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J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(5): 1126-1131, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704587


AIM: To evaluate whether the first Covid-19 lockdown for Italian citizens (March to July 2021) might have altered the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A retrospective single-center study in a tertiary referral center. Primary outcome was the incidence of GDM among pregnant women. GDM incidence, from June 11, 2019 to December 4, 2020, was compared by dividing the study time as follows: from the beginning of the study to before Covid-19 lockdown (from June 11, 2019, to March 9, 2020) and lockdown period (from March 10, 2020, to December 4, 2020). GDM was diagnosed with a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 gestational weeks. RESULTS: Concerning 1295 women, GDM incidence increased during the lockdown period (9.3% vs. 3.4%, p < 0.001). Higher pregnancy weight gain with an increased body mass index (BMI) at the delivery was reported during the lockdown (31.3 vs. 28.4 kg/m2 , p = 0.02 and mean weight gain of 9.3 vs. 6.6 kg, p = 0.007). There was no difference in other comorbidity incidence and OGTT values between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women during the Covid-19 lockdown might have experienced higher BMI and pregnancy weight gain with increased GDM diagnoses. This may be related to physical limitations and emotional distress experienced during the lockdown. However, evidence is limited due to restricted study duration and random variations of outcomes across time. More studies are needed to understand the dietary patterns and the physical activity changes during the Covid-19 lockdown and its impact on fetal outcomes.

COVID-19 , Diabetes, Gestational , Gestational Weight Gain , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 154(2): 212-219, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209518


BACKGROUND: Besides reducing the quality of obstetric care, the direct impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy and postpartum is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics of pregnant women who died due to COVID-19. SEARCH STRATEGY: Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched from inception to February 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies that compared deceased and survived pregnant women with COVID-19. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Relevant data were extracted and tabulated. The primary outcome was maternal co-morbidity. MAIN RESULTS: Thirteen studies with 154 deceased patients were included. Obesity doubled the risk of death (relative risk [RR] 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.36, I2  = 0%). No differences were found for gestational diabetes (RR 5.71; 95% CI 0.77-42.44, I2  = 94%) or asthma (RR 2.05, 95% CI 0.81-5.15, I2  = 0%). Overall, at least one severe co-morbidity showed a twofold increased risk of death (RR 2.26, 95% CI 1.77-2.89, I2  = 76%). Admission to intensive care was related to a fivefold increased risk of death (RR 5.09, 95% CI 2.00-12.98, I2  = 56%), with no difference in need for respiratory support (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.23-1.48, I2  = 95%) or mechanical ventilation (RR 4.34, 95% CI 0.96-19.60, I2  = 58%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 with at least one co-morbidity increases risk of intensive care and mortality.

COVID-19/mortality , Maternal Death , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Asthma/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050618


The aim of this review is to highlight the influence of the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and Gestational Weight Gain (GWG) during the COVID-19 pandemic era and the specific role of interleukin (IL)-6 in diabesity. It is known that diabetes, high body mass index, high glycated hemoglobin and raised serum IL-6 levels are predictive of poor outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The immunopathological mechanisms of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection include rising levels of several cytokines and in particular IL-6. The latter is associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and could be useful for predicting the development of GDM. Rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals, MedDiet improves the immune system and could modulate IL-6, C reactive protein and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB. Moreover, polyphenols could modulate microbiota composition, inhibit the NF-κB pathway, lower IL-6, and upregulate antioxidant enzymes. Finally, adhering to the MedDiet prior to and during pregnancy could have a protective effect, reducing GWG and the risk of GDM, as well as improving the immune response to viral infections such as COVID-19.

COVID-19/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diet, Mediterranean , Interleukin-6/blood , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Weight Gain , Humans , Life Style , Obesity/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Pregnancy