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1.
Infect Dis Health ; 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of hospitalized patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, few data are available about risk factors and mortality in subjects with nosocomially acquired respiratory infection of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated in a multicentric study -during the pre-vaccination era-all patients admitted with confirmed diagnosis of nosocomial COVID-19 (NC). Patients were classified according to provenance: hospital-acquired NC or long-term care (LTC) facilities. RESULTS: Among overall 1047 patients evaluated with COVID-19, 137 had a confirmed diagnosis of NC (13%). 78 (56.9%) patients had hospital-acquired NC and 59 (43%) had LTC NC. Overall mortality was 35.8%, in hospital-acquired NC 24.4%, in LTC NC 50.8% (p < 0.001) (Log Rank test: p = 0.001). Timing of diagnosis was significantly different between hospital acquired and LTC NC (3.5 vs 10 days, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis age, intensive-care unit admission, LTC provenance and sepsis were significant predictors of mortality in patients with NC infection. CONCLUSION: Patients with NC are at higher risk of mortality (especially for LTC NC) and required preventive strategies, early diagnosis, and treatment to avoid COVID-19 cluster.

2.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may affect testicles. Lower testosterone levels have been associated with worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of men admitted with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and its link with the pneumonia-treatment intensification. Short-term changes in hormonal parameters were also assessed. METHODS: Men admitted with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were recruited in two different hospitals in Piedmont, Italy. In all patients, the assessment of total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), gonadotropins, inhibin B (InhB), and other biochemical evaluations were performed at admission (T0) and before discharge (T1). Through a review of medical records, clinical history was recorded, including data on pneumonia severity. RESULTS: Thirty-five men (median age 64 [58-74] years) were recruited. Lower TT and cFT levels at T0 were associated with CPAP therapy (p = 0.045 and 0.028, respectively), even after adjusting for age and PaO2/FIO2 ratio in a multivariable analysis. In those discharged alive, lower TT and cFT levels were associated with longer hospital stay (p < 0.01). TT, cFT, and InhB were below the normal range at T0 and significantly increased at T1 (TT 1.98 [1.30-2.72] vs. 2.53 [1.28-3.37] ng/mL, p = 0.038; cFT (0.0441 [0.0256-0.0742] vs. 0.0702 [0.0314-0.0778] ng/mL, p = 0.046; InhB 60.75 [25.35-88.02] vs. 77.05 [51.15-134.50], p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Both TT and cFT levels are associated with adverse clinical outcomes in men admitted with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. As TT, cFT and InhB levels increase before discharge, short-term functional recovery of steroidogenesis and an indirect improvement of spermatozoa functional status could be hypothesized.

3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108200, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440133

ABSTRACT

The world is facing up the most considerable vaccination effort in history to end the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) direct against the Receptor binding domain of the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) received an Emergency Use Authorization for outpatient management of mild to moderate manifestation from COVID-19. MAbs could prevent the transmission SARS-CoV-2 infection and protect individuals from progression to severe disease. Under the pressure of different treatment strategies, SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated to select for different sets of mutations named "variants" that could impair the effectiveness of mAbs by modifying target epitopes. We provide an overview of both completed and unpublished, or ongoing clinical trials of mAbs used and review state of art in order to describe clinical options, possible indications, and the place in therapy for these agents in the treatment of COVID-19 with a particular focus on anti-spike agents. Then, we reassume the current evidence on mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 that might confer resistance to neutralization by multiple mAbs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Resistance/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376910

ABSTRACT

Pathocoenosis and syndemics theories have emerged in the last decades meeting the frequent need of better understanding interconnections and reciprocal influences that coexistent communicable and non-communicable diseases play in a specific population. Nevertheless, the attention to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics interactions of co-administered drugs for co-present diseases is to date limitedly paid to alert against detrimental pharmacological combos. Low and middle-income countries are plagued by the highest burden of HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, and helminthiasis, and they are experiencing an alarming rise in non-communicable disorders. In these settings, co-infections and comorbidities are common, but no tailored prescribing nor clinical trials are used to assess and exploit existing opportunities for the simultaneous and potentially synergistic treatment of intertwined diseases. Pharmacoenosis is the set of interactions that take place within a host as well as within a population due to the compresence of two or more diseases and their respective treatments. This framework should pilot integrated health programmes and routine clinical practice to face drug-drug interaction issues, avoiding negative co-administrations but also exploiting potential favourable ones to make the best out of the worst situations; still, to date, guiding data on the latter possibility is limited. Therefore, in this narrative review, we have briefly described both detrimental and favourable physiopathological interactions between HIV and other common co-occurring pathologies (malaria, tuberculosis, helminths, and cardiovascular disorders), and we have presented examples of advantageous potential pharmacological interactions among the drugs prescribed for these diseases from a pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics standpoint.

