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1.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957459

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SADs) patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain, before the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. A nationwide, retrospective and observational analysis of the patients admitted during 2020, based on the ICD10 codes in the National Registry of Hospital Discharges, was performed. Among 117,694 patients, only 892 (0.8%) presented any type of SAD before COVID-19-related admission: Sjogren's Syndrome constituted 25%, Systemic Vasculitides 21%, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 19%, Sarcoidosis 17%, Systemic Sclerosis 11%, Mixed and Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease 4%, Behçet's Disease 4% and Inflammatory Myopathies 2%. The in-hospital mortality rate was higher in SAD individuals (20% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). After adjustment by baseline conditions, SADs were not associated with a higher mortality risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.78-1.11). Mortality in the SADs patients was determined by age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.04-1.07), heart failure (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.10-2.49), chronic kidney disease (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59) and liver disease (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.13-3.44). In conclusion, the higher COVID-19 mortality rate seen in SADs patients hospitalized in Spain in 2020 was related to the higher burden of comorbidities, secondary to direct organ damage and sequelae of their condition. Whilst further studies should evaluate the impact of baseline immunosuppression on COVID-19 outcomes in this population, efforts should be focused on the optimal management of SAD to minimize the impact of the organ damage that has been shown to determine COVID-19 prognosis.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
2.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) could reflect interleukin-6 (IL-6) systemic activity since anisocytosis represents the inhibition of erythropoiesis, leaded by the hyperinflammatory background. Our objective was to analyze RDW performance to predict outcome in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Retrospective observational study including 173 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS. Data was analyzed at hospital admission, inclusion in the TOCICOV Study (day 0), days 1, 3, 7 and 15 postinclusion. RESULTS: Overall, 57% patients received tocilizumab. Overall mortality was 20.8%. RDW was higher in non-survivors compared to survivors at admission (13.53% vs. 14.35, P=0.0016), day 0 (13.60% vs. 14.42, P=0.026), day 3 (13.43% vs. 14.36, P<0.001) and day 7 (13.41% vs. 14.31, P=0.046), presenting better discrimination ability for mortality than other prognostic markers [area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic (AUC-ROC) =0.668 for admission RDW, 0.680 for day 0 RDW, 0.695 for day 3 RDW and 0.666 for day 7 RDW]. RDW values did not vary significantly according to tocilizumab treatment. When adjusted by hemoglobin and tocilizumab treatment, only RDW at admission, day 0, day 3 and C reactive protein (CRP) at day 0 and day 1 were associated with mortality (P<0.05). Only in non-tocilizumab treated patients, IL-6 levels at day 0 were correlated with day 3 RDW (r=0.733, P=0.004) and with day 3 CRP (r=0.727, P=0.022). Both parameters showed significant statistical correlation (r=0.255 for day 1 RDW and CRP in the overall cohort and r=0.358 for day 3 RDW and CRP in patients not treated with tocilizumab, P<0.015). CONCLUSIONS: RDW predicts COVID-19-associated ARDS mortality and reflects the hyperinflammatory background and the effects of cytokines such as IL-6, irrespective of tocilizumab treatment.

3.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(5)2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809978

ABSTRACT

Severely ill COVID-19 patients are at high risk of nosocomial infections. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of candidemia during the pre-pandemic period (January 2019-February 2020) compared to the pandemic period (March 2020-September 2021). Antifungal susceptibilities were assessed using the EUCAST E.Def 7.3.2 broth dilution method. Fluconazole-resistant C. parapsilosis isolates (FRCP) were studied for sequencing of the ERG11 gene. The incidence of candidemia and C. parapsilosis bloodstream infection increased significantly in the pandemic period (p = 0.021). ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition and corticosteroids administration were more frequent in patients with candidemia who had been admitted due to COVID-19. Fifteen cases of FRCP fungemia were detected. The first case was recorded 10 months before the pandemic in a patient transferred from another hospital. The incidence of FRCP in patients admitted for COVID-19 was 1.34 and 0.16 in all other patients (p < 0.001). ICU admission, previous Candida spp. colonization, arterial catheter use, parenteral nutrition and renal function replacement therapy were more frequent in patients with candidemia due to FRCP. All FRCP isolates showed the Y132F mutation. In conclusion, the incidence of candidemia experienced an increase during the COVID-19 pandemic and FRCP fungemia was more frequent in patients admitted due to COVID-19.

