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1.
Surg Case Rep ; 8(1): 200, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The perioperative mortality rate is high in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and infection control measures for medical care providers must be considered. Therefore, the timing for surgery in patients recovering from COVID-19 is difficult. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old man was admitted to a hospital with a diagnosis of moderate COVID-19. He was transferred to our hospital because of risk factors, including heavy smoking history, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity (BMI 34). Vital signs on admission were a temperature of 36.1 °C, oxygen saturation > 95% at rest, and 94% on exertion with 3 L/min of oxygen. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral ground-glass opacities, predominantly in the lower lungs. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT incidentally revealed a liver tumor with a diameter of 80 mm adjacent to the middle hepatic vein, which was diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After being administered baricitinib, remdesivir, dexamethasone, and heparin, the patient's COVID-19 pneumonia improved, his oxygen demand resolved, and he was discharged on day 13. Furthermore, the patient was initially scheduled for hepatectomy 8 weeks after the onset of COVID-19 following a discussion with the infection control team. However, 8 weeks after the onset of illness, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was performed on nasopharyngeal swab fluid, which was observed to be positive. The positive results persisted till 10 and 11 weeks after onset. Both Ct values were high (≥ 31) out of 45 cycles, with no subjective symptoms. Since we determined that he was no longer contagious, surgery was performed 12 weeks after the onset of COVID-19. Notably, medical staff wearing personal protective equipment performed extended anatomical resection of the liver segment 8 ventral area in a negative-pressure room. The patient had a good postoperative course, with no major complications, including respiratory complications, and was discharged on postoperative day 14. Finally, none of the staff members was infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a case regarding the timing of surgery on a patient with persistently positive PCR test results after COVID-19, along with a literature review.

2.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0271622, 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063987

ABSTRACT

Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a crucial role in mucosal immunity for preventing the invasion of exogenous antigens; however, little is understood about the neutralizing activity of serum IgA. Here, to examine the role of IgA antibodies against COVID-19 illnesses, we determined the neutralizing activity of serum/plasma IgG and IgA purified from previously SARS-CoV-2-infected and COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-receiving individuals. We found that serum/plasma IgA possesses substantial but rather modest neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 compared to IgG with no significant correlation with the disease severity. Neutralizing IgA and IgG antibodies achieved the greatest activity at approximately 25 and 35 days after symptom onset, respectively. However, neutralizing IgA activity quickly diminished to below the detection limit approximately 70 days after onset, while substantial IgG activity was observed until 200 days after onset. The total neutralizing activity in sera/plasmas of those with COVID-19 largely correlated with those in purified IgG and purified IgA and levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1-binding IgG and anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1-binding IgA. In individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 but had no detectable neutralizing IgA activity, a single dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 elicited potent serum/plasma-neutralizing IgA activity, but the second dose did not further strengthen the neutralization antibody response. The present data show that the systemic immune stimulation with natural infection and COVID-19 mRNA-vaccines elicits both SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing IgG and IgA responses in serum, but the IgA response is modest and diminishes faster than the IgG response. IMPORTANCE Secretory dimeric immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays an important role in preventing the invasion of foreign objects by its neutralizing activity on mucosal surfaces, while monomeric serum IgA is thought to relate to the phagocytic immune system activation. Here, we report that individuals with the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) developed both systemic neutralizing IgG (nIgG) and IgA (nIgA) active against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the nIgA response was quick and reached the highest activity earlier than the nIgG response, nIgA activity was modest and diminished faster than nIgG activity. In individuals who recovered from COVID-19 but had no detectable nIgA activity, a single dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine elicited potent nIgA activity, but the second dose did not further strengthen the antibody response. Our study provides novel insights into the role and the kinetics of serum nIgA against the pathogen in both naturally infected and COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-receiving COVID-19-convalescent individuals.

