Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
2.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 9(2): 024003, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883245

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We propose a super-resolution (SR) method, named SR-CycleGAN, for SR of clinical computed tomography (CT) images to the micro-focus x-ray CT CT ( µ CT ) level. Due to the resolution limitations of clinical CT (about 500 × 500 × 500 µ m 3 / voxel ), it is challenging to obtain enough pathological information. On the other hand, µ CT scanning allows the imaging of lung specimens with significantly higher resolution (about 50 × 50 × 50 µ m 3 / voxel or higher), which allows us to obtain and analyze detailed anatomical information. As a way to obtain detailed information such as cancer invasion and bronchioles from preoperative clinical CT images of lung cancer patients, the SR of clinical CT images to the µ CT level is desired. Approach: Typical SR methods require aligned pairs of low-resolution (LR) and high-resolution images for training, but it is infeasible to obtain precisely aligned paired clinical CT and µ CT images. To solve this problem, we propose an unpaired SR approach that can perform SR on clinical CT to the µ CT level. We modify a conventional image-to-image translation network named CycleGAN to an inter-modality translation network named SR-CycleGAN. The modifications consist of three parts: (1) an innovative loss function named multi-modality super-resolution loss, (2) optimized SR network structures for enlarging the input LR image to 2 k -times by width and height to obtain the SR output, and (3) sub-pixel shuffling layers for reducing computing time. Results: Experimental results demonstrated that our method successfully performed SR of lung clinical CT images. SSIM and PSNR scores of our method were 0.54 and 17.71, higher than the conventional CycleGAN's scores of 0.05 and 13.64, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed SR-CycleGAN is usable for the SR of a lung clinical CT into µ CT scale, while conventional CycleGAN output images with low qualitative and quantitative values. More lung micro-anatomy information could be observed to aid diagnosis, such as the shape of bronchioles walls.

3.
Cancer Sci ; 113(4): 1531-1534, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779205

ABSTRACT

According to the current international guidelines, high-risk patients diagnosed with pathological T1 (pT1) colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent complete local resection but may have risk of developing lymph node metastasis (LNM) are recommended additional intestinal resection with lymph node dissection. However, around 90% of the patients without LNM are exposed to the risk of being overtreated due to the insufficient pathological criteria for risk stratification of LNM. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a noninvasive biomarker for molecular residual disease and relapse detection after treatments including surgical and endoscopic resection of solid tumors. The CIRCULATE-Japan project includes a large-scale patient-screening registry of the GALAXY study to track ctDNA status of patients with stage II to IV or recurrent CRC that can be completely resected. Based on the CIRCULATE-Japan platform, we launched DENEB, a new prospective study, within the GALAXY study for patients with pT1 CRC who underwent complete local resection and were scheduled for additional intestinal resection with lymph node dissection based on the standard pathologic risk stratification criteria for LNM. The aim of this study is to explore the ability of predicting LNM using ctDNA analysis compared with the standard pathological criteria. The ctDNA assay will build new evidence to establish a noninvasive personalized diagnosis in patients, which will facilitate tailored/optimal treatment strategies for CRC patients.


Subject(s)
Circulating Tumor DNA , Colorectal Neoplasms , Circulating Tumor DNA/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Liquid Biopsy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318024

ABSTRACT

Owing to the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), several universities have closed their campuses for preventing the spread of infection. Consequently, the university classes are being held over the Internet, and students attend these classes from their homes. While the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to be prolonged, the online-centric lifestyle has raised concerns about secondary health issues caused by reduced physical activity (PA). However, the actual status of PA among university students has not yet been examined in Japan. Hence, in this study, we collected daily PA data (including the data corresponding to the number of steps taken and the data associated with six types of activities) by employing smartphones and thereby analyzed the changes in the PA of university students. The PA data were collected over a period of ten weeks from 305 first-year university students who were attending a mandatory class of physical education at the university. The obtained results indicate that compared to the average number of steps taken before the COVID-19 pandemic (6474.87 steps), the average number of steps taken after the COVID-19 pandemic (3522.5 steps) has decreased by 45.6%. Furthermore, the decrease in commuting time (7 AM to 10 AM), classroom time, and extracurricular activity time (11 AM to 12 AM) has led to a decrease in PA on weekdays owing to reduced unplanned exercise opportunities and has caused an increase in the duration of being in the stationary state in the course of daily life.