5.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(4): 1115-1127, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787874

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled inflammation following COVID-19 infection is an important characteristic of the most seriously ill patients. The present study aims to describe the clusters of inflammation in COVID-19 and to analyze their prognostic role. This is a retrospective observational study including 15,691 patients with a high degree of inflammation. They were included in the Spanish SEMI-COVID-19 registry from March 1, 2020 to May 1, 2021. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified 7 clusters. C1 is characterized by lymphopenia, C2 by elevated ferritin, and C3 by elevated LDH. C4 is characterized by lymphopenia plus elevated CRP and LDH and frequently also ferritin. C5 is defined by elevated CRP, and C6 by elevated ferritin and D-dimer, and frequently also elevated CRP and LDH. Finally, C7 is characterized by an elevated D-dimer. The clusters with the highest in-hospital mortality were C4, C6, and C7 (17.4% vs. 18% vs. 15.6% vs. 36.8% vs. 17.5% vs. 39.3% vs. 26.4%). Inflammation clusters were found as independent factors for in-hospital mortality. In detail and, having cluster C1 as reference, the model revealed a worse prognosis for all other clusters: C2 (OR = 1.30, p = 0.001), C3 (OR = 1.14, p = 0.178), C4 (OR = 2.28, p < 0.001), C5 (OR = 1.07, p = 0.479), C6 (OR = 2.29, p < 0.001), and C7 (OR = 1.28, p = 0.001). We identified 7 groups based on the presence of lymphopenia, elevated CRP, LDH, ferritin, and D-dimer at the time of hospital admission for COVID-19. Clusters C4 (lymphopenia + LDH + CRP), C6 (ferritin + D-dimer), and C7 (D-dimer) had the worst prognosis in terms of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Ferritins , Humans , Inflammation , Prognosis , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Mycoses ; 65(5): 541-550, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a major complication of critically ill COVID-19 patients, with a high mortality rate and potentially preventable. Thus, identifying patients at high risk of CAPA would be of great interest. We intended to develop a clinical prediction score capable of stratifying patients according to the risk for CAPA at ICU admission. METHODS: Single centre retrospective case-control study. A case was defined as a patient diagnosed with CAPA according to 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria. 2 controls were selected for each case among critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: 28 CAPA patients and 56-matched controls were included. Factors associated with CAPA included old age (68 years vs. 62, p = .033), active smoking (17.9% vs. 1.8%, p = .014), chronic respiratory diseases (48.1% vs. 26.3%, p = .043), chronic renal failure (25.0% vs. 3.6%, p = .005), chronic corticosteroid treatment (28.6% vs. 1.8%, p < .001), tocilizumab therapy (92.9% vs. 66.1%, p = .008) and high APACHE II at ICU admission (median 13 vs. 10 points, p = .026). A score was created including these variables, which showed an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.854 (95% CI 0.77-0.92). A punctuation below 6 had a negative predictive value of 99.6%. A punctuation of 10 or higher had a positive predictive value of 27.9%. CONCLUSION: We present a clinical prediction score that allowed to stratify critically ill COVID-19 patients according to the risk for developing CAPA. This CAPA score would allow to target preventive measures. Further evaluation of the score, as well as the utility of these targeted preventive measures, is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(2)2022 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708251