5.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(12): 4861-4867, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228713

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is one of the most encouraging treatments against SARS-CoV-2 infection. After intravenous infusion, RDV is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 1 h) within the cells to its active adenosine triphosphate analogue form (GS-443902) and then it can be found in plasma in its nucleoside analogue form (GS-441524). In this real-life study, we describe the remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations at three time points in nine ICU patients, through a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The observed data confirmed the very rapid conversion of RDV to its metabolite and the quite long half-life of GS-441524. The mean Cmin , Cmax and AUC0-24 , were < 0.24 ng/mL and 122.3 ng/mL, 2637.3 ng/mL and 157.8 ng/mL, and 5171.2 ng*h/mL and 3676.5 ng*h/ml, respectively, for RDV and GS-441524. Three out of nine patients achieved a Cmax  > 2610 ng/mL and 140 ng/mL and AUC0-24  > 1560 ng*h/mL and 2230 ng*h/mL for RDV and GS-441524, respectively. The mean t1/2 value for GS-441524 was 26.3 h. Despite the low number of patients, these data can represent an interesting preliminary report on the variability of RDV and GS-441524 concentrations in a real-life ICU setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CORACLE is a retrospective and prospective, regional multicenter registry, developed to evaluate risk factors for mortality in a cohort of patients admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection within non-intensive wards. METHODS: The primary objective was to estimate the role of several prognostic factors on hospital mortality in terms of adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) with multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 1538 patients were enrolled; 42% were female, and 58% were >70 years old. Deceased patients were 422 (27%), with a median age of 83 years (IQR (Inter Quartile Range) 76-87). Older age at admission (aOR 1.07 per year, 95%CI 1.06-1.09), diabetes (1.41, 1.02-1.94), cardiovascular disease (1.79, 1.31-2.44), immunosuppression (1.65, 1.04-2.62), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (3.53, 2.26-5.51), higher C-reactive protein values and a decreased PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission were associated with a higher risk of hospital mortality. Amongst patients still alive on day 7, only hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment was associated with reduced mortality (0.57, 0.36-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Several risk factors were associated with mortality in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Although HCQ seems to be the only factor significantly associated with reduced mortality, this result is in contrast with evidence from randomized studies. These results should be interpreted in light of the study limitations.

7.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 21: 22-27, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-12608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Following the public-health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 30 January 2020 and the recent outbreak caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) [officially renamed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] in China and 29 other countries, we aimed to summarise the clinical aspects of the novelBetacoronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its possible clinical presentations together with suggested therapeutic algorithms for patients who may require antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: The currently available literature was reviewed for microbiologically confirmed infections by 2019-nCoV or COVID-19 at the time of writing (13 February 2020). A literature search was performed using the PubMed database and Cochrane Library. Search terms included 'novel coronavirus' or '2019-nCoV' or 'COVID-19'. RESULTS: Published cases occurred mostly in males (age range, 8-92 years). Cardiovascular, digestive and endocrine system diseases were commonly reported, except previous chronic pulmonary diseases [e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis] that were surprisingly underreported. Fever was present in all of the case series available, flanked by cough, dyspnoea, myalgia and fatigue. Multiple bilateral lobular and subsegmental areas of consolidation or bilateral ground-glass opacities were the main reported radiological features of 2019-nCoV infection, at least in the early phases of the disease. CONCLUSION: The new 2019-nCoV epidemic is mainly associated with respiratory disease and few extrapulmonary signs. However, there is a low rate of associated pre-existing respiratory co-morbidities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Morbidity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Virulence , World Health Organization
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