnections between these pathways. In summary, in this first report several metabolic pathways implicated in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 clinical progression were found by CE-MS based metabolomics that could be developed as biomarkers of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Humans , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods
5.
Cir Cir ; 89(6): 755-762, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to analyze the usefulness of pre-operative COVID-19 screening to detect asymptomatic patients, the capability of our patient selection algorithm to detect patients with more advanced tumors and the results of colorectal cancer surgery managed with a multimodal approach. We propose the use of a preoperative patient selection algorithm to prioritize the surgical treatment of patients with worse oncological prognosis and lower perioperative risk in situations of health system saturation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective descriptive study including 71 patients operated on for colorectal cancer during COVID-19's high incidence period. A division was made into two periods of time that were later compared with the aim of assessing whether the scale used identified those patients with lower surgical risk and higher oncological priority for their priority scheduling. RESULTS: Post-operative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection occurred in one patient (1.4%). Pre-operative polymerase chain reaction detected one asymptomatic patient (3%). Tumor stage was ≥ IIIA in 39% and node positive in 39% of patients in the first period, while 26% and 21% in the second period, respectively (p = 0.320; p = 0.179), without increasing the surgical stay or complications. Median hospital stay was 5 days. Grades III and IV morbidity were 4.4% and 1.4%. CONCLUSION: The use of an algorithm and Patient Selection Scale can detect patients with more advanced tumors to be operated before. Multimodal management/ERAS have a role in achieving short stay and low morbidity.