3.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 125, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The empirical basis for a quantitative assessment of the disease burden imposed by long-COVID is currently scant. We aimed to inform the disease burden caused by long-COVID in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional self-report questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was mailed to 526 eligible patients, who were recovered from acute COVID-19 in April 2021. Answers were classified into two groups; participants who have no symptom and those who have any ongoing prolonged symptoms that lasted longer than four weeks at the time of the survey. We estimated the average treatment effect (ATE) of ongoing prolonged symptoms on EQ-VAS and EQ-5D-3L questionnaire using inverse probability weighting. In addition to symptom prolongation, we investigated whether other factors (including demography, lifestyle, and acute severity) were associated with low EQ-VAS and EQ-5D-3L values, by multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: 349 participants reported no symptoms and 108 reported any symptoms at the time of the survey. The participants who reported any symptoms showed a lower average value on the EQ-VAS (69.9 vs 82.8, respectively) and on the EQ-5D-3L (0.85 vs 0.96, respectively) than those reporting no symptoms considering the ATE of ongoing prolonged symptoms. The ATE of ongoing prolonged symptoms on EQ-VAS was - 12.9 [95% CI - 15.9 to - 9.8], and on the EQ-5D-3L it was - 0.11 [95% CI - 0.13 to - 0.09], implying prolonged symptoms have a negative impact on patients' EQ-VAS and EQ-5D-3L score. In multivariable linear regression, only having prolonged symptoms was associated with lower scores (- 11.7 [95% CI - 15.0 to - 8.5] for EQ-VAS and - 0.10 [95% CI - 0.13 to - 0.08] for EQ-5D-3L). CONCLUSIONS: Due to their long duration, long-COVID symptoms represent a substantial disease burden expressed in impact on health-related quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Diagnosis and Treatment ; 109(11):1545-1549, 2021.
Article in Japanese | Ichushi | ID: covidwho-1995279
5.
Glob Health Med ; 4(2): 83-93, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955549

ABSTRACT

Even after recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), patients can experience prolonged complaints, referred to as "long COVID". Similar to reports in Caucasians, a follow-up study in Japan revealed that fatigue, dyspnea, cough, anosmia/dysgeusia, and dyssomnia are common symptoms. Although the precise mode of long COVID remains elusive, multiple etiologies such as direct organ damage by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), autoimmunity, prolonged inflammatory reactions, and psychiatric impairment seem to be involved. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 is neurotropic, and viral RNA and proteins are continuously detectable in multiple organs, including the brain. Viral proteins exert a number of different toxic effects on cells, suggesting that persistent infection is a key element for understanding long COVID. Here, we first reviewed the current status of long COVID in Japan, and then summarized literature that help us understand the molecular background of the symptoms. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of vaccination as a treatment for patients with long COVID.

6.
J Epidemiol ; 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938563

ABSTRACT

BackgroundPrioritization for COVID-19-related health policies usually considers age and certain other characteristics, but sex is rarely included despite the higher risk of severe disease in men. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of sex and age on the severity of COVID-19 by estimating the age difference in years for which the risk for men vs. women is the same.MethodsWe analyzed 23,414 Japanese COVID-19 in-patients aged 20-89 years (13,360 men and 10,054 women). We graded the severity of COVID-19 (0 to 5) according to the most intensive treatment required during hospitalization. The risk of grade 2/3/4/5 (non-invasive positive pressure ventilation / invasive mechanical ventilation / extracorporeal membrane oxygenation / death), grade 3/4/5, and separately grade 5 was analyzed using a multiple logistic regression model.ResultsThe risk of grades 2/3/4/5, 3/4/5 (primary outcome), and 5 for men relative to women was 2.76 [2.44-3.12], 2.78 [2.42-3.19], and 2.60 [2.23-3.03] (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] adjusted for age and date of admission), respectively. These risks for men were equivalent to those for women 14.1 [12.3-15.8], 11.2 [9.7-12.8], and 7.5 [6.3-8.7] years older, respectively.ConclusionsThe risks of worse COVID-19 prognosis (grades 3/4/5) in men were equivalent to those of women 11.2 years older. Reanalyzing data extracted from four previous studies also revealed a large impact of sex difference on the severity of COVID-19. We should pay more attention to sex differences to predict the risk of COVID-19 severity and to formulate public health policy accordingly.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 18-20, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889466

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 58-year-old Japanese man with a history of 2 previous COVID-19 infections, who received 2 doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. We are not aware of any previous study regarding antibody tendency after 2 infections and 2 vaccinations. We evaluated his IgG titer of antispike protein and neutralizing activity from the first infection before and after 2 doses of vaccine. Both antispike IgG titer and neutralizing activity showed a tendency to decline almost 1 year after initial infection; they rapidly increased after the first vaccination, and they remained high after the second vaccination. Although this is a single case report, it seems to have generalizability because the findings are consistent with previous reports regarding single infections or 3 doses of vaccination. Our findings suggest that a single booster shot may provide sufficient protection and aid the understanding of immunologic responses of vaccination in patients with COVID-19 with history of re-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(10): 1436-1438, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885916

