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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 4(9): e0754, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018215

ABSTRACT

To determine whether the early serologic response in COVID-19 critical illness is associated with hospital mortality. To evaluate if time-to-seroconversion differs by receipt of dexamethasone therapy. DESIGN: Patients were prospectively enrolled within 24 hours of ICU admission from two University of Washington Hospitals. Plasma was collected on enrollment and on days 3, 7, 10, and 14. SETTING: ICUs between March 2020 and April 2021. PATIENTS: Consecutive adults with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We measured longitudinal total antispike protein antibody levels (anti-S abs) and total antinucleocapsid antibody levels (anti-N ab) using a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-authorized Roche instrument. We evaluated whether detectable anti-S abs on ICU admission were associated with host factors, initial disease severity, and hospital mortality. We evaluated whether dexamethasone therapy was associated with time-to-seroconversion. Among 93 unvaccinated participants, 47 (51%) had detectable anti-S abs on ICU admission. There was no difference in Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score or time between first positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 PCR and ICU admission in those with detectable versus undetectable anti-S abs. Adjusting for age, body mass index, and sex, patients with detectable anti-S abs had a lower risk of inhospital death (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94; p = 0.04). Among 21 patients with undetectable anti-S abs on ICU admission and serial measurements available, time-to-seroconversion was not significantly affected by receipt of dexamethasone therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 critical illness, a significant proportion of patients do not have detectable antibodies at ICU admission, and this is independent of severity of illness. Detectable anti-S abs were associated with lower risk of inhospital death. Despite concern that corticosteroids may impair an appropriate antiviral serologic response, early antibody kinetics were not significantly affected by administration of dexamethasone; however, CIs were wide and require further study.

3.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 323(1): L14-L26, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861686

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients manifest many of the same immune features seen in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including both "cytokine storm" and "immune suppression." However, direct comparisons of molecular and cellular profiles between contemporaneously enrolled critically ill patients with and without severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are limited. We sought to identify immune signatures specifically enriched in critically ill patients with COVID-19 compared with patients without COVID-19. We enrolled a multisite prospective cohort of patients admitted under suspicion for COVID-19, who were then determined to be SARS-CoV-2-positive (n = 204) or -negative (n = 122). SARS-CoV-2-positive patients had higher plasma levels of CXCL10, sPD-L1, IFN-γ, CCL26, C-reactive protein (CRP), and TNF-α relative to SARS-CoV-2-negative patients adjusting for demographics and severity of illness (Bonferroni P value < 0.05). In contrast, the levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17A were not significantly different between the two groups. In SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, higher plasma levels of sPD-L1 and TNF-α were associated with fewer ventilator-free days (VFDs) and higher mortality rates (Bonferroni P value < 0.05). Lymphocyte chemoattractants such as CCL17 were associated with more severe respiratory failure in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, but less severe respiratory failure in SARS-CoV-2-negative patients (P value for interaction < 0.01). Circulating T cells and monocytes from SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects were hyporesponsive to in vitro stimulation compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects. Critically ill SARS-CoV-2-positive patients exhibit an immune signature of high interferon-induced lymphocyte chemoattractants (e.g., CXCL10 and CCL17) and immune cell hyporesponsiveness when directly compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. This suggests a specific role for T-cell migration coupled with an immune-checkpoint regulatory response in COVID-19-related critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , B7-H1 Antigen , Chemokines , Critical Illness , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
4.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(12): e0591, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574928

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: In bacterial sepsis, CD14 and its N-terminal fragment (soluble CD14 subtype, "Presepsin") have been characterized as markers of innate immune responses and emerging evidence has linked both to coronavirus disease 2019 pathophysiology. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine the relationship between the soluble form of CD14 and soluble CD14 subtype plasma levels, coronavirus disease 2019 status, and coronavirus disease 2019-related outcomes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: ICUs in three tertiary hospitals in Seattle, WA. PARTICIPANTS: Two-hundred four critically ill patients under investigation for coronavirus disease 2019. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We measured plasma soluble CD14 and soluble CD14 subtype levels in samples collected upon admission. We tested for associations between biomarker levels and coronavirus disease 2019 status. We stratified by coronavirus disease 2019 status and tested for associations between biomarker levels and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 204 patients, 102 patients had coronavirus disease 2019 and 102 patients did not. In both groups, the most common ICU admission diagnosis was respiratory failure or pneumonia and proportions receiving respiratory support at admission were similar. In regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, steroid therapy, comorbidities, and severity of illness, soluble CD14 subtype was 54% lower in coronavirus disease 2019 than noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients (fold difference, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.28-0.77; p = 0.003). In contrast to soluble CD14 subtype, soluble CD14 levels did not differ between coronavirus disease 2019 and noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients. In both coronavirus disease 2019 and noncoronavirus disease 2019, in analyses adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, steroid therapy, and comorbidities, higher soluble CD14 subtype levels were associated with death (coronavirus disease 2019: adjusted relative risk, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06-1.39; p = 0.006 and noncoronavirus disease 2019: adjusted relative risk, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.38; p = 0.017), shock, and fewer ventilator-free days. In coronavirus disease 2019 only, an increase in soluble CD14 subtype was associated with severe acute kidney injury (adjusted relative risk, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.44; p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma soluble CD14 subtype is associated with worse clinical outcomes in critically ill patients irrespective of coronavirus disease 2019 status though soluble CD14 subtype levels were lower in coronavirus disease 2019 patients than noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients. Soluble CD14 subtype levels may have prognostic utility in coronavirus disease 2019.

