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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5722, 2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050376

ABSTRACT

Visceral adiposity is a risk factor for severe COVID-19, and a link between adipose tissue infection and disease progression has been proposed. Here we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infects human adipose tissue and undergoes productive infection in fat cells. However, susceptibility to infection and the cellular response depends on the anatomical origin of the cells and the viral lineage. Visceral fat cells express more ACE2 and are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection than their subcutaneous counterparts. SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to inhibition of lipolysis in subcutaneous fat cells, while in visceral fat cells, it results in higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Viral load and cellular response are attenuated when visceral fat cells are infected with the SARS-CoV-2 gamma variant. A similar degree of cell death occurs 4-days after SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of the cell origin or viral lineage. Hence, SARS-CoV-2 infects human fat cells, replicating and altering cell function and viability in a depot- and viral lineage-dependent fashion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adipose Tissue , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cytokines , Humans
3.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(23): 2495-2501, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317113

ABSTRACT

In this cross-sectional study, we investigate the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Ribonucleic Acid (SARS-CoV-2 RNA) in the tears of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. After laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, tear samples from both eyes of each patient were collected using conjunctival swab for RT-PCR. Detailed demographic profile, systemic and ocular symptoms, comorbidities, clinical, ancillary, and ocular manifestations were evaluated. Of the 83 patients enrolled in the study, 7 (8.43%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in the tear samples. Neutrophils' count, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer were higher in patients with SARS-CoV-2 detected in tears than in patients without virus in ocular surface samples. One patient with SARS-CoV-2 in tears showed mild ocular eyelid edema, hyperemia, and chemosis. No relevant ocular manifestations were detected in the other patients. Although the levels of viral RNA on ocular surface samples were low for most patients (5/7), with positivity only for gene N and CT higher than 30, two patients were positive for all viral targets tested (N, E, and RpRd), with viral load near 1 × 105 ePFU/mL, indicating that the ocular transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is a possibility that needs to be considered, especially in the hospital environment. Further studies need to be conducted to demonstrate whether infective viral particles could be isolated from tears.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Eye/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Eye Infections, Viral/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Viral/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tears/virology , Viral Load
4.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(10): e527-e535, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutations accrued by SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1-first detected in Brazil in early January, 2021-include amino acid changes in the receptor-binding domain of the viral spike protein that also are reported in other variants of concern, including B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. We aimed to investigate whether isolates of wild-type P.1 lineage SARS-CoV-2 can escape from neutralising antibodies generated by a polyclonal immune response. METHODS: We did an immunological study to assess the neutralising effects of antibodies on lineage P.1 and lineage B isolates of SARS-CoV-2, using plasma samples from patients previously infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Two specimens (P.1/28 and P.1/30) containing SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1 (as confirmed by viral genome sequencing) were obtained from nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage samples collected from patients in Manaus, Brazil, and compared against an isolate of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B (SARS.CoV2/SP02.2020) recovered from a patient in Brazil in February, 2020. Isolates were incubated with plasma samples from 21 blood donors who had previously had COVID-19 and from a total of 53 recipients of the chemically inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac: 18 individuals after receipt of a single dose and an additional 20 individuals (38 in total) after receipt of two doses (collected 17-38 days after the most recent dose); and 15 individuals who received two doses during the phase 3 trial of the vaccine (collected 134-230 days after the second dose). Antibody neutralisation of P.1/28, P.1/30, and B isolates by plasma samples were compared in terms of median virus neutralisation titre (VNT50, defined as the reciprocal value of the sample dilution that showed 50% protection against cytopathic effects). FINDINGS: In terms of VNT50, plasma from individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 had an 8·6 times lower neutralising capacity against the P.1 isolates (median VNT50 30 [IQR <20-45] for P.1/28 and 30 [<20-40] for P.1/30) than against the lineage B isolate (260 [160-400]), with a binominal model showing significant reductions in lineage P.1 isolates compared with the lineage B isolate (p≤0·0001). Efficient neutralisation of P.1 isolates was not seen with plasma samples collected from individuals vaccinated with a first dose of CoronaVac 20-23 days earlier (VNT50s below the limit of detection [<20] for most plasma samples), a second dose 17-38 days earlier (median VNT50 24 [IQR <20-25] for P.1/28 and 28 [<20-25] for P.1/30), or a second dose 134-260 days earlier (all VNT50s below limit of detection). Median VNT50s against the lineage B isolate were 20 (IQR 20-30) after a first dose of CoronaVac 20-23 days earlier, 75 (<20-263) after a second dose 17-38 days earlier, and 20 (<20-30) after a second dose 134-260 days earlier. In plasma collected 17-38 days after a second dose of CoronaVac, neutralising capacity against both P.1 isolates was significantly decreased (p=0·0051 for P.1/28 and p=0·0336 for P.1/30) compared with that against the lineage B isolate. All data were corroborated by results obtained through plaque reduction neutralisation tests. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.1 might escape neutralisation by antibodies generated in response to polyclonal stimulation against previously circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2. Continuous genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 combined with antibody neutralisation assays could help to guide national immunisation programmes. FUNDING: São Paulo Research Foundation, Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation and Funding Authority for Studies, Medical Research Council, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, National Institutes of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Portuguese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States , Vaccination
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(6): 1737-1740, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191601

ABSTRACT

We documented 4 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reinfection by non-variant of concern strains among healthcare workers in Campinas, Brazil. We isolated infectious particles from nasopharyngeal secretions during both infection episodes. Improved and continued protection measures are necessary to mitigate the risk for reinfection among healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Reinfection/diagnosis , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Reinfection/therapy
7.
Cell Metab ; 32(3): 437-446.e5, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670096

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. It remained to be determined why diabetic individuals with uncontrolled glucose levels are more prone to develop the severe form of COVID-19. The molecular mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and what determines the onset of the cytokine storm found in severe COVID-19 patients are unknown. Monocytes and macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease. These cells adapt their metabolism upon infection and become highly glycolytic, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication. The infection triggers mitochondrial ROS production, which induces stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and consequently promotes glycolysis. HIF-1α-induced changes in monocyte metabolism by SARS-CoV-2 infection directly inhibit T cell response and reduce epithelial cell survival. Targeting HIF-1ɑ may have great therapeutic potential for the development of novel drugs to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/complications , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Female , Glycolysis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
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