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a well-known factor associated with invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised hosts. However, its association with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has not been described. We aimed to examine the possible link between CMV replication and CAPA occurrence. Methods: A single-center, retrospective case-control study was conducted. A case was defined as a patient diagnosed with CAPA according to 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria. Two controls were selected for each case among critically ill COVID-19 patients. Results: In total, 24 CAPA cases were included, comprising 14 possible CAPA and 10 probable CAPA. Additionally, 48 matched controls were selected. CMV replication was detected more frequently in CAPA than in controls (75.0% vs. 35.4%, p = 0.002). Probable CMV end-organ disease was more prevalent in CAPA (20.8% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.037). After adjusting for possible confounding factors, CMV replication persisted strongly associated with CAPA (OR 8.28 95% CI 1.90-36.13, p = 0.005). Among 11 CAPA cases with CMV PCR available prior to CAPA, in 9 (81.8%) cases, CMV replication was observed prior to CAPA diagnosis. Conclusions: Among critically ill COVID-19 patients, CMV replication was associated with CAPA and could potentially be considered a harbinger of CAPA. Further studies are needed to confirm this association.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 339-343, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze the mortality and characteristics of deceased patients with COVID-19 during the first year of the pandemic. METHODS: All admissions owing to COVID-19 at a tertiary hospital in Madrid were analyzed. Three waves were considered: March 2020 to June 2020, July 2020 to November 2020, and December 2020 to April 2021. RESULTS: A total of 3,676 patients were identified. Among inpatients, no differences regarding age, sex, length of admission, or mortality were found between the 3 waves (p >0.05). The overall mortality rate was 12.9%. Among deceased patients, the median age was 82 years and the median Charlson Comorbidity Index was 6. Considering the main predictors for mortality by COVID-19 (age, sex, and concomitant comorbidities), only patients with previous lung disease were more prevalent in the third period (p <0.01). Finally, higher intensive care unit admission rates, a lower rate of patients coming from nursing homes, and a lower rate of patients with dementia were noted in the third period (p <0.05) among deceased patients. CONCLUSION: One year after the onset of the pandemic, the mortality rate of hospitalized patients and the profile of non-survivors have not changed significantly. In the absence of vaccine benefits, advanced age and multiple pathologies are uniform characteristics of non-survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 143: 106955, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641722