6.
Int J Oncol ; 60(2)2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662722

ABSTRACT

miR­1291 exerts an anti­tumor effect in a subset of human carcinomas, including pancreatic cancer. However, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely unknown. In the present study, the expression and effect of miR­1291 in CRC cells was investigated. It was identified that miR­1291 significantly suppressed the proliferation, invasion, cell mobility and colony formation of CRC cells. Additionally, miR­1291 induced cell apoptosis. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR­1291 directly bound the 3'­untranslated region sequence of doublecortin­like kinase 1 (DCLK1). miR­1291 also suppressed DCLK1 mRNA and protein expression in HCT116 cells that expressed DCLK1. Furthermore, miR­1291 suppressed cancer stem cell markers BMI1 and CD133, and inhibited sphere formation. The inhibitory effects on sphere formation, invasion and mobility in HCT116 cells were also explored and verified using DCLK1 siRNAs. Furthermore, miR­1291 induced CDK inhibitors p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 in three CRC cell lines, and the overexpression of DCLK1 in HCT116 cells led to a decrease of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1. Intravenous administration of miR­1291 loaded on the super carbonate apatite delivery system significantly inhibited tumor growth in the DLD­1 xenograft mouse model. Additionally, the resultant tumors exhibited significant upregulation of the p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 protein with treatment of miR­1291. Taken together, the results indicated that miR­1291 served an anti­tumor effect by modulating multiple functions, including cancer stemness and cell cycle regulation. The current data suggested that miR­1291 may be a promising nucleic acid medicine against CRC.


Subject(s)
Cell Line/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , MicroRNAs/pharmacology , Cell Line/immunology , Colonic Neoplasms/physiopathology , /metabolism , Humans , MicroRNAs/administration & dosage
7.
Surg Today ; 52(1): 22-35, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The spread of COVID-19 has restricted the delivery of standard medical care to surgical patients dramatically. Surgical triage is performed by considering the type of disease, its severity, the urgency for surgery, and the condition of the patient, in addition to the scale of infectious outbreaks in the region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of surgical procedures performed and whether the effects were more prominent during certain periods of widespread infection and in the affected regions. METHODS: We selected 20 of the most common procedures from each surgical field and compared the weekly numbers of each operation performed in 2020 with the respective numbers in 2018 and 2019, as recorded in the National Clinical Database (NCD). The surgical status during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the relationship between surgical volume and the degree of regional infection were analyzed extensively. RESULTS: The rate of decline in surgery was at most 10-15%. Although the numbers of most oncological and cardiovascular procedures decreased in 2020, there was no significant change in the numbers of pancreaticoduodenectomy and aortic replacement procedures performed in the same period. CONCLUSION: The numbers of most surgical procedures decreased in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the precise impact of surgical triage on decrease in detection of disease warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics
8.
Cancer Sci ; 112(7): 2915-2920, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294969

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant chemotherapy has reduced the risk of tumor recurrence and improved survival in patients with resected colorectal cancer. Potential utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) prior to and post surgery has been reported across various solid tumors. We initiated a new type of adaptive platform trials to evaluate the clinical benefits of ctDNA analysis and refine precision adjuvant therapy for resectable colorectal cancer, named CIRCULATE-Japan including three clinical trials. The GALAXY study is a prospectively conducted large-scale registry designed to monitor ctDNA for patients with clinical stage II to IV or recurrent colorectal cancer who can undergo complete surgical resection. The VEGA trial is a randomized phase III study designed to test whether postoperative surgery alone is noninferior to the standard therapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for 3 months in patients with high-risk stage II or low-risk stage III colon cancer if ctDNA status is negative at week 4 after curative surgery in the GALAXY study. The ALTAIR trial is a double-blind, phase III study designed to establish the superiority of trifluridine/tipiracil as compared with placebo in patients with resected colorectal cancer who show circulating tumor-positive status in the GALAXY study. Therefore, CIRCULATE-Japan encompasses both "de-escalation" and "escalation" trials for ctDNA-negative and -positive patients, respectively, and helps to answer whether measuring ctDNA postoperatively has prognostic and/or predictive value. Our ctDNA-guided adaptive platform trials will accelerate clinical development toward further precision oncology in the field of adjuvant therapy. Analysis of ctDNA status could be utilized as a predictor of risk stratification for recurrence and to monitor the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy. ctDNA is a promising, noninvasive tumor biomarker that can aid in tumor monitoring throughout disease management.


Subject(s)
Circulating Tumor DNA/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/blood , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Capecitabine/administration & dosage , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colonic Neoplasms/blood , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Japan , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Pyrrolidines/administration & dosage , Thymine/administration & dosage , Trifluridine/administration & dosage
9.
Surg Today ; 50(8): 794-808, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638871

ABSTRACT

In this unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic, several key issues must be addressed to ensure safe treatment and prevent rapid spread of the virus and a consequential medical crisis. Careful evaluation of a patient's condition is crucial for deciding the triage plan, based on the status of the disease and comorbidities. As functionality of the medical care system is greatly affected by the environmental situation, the treatment may differ according to the medical and infectious disease circumstances of the institution. Importantly, all medical staff must prevent nosocomial COVID-19 by minimizing the effects of aerosol spread and developing diagnostic and surgical procedures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for COVID-19 infection, particularly in asymptomatic patients, should be encouraged as these patients are prone to postoperative respiratory failure. In this article, the Japan Surgical Society addresses the general principles of surgical treatment in relation to COVID-19 infection and advocates preventive measures against viral transmission during this unimaginable COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Societies, Medical/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Triage/methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL