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1.
Vaccine ; 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132585

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are essential public health tools for protecting older adults, who are at high risk of severe outcomes associated with COVID-19. Little is known, however, about how older adults approach the decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. We hypothesized that intersections between gender and race may provide unique insight into the decision-making process and the factors that lead to vaccine uptake among hesitant individuals. We performed in-depth interviews with 24 older adults who had been vaccinated against COVID-19 and used the framework approach with an intersectional lens to analyze data. Two typologies emerged: eager compliers did not question the need to vaccinate, whereas hesitant compliers were skeptical of the vaccine and underwent a thorough decision-making process prior to vaccination. For eager compliers, the vaccine offered protection from a disease that posed a serious threat, and few risks were perceived. In contrast, hesitant compliers perceived risks associated with the vaccine product or mistrusted the infrastructure that led to rapid vaccine development. Hesitancy was greater among Black participants, and only Black participants reported mistrust in vaccine infrastructure. At the intersection of gender and race, a 'White male effect' was observed, whereby White men perceived the fewest risks associated with the vaccine, and Black women were the most fearful of serious side effects. Nearly all hesitant compliers ultimately got vaccinated due to the threat of COVID-19. Convenient access through vaccine clinics in senior's buildings was pivotal for hesitant compliers and external and internal influences had differential impacts by race and gender. Emphasizing the risk of COVID-19, convenient and accessible opportunities for vaccination, and messages that are targeted to specific groups are likely to increase vaccine uptake among older adults.

2.
Soc Sci Med ; 315: 115511, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105993

ABSTRACT

Pandemic preparedness and COVID-19 response indicators focus on public health outcomes (such as infections, case fatalities, and vaccination rates), health system capacity, and/or the effects of the pandemic on the economy, yet this avoids more political questions regarding how responses were mobilized. Pandemic preparedness country rankings have been called into question due to their inability to predict COVID-19 response and outcomes, and COVID-19 response indicators have ignored one of the most well documented secondary effects of the pandemic - its disproportionate effects on women. This paper analyzes pandemic preparedness and response indicators from a feminist perspective to understand how indicators might consider the secondary effects of the pandemic on women and other equity deserving groups. Following a discussion of the tensions that exist between feminist methodologies and the reliance on indicators by policymakers in preparing and responding to health emergencies, we assess the strengths and weakness of current pandemic preparedness and COVID-19 response indicators. The risk with existing pandemic preparedness and response indicators is that they give only limited attention to secondary effects of pandemics and inequities in terms of who is disproportionately affected. There is an urgent need to reconceptualize what 'successful' pandemic preparedness and response entails, moving beyond epidemiological and economic measurements. We suggest how efforts to design COVID response indicators on gender inclusion could inform pandemic preparedness and associated indicators.

3.
Nurs Ethics ; : 9697330221114329, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079277

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has led to heightened moral distress among healthcare providers. Despite evidence of gendered differences in experiences, there is limited feminist analysis of moral distress.Objectives: To identify types of moral distress among women healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic; to explore how feminist political economy might be integrated into the study of moral distress.Research Design: This research draws on interviews and focus groups, the transcripts of which were analyzed using framework analysis.Research Participants and Context: 88 healthcare providers, based in British Columbia Canada, participated virtually.Ethical Considerations: The study received ethical approval from Simon Fraser University.Findings: Healthcare providers experienced moral dilemmas related to ability to provide quality and compassionate care while maintaining COVID-19 protocols. Moral constraints were exacerbated by staffing shortages and lack of access to PPE. Moral conflicts emerged when women tried to engage decision-makers to improve care, and moral uncertainty resulted from lack of clear and consistent information. At home, women experienced moral constraints related to inability to support children's education and wellbeing. Moral conflicts related to lack of flexible work environments and moral dilemmas developed between unpaid care responsibilities and COVID-19 risks. Women healthcare providers resisted moral residue and structural constraints by organizing for better working conditions, childcare, and access to PPE, engaging mental health support and drawing on professional pride.Discussion: COVID-19 has led to new and heightened experiences of moral distress among HCP in response to both paid and unpaid care work. While many of the experiences of moral distress at work were not explicitly gendered, implicit gender norms structured moral events. Women HCP had to take it upon themselves to organize, seek out resources, and resist moral residue.Conclusion: A feminist political economy lens illuminates how women healthcare providers faced and resisted a double layering of moral distress during the pandemic.