ABSTRACT

Interactions between anti-hypertensive agents (ACEI), comorbidities, inflammation, and stress status may impact hospital stay duration in COVID-19 patients. This retrospective study analyzed epidemiological data, comorbidities, metabolic/inflammatory markers, and clinical information from 165 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. In a multiple linear regression model, an IL-6 higher than 100 mg/L, glucose at admission (baseline levels at the hospital entry), and the interaction between ACEI administration and LDH predicted the days of hospital admission (P < 0.001). In conclusion, hypertensive patients suffering more severe inflammatory condition assessed by LDH levels clinically benefited more and reduced the hospital stay when prescribed ACEI agents than those with lower systemic baseline inflammation at admission.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , COVID-19 , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 51-58, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze whether subgroups of immunosuppressive (IS) medications conferred different outcomes in COVID-19. METHODS: The study involved a multicenter retrospective cohort of consecutive immunosuppressed patients (ISPs) hospitalized with COVID-19 from March to July, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. A propensity score-matched (PSM) model comparing ISP and non-ISP was planned, as well as specific PSM models comparing individual IS medications associated with mortality. RESULTS: Out of 16 647 patients, 868 (5.2%) were on chronic IS therapy prior to admission and were considered ISPs. In the PSM model, ISPs had greater in-hospital mortality (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.99-1.62), which was related to a worse outcome associated with chronic corticoids (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.43-2.49). Other IS drugs had no repercussions with regard to mortality risk (including calcineurin inhibitors (CNI); OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.65-2.20). In the pre-planned specific PSM model involving patients on chronic IS treatment before admission, corticosteroids were associated with an increased risk of mortality (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.43-3.82). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic IS therapies comprise a heterogeneous group of drugs with different risk profiles for severe COVID-19 and death. Chronic systemic corticosteroid therapy is associated with increased mortality. On the contrary, CNI and other IS treatments prior to admission do not seem to convey different outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Calcineurin Inhibitors , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcineurin Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Transplant ; 26: e933152, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND It is unclear whether solid organ transplant (SOT) patients have more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and worse outcome than the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a case-control study on 32 SOT recipients and 84 non-SOT controls matched for age and sex admitted for confirmed COVID-19. The primary endpoint was in-hospital all-cause mortality rate. Secondary endpoints included severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), use of high-flow oxygen therapy, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS The median (IQR) Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) at admission was significantly higher in SOT recipients (6 (3-8) vs 3 (2-4); P<0.01). Fever was less frequent in SOT recipients (78% vs 94%, P=0.01). SOT recipients had a higher median SaO2/FiO2 at admission (452 [443-462] vs 443 [419-452], P<0.01) and reached the worst SaO2/FiO2 value later during hospitalization 15 (10-21) vs 11 (9-14) days, P=0.01). Both groups had a similar severe ARDS rate during hospitalization (33% vs 28%) (p=0.59). There were no significant differences during hospitalization in terms of highest level of respiratory support needed, or length of hospital stay: 8.5 (5.5-21) vs 11.5 (6.5-16.5) days; P=0.34) in SOT recipients when compared to controls. In-hospital all-cause mortality rates were significantly higher in SOT recipients (21.9% vs 4.7%, P<0.01; OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.10-10.98), but among patients who died, median CCI was similar between groups (8 [6-8] vs 7 [6-8]). CONCLUSIONS In our experience, hospitalized SOT recipients for COVID-19 had higher in-hospital mortality compared to non-SOT patients, probably due to the greater number of underlying comorbidities, and not directly related to chronic immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
12.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(2): 431-438, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361326

ABSTRACT

Bacterial infections may complicate the course of COVID-19 patients. The rate and predictors of bacterial infections were examined in patients consecutively admitted with COVID-19 at one tertiary hospital in Madrid between March 1st and April 30th, 2020. Among 1594 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 135 (8.5%) experienced bacterial infectious events, distributed as follows: urinary tract infections (32.6%), bacteremia (31.9%), pneumonia (31.8%), intra-abdominal infections (6.7%) and skin and soft tissue infections (6.7%). Independent predictors of bacterial infections were older age, neurological disease, prior immunosuppression and ICU admission (p < 0.05). Patients with bacterial infections who more frequently received steroids and tocilizumab, progressed to lower Sap02/FiO2 ratios, and experienced more severe ARDS (p < 0.001). The mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with bacterial infections as compared to the rest (25% vs 6.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, older age, prior neurological or kidney disease, immunosuppression and ARDS severity were associated with an increased mortality (p < 0.05) while bacterial infections were not. Conversely, the use of steroids or steroids plus tocilizumab did not confer a higher risk of bacterial infections and improved survival rates. Bacterial infections occurred in 8.5% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic. They were not independently associated with increased mortality rates. Baseline COVID-19 severity rather than the incidence of bacterial infections seems to contribute to mortality. When indicated, the use of steroids or steroids plus tocilizumab might improve survival in this population.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a high mortality in certain group of patients. We analysed the impact of baseline immunosuppression in COVID-19 mortality and the role of severe lymphopenia in immunocompromised subjects. METHODS: We analysed all patients admitted with COVID-19 in a tertiary hospital in Madrid between March 1st and April 30th 2020. Epidemiological and clinical data, including severe lymphopenia (<500 lymphocytes/mm3) during admission, were analysed and compared based on their baseline immunosuppression condition. RESULTS: A total of 1594 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were hospitalised during the study period. 166 (10.4%) were immunosuppressed. Immunocompromised patients were younger (64 vs. 67 years, p = 0.02) but presented higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, heart, neurological, lung, kidney and liver disease (p < 0.05). They showed more severe lymphopenia (53% vs 24.1%, p < 0.001), lower SapO2/FiO2 ratios (251 vs 276, p = 0.02) during admission and higher mortality rates (27.1% vs 13.5%, p < 0.001). After adjustment, immunosuppression remained as an independent factor related to mortality (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.24, p < 0.001). In the immunosuppressed group, age (OR = 1.06, p = 0.01), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR = 12.27, p = 0.017) and severe lymphopenia (OR = 3.48, p = 0.04) were the factors related to high mortality rate. CONCLUSION: Immunosuppression is an independent mortality risk factor in COVID-19. Severe lymphopenia should be promptly identified in these patients.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25634, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195758

