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1.
Prev Med Rep ; 28: 101834, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851950

ABSTRACT

The control of human flow has led to better control of COVID-19 infections. Japan's state of emergency, unlike other countries, is not legally binding but is rather a request for individual self-restraint; thus, factors must be identified that do not respond to self-restraint, and countermeasures considered for those factors to enhance its efficacy. We examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-restraint toward social behaviors during a pandemic in Japan. This cross-sectional study used data for February 18-19, 2021, obtained from an internet survey; 19,560 participants aged 20-65 were included in the analysis. We identified five relevant behaviors: (1) taking a day trip; (2) eating out with five people or more; (3) gathering with friends and colleagues; (4) shopping for other than daily necessities; (5) shopping for daily necessities. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-restraint for each of the behaviors. Results showed that for behaviors other than shopping for daily necessities, women, those aged 60-65, married people, highly educated people, high-income earners, desk workers and those who mainly work with interpersonal communication, and those with underlying disease reported more self-restraint. Older people had less self-restraint than younger people toward shopping for daily necessities; an underlying disease had no effect on the identified behavior. Specialized interventions for these groups that include recommendations for greater self-restraint may improve the efficacy of the implementing measures that request self-restraint.

2.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27(0): 2, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to achieve herd immunity by vaccinating as many people as possible to end the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated the relationship between willingness to receive vaccination and sources of health information among those who did not want to be vaccinated against COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective cohort study collected data using a self-administered questionnaire survey. The baseline survey was conducted during December 22-25, 2020, and the follow-up survey during February 18-19, 2021. Participants were aged 20-65 years and worked at the time of the baseline survey (N = 33,087). After excluding 6,051 invalid responses, we included responses from 27,036 participants at baseline. In total, 19,941 people responded to the follow-up survey (74% follow-up rate). We excluded 7,415 participants who answered "yes" to the question "If a COVID-19 vaccine becomes available, would you like to get it?" in the baseline survey. We finally analyzed 12,526 participants. RESULTS: The odds ratio for change in willingness to be vaccinated from "no" to "yes" differed by source of health information. Compared with workers that used TV as a source of information, significantly fewer people who reported getting information from the Internet and friends/colleagues were willing to get the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to approach workers who do not watch TV when implementing workplace vaccination programs. It is likely that willingness to be vaccinated can be increased through an active company policy whereby the top management recommend vaccination, coupled with an individual approach by occupational health professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
3.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295529

ABSTRACT

The 2020/2021 seasonal influenza vaccination was carried out under unique situations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Examining the factors affecting vaccine inoculation in a pandemic situation may provide valuable insights. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the 2020/2021 seasonal influenza vaccine intake. A cross-sectional study was conducted on workers aged 20–65 years on December 22–25, 2020, using data from an Internet survey. We set the presence or absence of 2020/2021 seasonal influenza vaccination as the dependent variable, and each aspect of sociodemographic factors, including gender, age, marital status, education, annual household income, and underlying disease, as independent variables. We performed a multilevel logistic regression analysis nested by residence. In total, 26,637 respondents (13,600 men, 13,037 women) participated, and a total of 11,404 individuals (42.8%) received the 2020/2021 influenza vaccine. Significantly more women than men were vaccinated, and the vaccination rate was higher among younger adults, married people, highly educated people, high-income earners, and those with underlying disease. The current results suggested that the relationship between seasonal influenza vaccination behavior and sociodemographic factors differed from the results reported in previous studies in terms of age. These findings suggest that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, young people may have become more aware of the risk of contracting influenza and of the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine. In addition, information interventions may have had a positive effect.

4.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295528

ABSTRACT

Background Restricting the movement of the public to gathering places and limiting close physical contact are effective measures against COVID-19 infection. In Japan, states of emergency have been declared in specific prefectures to reduce public movement and control COVID-19 transmission. We investigated how familiarity with the COVID-19 infection affected self-restraint related to outing behaviors during state of emergency declarations in Japan. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among workers aged 20–65 years using data from an internet survey. The baseline survey was conducted on December 22–25, 2020, and a follow-up survey was on February 18–19, 2021. There were 19,941 participants who completed both surveys and were included in the final analysis. We set self-restraint regarding outing behaviors after the second state of emergency was declared in January 2021 as the dependent variable, and levels of familiarity with COVID-19 infection as independent variables. Odds ratios were estimated using multilevel logistic analyses. Results Significant differences by familiarity with COVID-19 infection were identified: compared with people without a history of COVID-19 or close contact with cases of confirmed COVID-19, and those whose acquaintances had not been diagnosed with COVID-19, people with a history of COVID-19 did not refrain from most outing behaviors. People with an acquaintance diagnosed with COVID-19 were significantly more likely to refrain from most outing behaviors. There was no significant difference in any outing behavior for people with a history of close contact only. Conclusions To maximize the effect of emergency declarations, health authorities should disseminate information for each person in the target population, taking into account potential differences related to the familiarity with the infection.

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