4.
Soc Sci Med ; 312: 115364, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061885

ABSTRACT

In addition to the direct health impacts of COVID-19, government and household mitigation measures have triggered negative indirect economic, educational, and food and health system impacts, hitting low-and middle-income countries the hardest and disproportionately affecting women and girls. We conducted a gender focused analysis on five critical and interwoven crises that have emerged because of the COVID-19 crisis and exacerbated malnutrition and food insecurity. These include restricted mobility and isolation; reduced income; food insecurity; reduced access to essential health and nutrition services; and school closures. Our approach included a theoretical gender analysis, targeted review of the literature, and a visual mapping of evidence-informed impact pathways. As data was identified to support the visualization of pathways, additions were made to codify the complex interrelations between the COVID-19 related crises and underlying gender relations. Our analysis and resultant evidence map illustrate how underlying inequitable norms such as gendered unprotected jobs, reduced access to economic resources, decreased decision-making power, and unequal gendered division of labor, were exacerbated by the pandemic's secondary containment efforts. Health and nutrition policies and interventions targeted to women and children fail to recognize and account for understanding and documentation of underlying gender norms, roles, and relations which may deter successful outcomes. Analyzing the indirect effects of COVID-19 on women and girls offers a useful illustration of how underlying gender inequities can exacerbate health and nutrition outcomes in a crisis. This evidence-informed approach can be used to identify and advocate for more comprehensive upstream policies and programs that address underlying gender inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Income , Nutritional Status , Policy
5.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034372

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are essential public health tools for protecting older adults, who are at high risk of severe outcomes associated with COVID-19. Little is known, however, about how older adults approach the decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. We hypothesized that intersections between gender and race may provide unique insight into the decision-making process and the factors that lead to vaccine uptake among hesitant individuals. We performed in-depth interviews with 24 older adults who had been vaccinated against COVID-19 and used the framework approach with an intersectional lens to analyze data. Two typologies emerged: eager compliers did not question the need to vaccinate, whereas hesitant compliers were skeptical of the vaccine and underwent a thorough decision-making process prior to vaccination. For eager compliers, the vaccine offered protection from a disease that posed a serious threat, and few risks were perceived. In contrast, hesitant compliers perceived risks associated with the vaccine product or mistrusted the infrastructure that led to rapid vaccine development. Hesitancy was greater among Black participants, and only Black participants reported mistrust in vaccine infrastructure. At the intersection of gender and race, a ‘White male effect’ was observed, whereby White men perceived the fewest risks associated with the vaccine, and Black women were the most fearful of serious side effects. Nearly all hesitant compliers ultimately got vaccinated due to the threat of COVID-19. Convenient access through vaccine clinics in senior’s buildings was pivotal for hesitant compliers and external and internal influences had differential impacts by race and gender. Emphasizing the risk of COVID-19, convenient and accessible opportunities for vaccination, and messages that are targeted to specific groups are likely to increase vaccine uptake among older adults.

6.
Social science & medicine (1982) ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034056

ABSTRACT

In addition to the direct health impacts of COVID-19, government and household mitigation measures have triggered negative indirect economic, educational, and food and health system impacts, hitting low-and middle-income countries the hardest and disproportionately affecting women and girls. We conducted a gender focused analysis on five critical and interwoven crises that have emerged because of the COVID-19 crisis and exacerbated malnutrition and food insecurity. These include restricted mobility and isolation;reduced income;food insecurity;reduced access to essential health and nutrition services;and school closures. Our approach included a theoretical gender analysis, targeted review of the literature, and a visual mapping of evidence-based impact pathways. As data was identified to support the visualization of pathways, additions were made to codify the complex interrelations between the COVID-19 related crises and underlying gender relations. Our analysis and resultant evidence map illustrate how underlying inequitable norms such as gendered unprotected jobs, reduced access to economic resources, decreased decision-making power, and unequal gendered division of labor, were exacerbated by the pandemic's secondary containment efforts. Health and nutrition policies and interventions targeted to women and children fail to recognize and account for understanding and documentation of underlying gender norms, roles, and relations which may deter successful outcomes. Analyzing the indirect effects of COVID-19 on women and girls is a useful case study to illustrate how underlying gender inequities can exacerbate health and nutrition outcomes in a crisis. This evidence-based approach can be used to identify and advocate for more comprehensive upstream policies and programs that address underlying gender inequities.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_1): S61-S71, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Male sex and old age are risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019, but the intersection of sex and aging on antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines has not been characterized. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from older adults (aged 75-98 years) before and after 3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, and from younger adults (aged 18-74 years) post-dose 2, for comparison. Antibody binding to SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike protein [S], S receptor-binding domain, and nucleocapsid), functional activity against S, and live-virus neutralization were measured against the vaccine virus and the Alpha, Delta, and Omicron variants of concern (VOCs). RESULTS: Vaccination induced greater antibody titers in older females than in older males, with both age and frailty associated with reduced antibody responses in males but not females. Responses declined significantly in the 6 months after the second dose. The third dose restored functional antibody responses and eliminated disparities caused by sex, age, and frailty in older adults. Responses to the VOCs, particularly the Omicron variant, were significantly reduced relative to the vaccine virus, with older males having lower titers to the VOCs than older females. Older adults had lower responses to the vaccine and VOC viruses than younger adults, with greater disparities in males than in females. CONCLUSIONS: Older and frail males may be more vulnerable to breakthrough infections owing to low antibody responses before receipt of a third vaccine dose. Promoting third dose coverage in older adults, especially males, is crucial to protecting this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Viral Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
9.
Midwifery ; 113: 103437, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore midwives' experiences working on the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic in British Columbia, Canada. DESIGN: Qualitative study involving three semi-structured focus groups and four in-depth interviews with midwives. SETTING: The COVID-19 pandemic in British Columbia, Canada from 2020-2021. PARTICIPANTS: 13 midwives working during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in British Columbia. FINDINGS: Qualitative analysis surfaced four key themes. First, midwives faced a substantial lack of support during the pandemic. Second, insufficient support was compounded by a lack of recognition. Third, participants felt a strong duty to continue providing high-quality care despite COVID-19 related restrictions and challenges. Lastly, lack of support, increased workloads, and moral distress exacerbated burnout among midwives and raised concerns around the sustainability of their profession. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Lack of effective support for midwives during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated staffing shortages that existed prior to the pandemic, creating detrimental gaps in essential care for pregnant people, especially with increasing demands for homebirths. Measures to support midwives should combat inequities in the healthcare system, mitigating the risks of disease exposure, burnout, and professional and financial impacts that may have long-lasting implications on the profession. Given the crucial role of midwives in women- and people-centred care and advocacy, protecting midwives and the communities they serve should be prioritized and integrated into pandemic preparedness and response planning to preserve women's health and rights around the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Midwifery , British Columbia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research
10.
Front Aging ; 3: 836642, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933924

ABSTRACT

Sex differences in the immune system are dynamic throughout the lifespan and contribute to heterogeneity in the risk of infectious diseases and the response to vaccination in older adults. The importance of the intersection between sex and age in immunity to viral respiratory diseases is clearly demonstrated by the increased prevalence and severity of influenza and COVID-19 in older males compared to older females. Despite sex and age biases in the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of disease, these host factors are often ignored in vaccine research. Here, we review sex differences in the immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety of the influenza and COVID-19 vaccines in older adults and the impact of sex-specific effects of age-related factors, including chronological age, frailty, and the presence of comorbidities. While a female bias in immunity to influenza vaccines has been consistently reported, understanding of sex differences in the response to COVID-19 vaccines in older adults is incomplete due to small sample sizes and failure to disaggregate clinical trial data by both sex and age. For both vaccines, a major gap in the literature is apparent, whereby very few studies investigate sex-specific effects of aging, frailty, or multimorbidity. By providing a roadmap for sex-responsive vaccine research, beyond influenza and COVID-19, we can leverage the heterogeneity in immunity among older adults to provide better protection against vaccine-preventable diseases.