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Spain is one of the European countries most largely affected by COVID-19, being Madrid the epicenter. A good knowledge of the main features of hospitalized patients during the complete lockdown should improve the management of new COVID-19 surges.All patients hospitalized at one large tertiary hospital in Madrid for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia from March 1 to May 31 were retrospectively identified.A total of 1752 patients were admitted with suspected pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection during the 3-month study period. The peak of daily admissions (n = 84) was reached on March 24, whereas the maximal cumulative number of hospitalized patients (n = 626) occurred on March 30. Overall, 85.3% had a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 at least once during admission. Their median age was 65 (54-77) and 59.9% were male. The median length of hospitalization was of 7 (4-13) days. Roughly 6.5% were admitted at the intensive care unit.Death occurred in 242 (13.8%). Overall, 75% of deaths occurred in patients older than 75 years-old. It was 38.2% in patients hospitalized older than 80 years-old versus 2.2% in patients younger than 60 years-old (p < 0.001). Up to 94 (38.8%) of deceased patients had been transferred from nursing homes. The median Charlson co-morbidity score was 6 in deceased patients.The in-hospital mortality rate during the first wave of COVID-19 in Madrid was 14%. It was largely driven by older age, the presence of underlying chronic conditions (≥2) and living at nursing homes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pandemics , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
15.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(1): 347-362, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the impact of tocilizumab use on severe COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) pneumonia mortality. METHODS: We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study in 18 tertiary hospitals in Spain from March to April 2020. Consecutive patients admitted with severe COVID-19 treated with tocilizumab were compared to patients not treated with tocilizumab, adjusting by inverse probability of the treatment weights (IPTW). Tocilizumab's effect in patients receiving steroids during the 48 h following inclusion was analysed. RESULTS: During the study period, 506 patients with severe COVID-19 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among them, 268 were treated with tocilizumab and 238 patients were not. Median time to tocilizumab treatment from onset of symptoms was 11 days [interquartile range (IQR) 8-14]. Global mortality was 23.7%. Mortality was lower in patients treated with tocilizumab than in controls: 16.8% versus 31.5%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.514 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.355-0.744], p < 0.001; weighted HR 0.741 (95% CI 0.619-0.887), p = 0.001. Tocilizumab treatment reduced mortality by 14.7% relative to no tocilizumab treatment [relative risk reduction (RRR) 46.7%]. We calculated a number necessary to treat of 7. Among patients treated with steroids, mortality was lower in those treated with tocilizumab than in those treated with steroids alone [10.9% versus 40.2%, HR 0.511 (95% CI 0.352-0.741), p = 0.036; weighted HR 0.6 (95% CI 0.449-0.804), p < 0.001] (interaction p = 0.094). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that survival of patients with severe COVID-19 is higher in those treated with tocilizumab than in those not treated and that tocilizumab's effect adds to that of steroids administered to non-intubated patients with COVID-19 during the first 48 h of presenting with respiratory failure despite oxygen therapy. Randomised controlled studies are needed to confirm these results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: European Union electronic Register of Post-Authorization Studies (EU PAS Register) identifier, EUPAS34415.

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