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Silent hypoxia (SH) is common in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Japan and other countries. Early identification of SH is important as more treatment options for COVID-19 have become available. This study aimed to identify predictors of SH using a nationwide COVID-19 registry of hospitalized patients. METHODS: Adult patients who were admitted to hospital with COVID-19 between January 2020 and June 2021 and who were hypoxic on admission (SpO2: 70-93%), not transferred from another facility, and who did not have disturbance of consciousness, confusion, or dementia, were included. SH was defined as hypoxia in the absence of shortness of breath/dyspnea upon admission. Predictors of SH were identified using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The study included 1904 patients, of whom 990 (52%) satisfied the criteria for SH. Compared to patients without SH, patients with SH were older, more likely to be female, and had a slightly higher SpO2 on admission. Compared to patients without SH, patients with SH had a lower prevalence of chronic lung disease (CLD) other than chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and obesity. Multivariable analysis revealed that the independent predictors of SH were older age, a shorter interval from symptom onset to admission, higher SpO2, and an absence of CLD or COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of underlying lung disease and older age were important predictors of SH. The results of this study, which is the largest such study reported to date in Japan, may help clarify the mechanism of SH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Life (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a global public health concern. As of December 2020, the therapeutic agents approved for coronavirus disease 2019 in Japan were limited to two drugs: remdesivir, an antiviral drug, granted a Special Approval for Emergency on 7 May 2020, and dexamethasone, which has an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of convalescent plasma collected from donors who recovered from coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: This is an open-label, randomized controlled trial comprising two groups: a convalescent plasma and a standard-of-care group. Plasma administered to patients with coronavirus disease 2019 randomized in the convalescent plasma group of this trial will be plasma that has been collected and stored in an associated study. Patients with a diagnosis of mild coronavirus disease 2019 will be included in this trial. The efficacy of convalescent plasma transfusion will be evaluated by comparing the convalescent plasma group to the standard-of-care group (without convalescent plasma transfusion) with respect to changes in the viral load and other measures. The primary endpoint will be time-weighted average changes in the SARS-CoV-2 virus load in nasopharyngeal swabs from day 0 to days 3 and 5. It is hypothesized that the intervention should result in a decrease in the viral load in the convalescent plasma group until day 5. This endpoint has been used as a change in viral load has and been used as an index of therapeutic effect in several previous studies. DISCUSSION: The proposed trial has the potential to prevent patients with mild COVID-19 from developing a more severe illness. Several RCTs of convalescent plasma therapy have already been conducted in countries outside of Japan, but no conclusion has been reached with respect to the efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy, which is likely in part because of the heterogeneity of the types of target patients, interventions, and endpoints among trials. Actually, previous clinical trials on plasma therapy have shown inconsistent efficacy and are sometimes ineffective in COVID-19 patients with severe disease, which is due to unmeasured neutralizing antibody titer in the COVID-19 convalescent plasma. To improve this issue, in this study, we measure neutralizing activity of convalescent plasma before administration and provide the plasma with high neutralizing activity to the subjects. It is hoped that this study will further evidence to support the role of convalescent plasma therapy in COVID-19.

10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338380

ABSTRACT

Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a crucial role in the mucosal immunity for preventing the invasion of the exogenous antigens, however, little has been understood about the neutralizing activity of serum IgA. Here, to examine the role of IgA antibodies against COVID-19 illnesses, we determined the neutralizing activity of serum/plasma IgG and IgA purified from previously SARS-CoV-2-infected and COVID-19 mRNA-vaccine-receiving individuals. We found that serum/plasma IgA possesses substantial but rather modest neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 compared to IgG with no significant correlation with the disease severity. Neutralizing IgA and IgG antibodies achieved the greatest activity at approximately 25 and 35 days after symptom onset, respectively. However, neutralizing IgA activity quickly diminished and went down below the detection limit approximately 70 days after onset, while substantial IgG activity was observed till 200 days after onset. The total neutralizing activity in sera/plasmas of those with COVID-19 largely correlated with that in purified-IgG and purified-IgA and levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1-binding IgG and anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1-binding IgA. In individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 but had no detectable neutralizing IgA activity, a single dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 elicited potent serum/plasma neutralizing IgA activity but the second dose did not further strengthen the neutralization antibody response. The present data show that the systemic immune stimulation with natural infection and COVID-19 mRNA-vaccines elicit both SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing IgG and IgA response in serum, but the IgA response is modest and diminishes faster compared to IgG response.