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788954

ABSTRACT

Social media can be both a source of information and misinformation during health emergencies. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social media became a ubiquitous tool for people to communicate and represents a rich source of data researchers can use to analyse users' experiences, knowledge and sentiments. Research on social media posts during COVID-19 has identified, to date, the perpetuity of traditional gendered norms and experiences. Yet these studies are mostly based on Western social media platforms. Little is known about gendered experiences of lockdown communicated on non-Western social media platforms. Using data from Weibo, China's leading social media platform, we examine gendered user patterns and sentiment during the first wave of the pandemic between 1 January 2020 and 1 July 2020. We find that Weibo posts by self-identified women and men conformed with some gendered norms identified on other social media platforms during the COVID-19 pandemic (posting patterns and keyword usage) but not all (sentiment). This insight may be important for targeted public health messaging on social media during future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Emergencies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Vaccine ; 40(11): 1643-1654, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a significant threat to public health worldwide. Despite the widespread availability of effective and generally safe vaccines, the acceptance and coverage of influenza vaccines are significantly lower than recommended. Sociodemographic variables are known to be potential predictors of differential influenza vaccine uptake and outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to (1) identify how sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, gender, and race may influence seasonal influenza vaccine acceptance and coverage; and (2) evaluate the role of these sociodemographic characteristics in differential adverse reactions among vaccinated individuals. METHODS: PubMed was used as the database to search for published literature in three thematic areas related to the seasonal influenza vaccine - vaccine acceptance, adverse reactions, and vaccine coverage. RESULTS: A total of 3249 articles published between 2010 and 2020 were screened and reviewed, of which 39 studies were included in this literature review. By the three thematic areas, 17 studies assessed vaccine acceptance, 8 studies focused on adverse reactions, and 14 examined coverage of the seasonal influenza vaccine. There were also two studies that focused on more than one of the areas of interest. CONCLUSION: Each of the four sociodemographic predictors - age, sex, race, and gender - were found to significantly influence vaccine acceptance, receipt and outcomes in this review.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
Lancet ; 399(10344): 2327-2329, 2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713035
14.
J Healthc Inform Res ; 5(3): 249-269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709496

ABSTRACT

We collected over 50 million tweets referencing COVID-19 to understand the public's gendered discourses and concerns during the pandemic. We filtered the tweets based on English language and among three gender categories: men, women, and sexual and gender minorities. We used a mixed-method approach that included topic modelling, sentiment analysis, and text mining extraction procedures including words' mapping, proximity plots, top hashtags and mentions, and most retweeted posts. Our findings show stark differences among the different genders. In relation to women, we found a salient discussion on the risks of domestic violence due to the lockdown especially towards women and girls, while emphasizing financial challenges. The public discourses around SGM mostly revolved around blood donation concerns, which is a reminder of the discrimination against some of these communities during the early days of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Finally, the discourses around men were focused on the high death rates and the sentiment analysis results showed more negative tweets than among the other genders. The study concludes that Twitter influencers can drive major online discussions which can be useful in addressing communication needs during pandemics.

15.
Int J Nurs Stud Adv ; 4: 100066, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, as measures have been taken to both prevent the spread of COVID-19 and provide care to those who fall ill, healthcare workers have faced added risks to their health and wellbeing. These risks are disproportionately felt by women healthcare workers, yet health policies do not always take a gendered approach. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to identify the gendered effects of crises on women healthcare workers' health and wellbeing, as well as to provide guidance for decision-makers on health systems policies and programs that could better support women healthcare workers. METHODS: A scoping review of published academic literature was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched using combinations of relevant medical subject headings and keywords. Data was extracted using a thematic coding framework. Seventy-six articles met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: During disease outbreaks women healthcare workers were found to experience: a higher risk of exposure and infection; barriers to accessing personal protective equipment; increased workloads; decreased leadership and decision-making opportunities; increased caregiving responsibilities in the home when schools and childcare supports were restricted; and higher rates of mental ill-health, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There was a lack of attention paid to gender and the health workforce during times of crisis prior to COVID-19, and there is a substantial gap in research around the experiences of women healthcare workers in low- and middle-income countries during times of crises. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 provides an opportunity to develop gender-responsive crisis preparedness plans within the health sector. Without consideration of gender, crises will continue to exacerbate existing gender disparities, resulting in disproportionate negative impacts on women healthcare workers. The findings point to several important recommendations to better support women healthcare workers, including: workplace mental health support, economic assistance to counteract widening pay gaps, strategies to support their personal caregiving duties, and interventions that support and advance women's careers and increase their representation in leadership roles.