OBJETIVO: El retraso terapéutico derivado de la saturación del Sistema sanitario conlleva un peor pronóstico oncológico y un aumento de complicaciones en el cáncer colorrectal. Proponemos el usode un algoritmo de selección de pacientes de forma preoperatoria para priorizar el tratamiento quirúrgico de los pacientes con peor pronóstico oncológico y menor riesgo perioperatorio. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Realizamos un estudio descriptivo prospectivo de 71 pacientes intervenidos por cáncer colorrectal durante el periodo de máxima incidencia por COVID. Se realizó una división en dos periodos de tiempo que fueron comparados posteriormente con el objetivo de valorar si la escala utilizada conseguía identificar aquellos pacientes con menor riesgo quirúrgico y mayor prioridad oncológica para su programación prioritaria. RESULTADOS: Utilizando la escala de priorización de pacientes (PSS) observamos que el estadio tumoral fue mayor de IIIA en un 39% de los pacientes con un 39% de ganglios positivos en un primer periodo, frente a un 26% y 21% en un segundo periodo (p = 0.320; p = 0.179) de tiempo, sin aumentar la estancia operatoria ni las complicaciones. Se realizaron dos métodos de cribado de COVID-19 en dos periodos de tiempo, detectando un 3% de pacientes asintomáticos de forma preoperatoria con PCR, y documentando un 1.4% de infección por COVID postoperatoria. CONCLUSIONES: Ante la saturación del sistema sanitario, la utilización de protocolos y algoritmos para selección de pacientes con cáncer colorrectal puede ayudar a dar preferencia quirúrgica a aquellos casos que no deben ser demorados.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Patient Selection , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(1): 36-45, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) infections have been occasionally described in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We assess the clinical features and outcome of these infections. METHODS: In this retrospective single-centre, case-control study, we included 54 patients with CPE infection: 30 case-patients (COVID-19) and 24 controls (non-COVID-19), collected between March and May 2020. We compared the epidemiological, clinical features, and outcome between cases and controls. RESULTS: CPE infection was more frequent in COVID-19 patients than in controls (1.1 vs. 0.5%, p = .005). COVID-19 patients were younger, had a lower frequency of underlying diseases (p = .01), and a lower median Charlson score (p = .002). Predisposing factors such as antimicrobial use, mechanical ventilation, or ICU admission, were more frequent in COVID-19 patients (p < .05). There were 73 episodes of infection (42 cases and 31 controls) that were more frequently hospital-acquired and diagnosed at the ICU in COVID-19 patients (p < .001). Urinary tract was the most common source of infection (47.9%), followed by pneumonia (23.3%). The frequency of severe sepsis or shock (p = .01) as well as the median SOFA score (p = .04) was higher in cases than in controls. Klebsiella pneumoniae (80.8%), Serratia marcescens (11%) and Enterobacter cloacae (4.1%) were the most common bacteria in both groups (KPC 56.2%, OXA-48 26% and VIM 17.8%). Overall 30-d mortality rate of COVID-19 patients and controls was 30 and 16.7%, respectively (p = .25). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients have an increased risk of CPE infections, which usually present as severe, nosocomial infections, appearing in critically-ill patients and associated with a high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Bacterial Proteins , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Coinfection , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Retrospective Studies , Serratia marcescens , beta-Lactamases
8.
HIV Med ; 22(9): 867-876, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We compared the characteristics and clinical outcomes of hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 with [people with HIV (PWH)] and without (non-PWH) HIV co-infection in Spain during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective matched cohort study. People with HIV were identified by reviewing clinical records and laboratory registries of 10 922 patients in active-follow-up within the Spanish HIV Research Network (CoRIS) up to 30 June 2020. Each hospitalized PWH was matched with five non-PWH of the same age and sex randomly selected from COVID-19@Spain, a multicentre cohort of 4035 patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19. The main outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Forty-five PWH with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 were identified in CoRIS, 21 of whom were hospitalized. A total of 105 age/sex-matched controls were selected from the COVID-19@Spain cohort. The median age in both groups was 53 (Q1-Q3, 46-56) years, and 90.5% were men. In PWH, 19.1% were injecting drug users, 95.2% were on antiretroviral therapy, 94.4% had HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL, and the median (Q1-Q3) CD4 count was 595 (349-798) cells/µL. No statistically significant differences were found between PWH and non-PWH in number of comorbidities, presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory parameters, radiology findings and severity scores on admission. Corticosteroids were administered to 33.3% and 27.4% of PWH and non-PWH, respectively (P = 0.580). Deaths during admission were documented in two (9.5%) PWH and 12 (11.4%) non-PWH (P = 0.800). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that well-controlled HIV infection does not modify the clinical presentation or worsen clinical outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(11): 1678-1684, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and factors associated with seropositivity and asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among people with HIV (PWH). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out within the cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network. Participants were consecutive PWH with plasma collected from 1st April to 30th September 2020. We determined SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Abs) in plasma. Illness severity (NIH criteria) was assessed by a review of medical records and, if needed, participant interviews. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of seropositivity among the following variables: sex, age, country of birth, education level, comorbidities (hypertension, chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, non-AIDS-related cancer, chronic kidney disease, cirrhosis), route of HIV acquisition, prior AIDS, CD4+ cell count, HIV viral load, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (N [t]RTI) backbone, type of third antiretroviral drug, and month of sample collection. RESULTS: Of 1076 PWH (88.0% males, median age 43 years, 97.7% on antiretroviral therapy, median CD4+ 688 cells/mm3, 91.4% undetectable HIV viral load), SARS-CoV-2 Abs were detected in 91 PWH, a seroprevalence of 8.5% (95%CI 6.9-10.3%). Forty-five infections (45.0%) were asymptomatic. Variables independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity were birth in Latin American countries versus Spain (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.30, 95%CI 1.41-3.76, p 0.001), and therapy with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) versus tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC as the N(t)RTI backbone (aOR 0.49, 95%CI 0.26-0.94, p 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Many SARS-CoV-2 infections among PWH were asymptomatic, and birth in Latin American countries increased the risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Our analysis, adjusted by comorbidities and other variables, suggests that TDF/FTC may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection among PWH.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emtricitabine/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Tenofovir/therapeutic use
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 493-496, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127287

ABSTRACT

We aim to evaluate the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We included 28 uninfected but highly exposed healthcare workers and 39 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Thirty-five SNPs were rationally selected. Two variants were associated with increased risk of being susceptible to SARS-CoV-2: the minor A allele in the rs2106806 variant (OR 3.75 [95% CI 1.23-11.43]) and the minor T allele in the rs6629110 variant (OR 3.39 [95% CI 1.09-10.56]). Evaluating the role of genetic variants in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection could help identify more vulnerable individuals and suggest potential drug targets for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Health Personnel , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Farm Hosp ; 44(4): 125-126, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116642
12.
World J Hepatol ; 12(10): 870-879, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically transformed the care of the liver transplant patient. In patients who are immunosuppressed and with multiple comorbidities, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been associated with increased severity and mortality. The main objective of this report is to communicate our experience in the therapeutic management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 3 liver transplant patients. Secondly, we stress the management and investigation of the contagious spreading into a liver transplant ward. CASE SUMMARY: The patients were two women (aged 61 years and 62 years) and one man (aged 68 years), all of them having recently received a liver transplant. All three patients required intensive care unit admission and invasive mechanical ventilation. Two of them progressed severely until death. The other one, who received tocilizumab, had a good recovery. In the outbreak, the wife of one of the patients and four healthcare professionals involved in their care were also infected. CONCLUSION: We illustrate in detail the evolution of a nosocomial COVID-19 outbreak in a liver transplant ward. We believe that these findings will contribute to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease and will improve the treatment of the liver transplant patient with COVID-19.