11.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(9): 1242-1248, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851526

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The post-COVID condition has become a social concern. Although the patient characteristics associated with the development of this condition are partially known, those associated with its persistence have not been identified. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among patients who had recovered from COVID-19 and visited the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between February 2021 and March 2021. Demographic and clinical data, and data regarding the presence and duration of post-COVID conditions were obtained. We identified factors associated with the development and persistence of post-COVID conditions using multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed 457 of 526 responses (response rate, 86.9%). The median patient age was 47 years. Of these, 378 patients (84.4%) had mild disease in the acute phase. The number of patients with symptoms at 6 and 12 months after onset or diagnosis was 120 (26.3%) and 40 (8.8%), respectively. Women were at risk of developing fatigue (odds ratio [OR]: 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-3.14), dysosmia (OR: 1.91, 95%CI: 1.24-2.93), dysgeusia (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02-2.39), hair loss (OR: 3.00, 95%CI: 1.77-5.09), and persistence of any symptoms (coefficient: 38.0, 95%CI: 13.3-62.8). Younger age and low body mass index were factors for developing dysosmia (OR: 0.96, 95%CI: 0.94-0.98 and OR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89-0.99, respectively) and dysgeusia (OR: 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96-1.00 and OR: 0.93, 95%CI: 0.88-0.98, respectively). CONCLUSION: We identified factors involved in the development and persistence of post-COVID conditions. Many patients, even those with mild conditions, experience long-term residual symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 781796, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847220

ABSTRACT

This study explores the factors contributing to the prolonged psychological distress of frontline nurses and physicians caring for COVID-19 patients in hospitals in Singapore and Japan. A cross-sectional survey between September and December 2020 yielded 1,644 responses (23.8%), from 62 nurses and 64 physicians in Singapore and 1,280 nurses and 238 physicians in Japan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that significant risk factors for prolonged psychological distress included being a frontline nurse [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-4.66], having an underlying medical condition (aOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.22-2.46), experiencing prejudice because they undertook COVID-19 patient care (aOR = 3.05, 95% CI: 2.23-4.18), having trouble dealing with panicked or uncooperative patients (aOR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.71-3.25), and experiencing an outbreak of COVID-19 in the hospital (aOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.38-3.04). Factors inversely associated with psychological distress included age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-1.00), number of beds in the hospital (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.94), clinical practice of carefully putting on and taking off personal protective equipment in daily COVID-19 patient care (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.37-0.73), and knowledge on COVID-19 (aOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94). These results could help us identify vulnerable healthcare providers who need urgent mental care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Measures that may reduce psychological strain include adequate supply of medical resources, education on precautionary measures, and communication strategies to combat discrimination against frontline healthcare providers.

13.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335993

ABSTRACT

Background No epidemiological data on post coronavirus disease (COVID-19) condition due to Omicron variant has been reported yet. Methods This was as a single-center, cross-sectional study, that interviewed via telephone the patients who recovered from Omicron COVID-19 infection (Omicron group), and surveyed via self-reporting questionnaire those patients infected with other strains (control group). Data on patients’ characteristics, information regarding the acute-phase COVID-19, as well as presence and duration of COVID-19-related symptoms were obtained. Post COVID-19 condition in this study was defined as a symptom that lasted at least 2 months within 3 months since the onset of COVID-19. We investigated and compared the prevalence of post COVID-19 condition in both groups after performing propensity score matching. Results We conducted interviews for 53 out of 128 patients with Omicron, and obtained 502 responses in the control group. After matching, 18 patients each in Omicron and control group had improved covariate balance of the older adult, female sex, obese patients, and vaccination status. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of each post-acute COVID-19 symptoms between the two groups. The numbers of patients with at least one post-acute COVID-19 symptom in the Omicron and the control group were 1 (5.6%) and 10 (55.6%) (p=0.003), respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of post Omicron COVID-19 conditions was less than that of the other strains. Further research with more participants is needed to investigate the precise epidemiology of post COVID-19 condition of Omicron, and its impact on health-related quality of life and social productivity.

14.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 991-994, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828874

ABSTRACT

Management of COVID-19 patients with humoral immunodeficiency is challenging. We describe a woman with COVID-19 with multiple relapses due to anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment. She was successfully treated with casirivimab/imdevimab and confirmed to have neutralizing antibodies. This case suggests that monoclonal antibodies have therapeutic and prophylactic value in patients with humoral immunodeficiency.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(3): 312-314, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734753

