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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330264

ABSTRACT

Background: It is unclear whether a third dose of mRNA platform vaccines, or antibody response to prior infection or vaccination confer protection from the Omicron variant among patients receiving dialysis. Methods Monthly since February 2021, we tested plasma from 4,697 patients receiving dialysis for antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. We assessed semiquantitative median IgG index values over time among patients vaccinated with at least one dose of the two mRNA vaccines. We ascertained documented COVID-19 diagnoses after December 25, 2021 and up to January 31, 2022. We estimated the relative risk for documented SARS-CoV-2 infection by vaccination status using a log-binomial model accounting for age, sex, and prior clinical COVID-19. Among patients with RBD IgG index value available during December 1-December 24, 2021, we also evaluated the association between the circulating RBD IgG titer and risk for Omicron variant SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results Of the 4,697 patients we followed with monthly RBD assays, 3576 are included in the main analysis cohort;among these, 852 (24%) were unvaccinated. Antibody response to third doses was robust (median peak index IgG value at assay limit of 150, equivalent to 3270 binding antibody units/mL). Between December 25-January 1, 2022, SARS-CoV-2 infection was documented 340 patients (7%), 115 (36%) of whom were hospitalized. The final doses of vaccines were given a median of 272 (25th, 75th percentile, 245-303) days and 58 (25th, 75th percentile, 51-95) days prior to infection for the 1-2 dose and 3 dose vaccine groups respectively. Relative risks for infection were higher among patients without vaccination (RR 2.1 [95%CI 1.6, 2.8]), and patients with 1-2 doses (RR 1.3 [95%CI 1.0, 1.8]), compared with patients with three doses of the mRNA vaccines. Relative risks for infection were higher among patients with RBD index values < 23 (506 BAU/mL), compared with RBD index value ≥ 23 (RR 2.4 [95%CI 1.9, 3.0]). The higher risk for infection among patients with RBD index values < 23 was present among patients who received three doses (RR 2.1 [95%CI 1.3, 3.4]). Conclusions Among patients receiving hemodialysis, patients unvaccinated, without a third mRNA vaccine dose, or those lacking robust circulating antibody response are at higher risk for Omicron variant infection. Low circulating antibodies could identify the subgroup needing intensified surveillance, prophylaxis or treatment in this patient population.

2.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(3): 371-378, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections after vaccination are related to the level of postvaccine circulating antibody is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine longitudinal antibody-based response and risk for breakthrough infection after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS: 4791 patients receiving dialysis. MEASUREMENTS: Remainder plasma from a laboratory processing routine monthly tests was used to measure qualitative and semiquantitative antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate whether peak or prebreakthrough RBD values were associated with breakthrough infection, a nested case-control analysis matched each breakthrough case patient to 5 control patients by age, sex, and vaccination month and adjusted for diabetes status and region of residence. RESULTS: Of the 4791 patients followed with monthly RBD assays, 2563 were vaccinated as of 14 September 2021. Among the vaccinated patients, the estimated proportion with an undetectable RBD response increased from 6.6% (95% CI, 5.5% to 7.8%) 14 to 30 days after vaccination to 20.2% (CI, 17.0% to 23.3%) 5 to 6 months after vaccination. Estimated median index values decreased from 91.9 (CI, 78.6 to 105.2) 14 to 30 days after vaccination to 8.4 (CI, 7.6 to 9.3) 5 to 6 months after vaccination. Breakthrough infections occurred in 56 patients, with samples collected a median of 21 days before breakthrough infection. Compared with prebreakthrough index RBD values of 23 or higher (equivalent to ≥506 binding antibody units per milliliter), prebreakthrough RBD values less than 10 and values from 10 to less than 23 were associated with higher odds for breakthrough infection (rate ratios, 11.6 [CI, 3.4 to 39.5] and 6.0 [CI, 1.5 to 23.6], respectively). LIMITATIONS: Single measure of vaccine response; ascertainment of COVID-19 diagnosis from electronic health records. CONCLUSION: The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination wanes rapidly in persons receiving dialysis. In this population, the circulating antibody response is associated with risk for breakthrough infection. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ascend Clinical Laboratory.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Patients receiving dialysis are a sentinel population for groups at high risk for death and disability from COVID-19. Understanding correlates of protection post-vaccination can inform immunization and mitigation strategies. Methods Monthly since January 2021, we tested plasma from 4791 patients receiving dialysis for antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 using a high-throughput assay. We qualitatively assessed the proportion without a detectable RBD response and among those with a response, semiquantitative median IgG index values. Using a nested case-control design, we matched each breakthrough case to five controls by age, sex, and vaccination-month to determine whether peak and pre-breakthrough RBD IgG index values were associated with risk for infection post-vaccination. Results Among 2563 vaccinated patients, the proportion without a detectable RBD response increased from 6.6% [95% CI 5.5-8.1] in 14-30 days post-vaccination to 20.2% [95% CI 17.1-23.8], and median index values declined from 92.7 (95% CI 77.8-107.5) to 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.3) after 5 months. Persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection prior-to-vaccination had higher peak index values than persons without prior infection, but values equalized by 5 months (p=0.230). Breakthrough infections occurred in 56 patients, with samples collected a median of 21 days pre-breakthrough. Peak and pre-breakthrough RBD values <23 (equivalent to <506 WHO BAU/mL) were associated with higher odds for breakthrough infection (OR: 3.7 [95% CI 2.0-6.8] and 9.8 [95% CI 2.9-32.8], respectively). Conclusions The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination wanes rapidly, and in persons receiving dialysis, the persisting antibody response is associated with risk for breakthrough infection.

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