13.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(2): 238-243, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tocilizumab has been proposed as a candidate therapy for patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially among those with higher systemic inflammation. We investigated the association between receipt of tocilizumab and mortality in a large cohort of hospitalized patients. METHODS: In this cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain, the primary outcome was time to death and the secondary outcome time to intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death. We used inverse probability weighting to fit marginal structural models adjusted for time-varying covariates to determine the causal relationship between receipt of tocilizumab and outcome. RESULTS: Data from 1229 patients were analysed, with 261 patients (61 deaths) in the tocilizumab group and 969 patients (120 deaths) in the control group. In the adjusted marginal structural models, a significant interaction between receipt of tocilizumab and high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels was detected. Tocilizumab was associated with decreased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.72, p 0.005) and ICU admission or death (adjusted hazard ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.80, p 0.011) among patients with baseline CRP >150 mg/L but not among those with CRP ≤150 mg/L. Exploratory subgroup analyses yielded point estimates that were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In this large observational study, tocilizumab was associated with a lower risk of death or ICU admission or death in patients with higher CRP levels. While the results of ongoing clinical trials of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19 will be important to establish its safety and efficacy, our findings have implications for the design of future clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100539, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lack of evidence-based recommendations for therapeutic decisions during the early weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic creates a unique scenario of clinical decision making which is worth to analyze. We aim to identify the drivers of therapeutic aggressiveness during the first weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional worldwide survey (conducted April 12 to 19, 2020) was aimed at physicians who managed patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Treatment preferences were collected in five different clinical scenarios. We used multilevel mixed-effects ordered logistic regression to identify variables that were associated with the use of more aggressive therapies. FINDINGS: The survey was completed by 852 physicians from 44 different specialties and 29 countries. The heterogeneity of therapeutic decisions increased as the clinical scenario worsened. Factors associated with aggressive therapeutic decisions were higher self-perceived expertise (high vs. null, OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.31-2.89), perceived quality of COVID-19 publications (high vs. null, OR 1.92, 95%CI 1.17-3.16), and female sex (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.02-1.33). Conversely, Infectious Diseases specialty, Latin American and North American origin, lower confidence in the treatments chosen, and having published articles indexed in PubMed as the first-author were associated with the use of less aggressive therapies. INTERPRETATION: Our study provides insight into the drivers of the decision-making process during a new and extreme health emergency. Different factors including the perceived expertise and quality of publications, gender, geographic origin, medical specialty and implication in medical research influenced this process. The clinical severity attenuated the physician's tolerance for uncertainty. FUNDING: No funding was required.

16.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(7): 536-541, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among HIV-positive persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been characterized in large populations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and severity of COVID-19 by nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) use among HIV-positive persons receiving ART. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: HIV clinics in 60 Spanish hospitals between 1 February and 15 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART. MEASUREMENTS: Estimated risks (cumulative incidences) per 10 000 persons and 95% CIs for polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. Risk and 95% CIs for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital admission by use of the NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC, abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC), and others were estimated through Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Of 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART, 236 were diagnosed with COVID-19, 151 were hospitalized, 15 were admitted to the ICU, and 20 died. The risks for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were greater in men and persons older than 70 years. The risk for COVID-19 hospitalization was 20.3 (95% CI, 15.2 to 26.7) among patients receiving TAF/FTC, 10.5 (CI, 5.6 to 17.9) among those receiving TDF/FTC, 23.4 (CI, 17.2 to 31.1) among those receiving ABC/3TC, and 20.0 (CI, 14.2 to 27.3) for those receiving other regimens. The corresponding risks for COVID-19 diagnosis were 39.1 (CI, 31.8 to 47.6), 16.9 (CI, 10.5 to 25.9), 28.3 (CI, 21.5 to 36.7), and 29.7 (CI, 22.6 to 38.4), respectively. No patient receiving TDF/FTC was admitted to the ICU or died. LIMITATION: Residual confounding by comorbid conditions cannot be completely excluded. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive patients receiving TDF/FTC have a lower risk for COVID-19 and related hospitalization than those receiving other therapies. These findings warrant further investigation in HIV preexposure prophylaxis studies and randomized trials in persons without HIV. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Instituto de Salud Carlos III and National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dideoxynucleosides , Drug Combinations , Emtricitabine , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lamivudine , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Tenofovir
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