ABSTRACT

Deaths of home-care patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have become a social problem. One of their causes is hypoxemia without dyspnea which delays seeking medical attention. This was a retrospective study including patients registered in the COVID-19 Registry Japan, in which hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in 227 participating healthcare facilities were enrolled. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups: non-dyspneic patients with a peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 93% on admission (the hypoxemia without dyspnea group) and non-dyspneic patients with an SpO2> 93% (the control group). We conducted a multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with hypoxemia without dyspnea. 21544 patients were enrolled, 1035 (4.8%) patients were in the hypoxemia without dyspnea group, and 20509 (95.2%) patients were in the control group. The median respiratory rate (RR) of the hypoxemia without dyspnea group was higher than that of the control group (31/min vs. 18/min, p < 0.001). Age> 65, male, body mass index> 25, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, other chronic lung disease, and diabetes mellitus were the independent factors associated with hypoxemia without dyspnea. Patients with those background should be closely monitored. RR is an important indicator of hypoxemia, even in the absence of dyspnea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 217-223, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To alleviate the overflow of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in hospitals, less invasive and simple criteria are required to triage the patients. We evaluated the relationship between COVID-19 severity and fatty liver on plain computed tomography (CT) scan performed on admission. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we considered all COVID-19 patients at a large tertiary care hospital between January 31 and August 31, 2020. COVID-19 severity was categorized into severe (moderate and severe) and non-severe (asymptomatic and mild) groups, based on the Japanese National COVID-19 guidelines. Fatty liver was detected on plain CT scan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 222 patients (median age: 52 years), 3.2%, 58.1%, 20.7%, and 18.0% presented with asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19, respectively. Although 59.9% had no fatty liver on plain CT, mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver occurred in 13.1%, 18.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. Age and presence of fatty liver were significantly associated with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that fatty liver on plain CT scan on admission can become a risk factor for severe COVID-19. This finding may help clinicians to easily triage COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Liver , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(4): 1078-1087, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify associations between smoking status and the severity of COVID-19, using a large-scale data registry of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Japan (COVIREGI-JP), and to explore the reasons for the inconsistent results previously reported on this subject. METHODS: The analysis included 17 666 COVID-19 inpatients aged 20-89 years (10 250 men and 7416 women). We graded the severity of COVID-19 (grades 0 to 5) according to the most intensive treatment required during hospitalization. The smoking status of severe grades 3/4/5 (invasive mechanical ventilation/extracorporeal membrane oxygenation/death) and separately of grade 5 (death) were compared with that of grade 0 (no oxygen, reference group) using multiple logistic regression. Results were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age and other factors considering the potential intermediate effects of comorbidities. RESULTS: Among men, former smoking significantly increased the risk of grade 3/4/5 and grade 5, using grade 0 as a reference group, with age- and admission-date-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 1.51 (1.18-1.93) and 1.65 (1.22-2.24), respectively. An additional adjustment for comorbidities weakened the ORs. Similar results were seen for women. Current smoking did not significantly increase the risk of grade 3/4/5 and grade 5 in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COVID-19 was not associated with current or former smoking per se but with the comorbidities caused by smoking. Thus, smoking cessation is likely to be a key factor for preventing smoking-related disease and hence for reducing the risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology
19.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296101

ABSTRACT

Summary There are several recommendations for the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, the selection of appropriate PPE for the current situation remains controversial. We measured serum antibody titers for SARS-CoV-2 in 10 participants who were engaged in the operation of charter flights for the evacuation of Japanese residents from Hubei Province. All participants wore PPE in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. A total of 17 samples were tested, and all were seronegative. Hence, we conclude that the current PPE recommendation is effective to protect healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295503

ABSTRACT

Background: Long coronavirus disease (COVID) has been a social concern. Though patient characteristics associated with the development of long COVID are partially known, those associated with its persistence have not been identified. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of patients after COVID-19 recovery who visited the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between February 2020 and March 2021. Demographic and clinical data and data regarding the presence and duration of long COVID were obtained. We identified factors associated with the development and persistence of long COVID using multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis, respectively. Results: We analyzed 457 of 526 responses (response rate, 86.9%). The median age was 47 years, and 378 patients (84.4%) had mild disease in the acute phase. The number of patients with any symptoms after 6 and 12 months after onset or diagnosis were 120 (26.3%) and 40 (8.8%), respectively. Women were at risk for development of fatigue (odds ratio [OR]: 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-3.14), dysosmia (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.24-2.93), dysgeusia (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.39), and hair loss (OR: 3.00, 95% CI: 1.77-5.09) and for persistence of any symptoms (coefficient: 38.0, 95% CI: 13.3-62.8). Younger age and low body mass index were risk factors for developing dysosmia (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98 and OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99, respectively) and dysgeusia (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-1.00 and OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, respectively). Conclusion: We identified risk factors for the development and persistence of long COVID. Many patients suffer from long-term residual symptoms, even in mild cases.

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