16.
Health Policy Plan ; 37(7): 935-941, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566018

ABSTRACT

Evidence shows that infectious disease outbreaks are not gender-neutral, meaning that women, men and gender minorities are differentially affected. This evidence affirms the need to better incorporate a gender lens into infectious disease outbreaks. Despite this evidence, there has been a historic neglect of gender-based analysis in health, including during health crises. Recognizing the lack of available evidence on gender and pandemics in early 2020 the Gender and COVID-19 project set out to use a gender analysis matrix to conduct rapid, real-time analyses while the pandemic was unfolding to examine the gendered effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This paper reports on what a gender analysis matrix is, how it can be used to systematically conduct a gender analysis, how it was implemented within the study, ways in which the findings from the matrix were applied and built upon, and challenges encountered when using the matrix methodology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259583, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19 and their mitigation measures can exacerbate underlying gender disparities, particularly among adolescents and young adults in densely populated urban settings. METHODS: An existing cohort of youth ages 16-26 in Nairobi, Kenya completed a phone-based survey in August-October 2020 (n = 1217), supplemented by virtual focus group discussions and interviews with youth and stakeholders, to examine economic, health, social, and safety experiences during COVID-19, and gender disparities therein. RESULTS: COVID-19 risk perception was high with a gender differential favoring young women (95.5% vs. 84.2%; p<0.001); youth described mixed concern and challenges to prevention. During COVID-19, gender symmetry was observed in constrained access to contraception among contraceptive users (40.4% men; 34.6% women) and depressive symptoms (21.8% men; 24.3% women). Gender disparities rendered young women disproportionately unable to meet basic economic needs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.21; p<0.05) and in need of healthcare during the pandemic (aOR = 1.59; p<0.001). At a bivariate level, women had lower full decisional control to leave the house (40.0% vs. 53.2%) and less consistent access to safe, private internet (26.1% vs. 40.2%), while men disproportionately experienced police interactions (60.1%, 55.2% of which included extortion). Gender-specific concerns for women included menstrual hygiene access challenges (52.0%), increased reliance on transactional partnerships, and gender-based violence, with 17.3% reporting past-year partner violence and 3.0% non-partner sexual violence. Qualitative results contextualize the mental health impact of economic disruption and isolation, and, among young women, privacy constraints. IMPLICATIONS: Youth and young adults face gendered impacts of COVID-19, reflecting both underlying disparities and the pandemic's economic and social shock. Economic, health and technology-based supports must ensure equitable access for young women. Gender-responsive recovery efforts are necessary and must address the unique needs of youth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Contraception/methods , Contraception Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Menstruation/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population , Young Adult
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309829
19.
Front Sociol ; 6: 650729, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295733

ABSTRACT

Epidemics and pandemics, like COVID-19, are not gender neutral. Much of the current work on gender, sex, and COVID-19, however, has seemed implicitly or explicitly to be attempting to demonstrate that either men or women have been hardest hit, treating differences between women and men as though it is not important to understand how each group is affected by the virus. This approach often leaves out the effect on gender and sexual minorities entirely. Believing that a more nuanced approach is needed now and for the future, we brought together a group of gender experts to answer the question: how are people of different genders impacted by COVID-19 and why? Individuals working in women's, men's, and LGBTQ health and wellbeing wrote sections to lay out the different ways that women, men, and gender and sexual minorities are affected by COVID-19. We demonstrate that there is not one group "most affected," but that many groups are affected, and we need to move beyond a zero-sum game and engage in ways to mutually identify and support marginalized groups.

20.
J Migr Health ; 3: 100037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157510

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses particular challenges for migrant workers around the world. This study explores the unique experiences of foreign domestic workers (FDWs) in Hong Kong, and how COVID-19 impacted their health and economic wellbeing. Interviews with FDWs (n = 15) and key informants (n = 3) were conducted between May and August 2020. FDWs reported a dual-country experience of the pandemic, where they expressed concerns about local transmission risks as well as worries about their family members in their home country. Changes to their current work situation included how their employers treated them, as well as their employment status. FDWs also cited blind spots in the Hong Kong policy response that also affected their experience of the pandemic, including a lack of support from the Hong Kong government. Additional support is needed to mitigate the particularly negative effects of the pandemic on FDWs.

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