5.
Innate Immun ; 27(7-8): 503-513, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523254

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is both a viral illness and a disease of immunopathology. Proximal events within the innate immune system drive the balance between deleterious inflammation and viral clearance. We hypothesize that a divergence between the generation of excessive inflammation through over activation of the TLR associated myeloid differentiation primary response (MyD88) pathway relative to the TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-ß (TRIF) pathway plays a key role in COVID-19 severity. Both viral elements and damage associated host molecules act as TLR ligands in this process. In this review, we detail the mechanism for this imbalance in COVID-19 based on available evidence, and we discuss how modulation of critical elements may be important in reducing severity of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Toll-Like Receptors/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Signal Transduction/drug effects
6.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518199

ABSTRACT

Kidneys are critical target organs of COVID-19, but susceptibility and responses to infection remain poorly understood. Here, we combine SARS-CoV-2 variants with genome-edited kidney organoids and clinical data to investigate tropism, mechanism, and therapeutics. SARS-CoV-2 specifically infects organoid proximal tubules among diverse cell types. Infections produce replicating virus, apoptosis, and disrupted cell morphology, features of which are revealed in the context of polycystic kidney disease. Cross-validation of gene expression patterns in organoids reflects proteomic signatures of COVID-19 in the urine of critically ill patients indicating interferon pathway upregulation. SARS-CoV-2 viral variants alpha, beta, gamma, kappa, and delta exhibit comparable levels of infection in organoids. Infection is ameliorated in ACE2-/- organoids and blocked via treatment with de novo-designed spike binder peptides. Collectively, these studies clarify the impact of kidney infection in COVID-19 as reflected in organoids and clinical populations, enabling assessment of viral fitness and emerging therapies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/urine , COVID-19/urine , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/virology , Kidney/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Apoptosis , Bowman Capsule/cytology , Bowman Capsule/virology , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Gene Knockout Techniques , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Organoids/metabolism , Podocytes/virology , Polycystic Kidney Diseases , Protein Kinase D2/genetics , Proteome , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Transcriptome , Vero Cells , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication
7.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 66(2): 122-123, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511556

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(4): 632-640, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211722

ABSTRACT

Rationale: No direct comparisons of clinical features, laboratory values, and outcomes between critically ill patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and patients with influenza in the United States have been reported.Objectives: To evaluate the risk of mortality comparing critically ill patients with COVID-19 with patients with seasonal influenza.Methods: We retrospectively identified patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) at two academic medical centers with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or influenza A or B infections between January 1, 2019, and April 15, 2020. The clinical data were obtained by medical record review. All patients except one had follow-up to hospital discharge or death. We used relative risk regression adjusting for age, sex, number of comorbidities, and maximum sequential organ failure scores on Day 1 in the ICU to determine the risk of hospital mortality and organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 compared with patients with influenza.Results: We identified 65 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and 74 patients with influenza. The mean (±standard deviation) age in each group was 60.4 ± 15.7 and 56.8 ± 17.6 years, respectively. Patients with COVID-19 were more likely to be male, have a higher body mass index, and have higher rates of chronic kidney disease and diabetes. Of the patients with COVID-19, 37% identified as Hispanic, whereas 10% of the patients with influenza identified as Hispanic. A similar proportion of patients had fevers (∼40%) and lymphopenia (∼80%) on hospital presentation. The rates of acute kidney injury and shock requiring vasopressors were similar between the groups. Although the need for invasive mechanical ventilation was also similar in both groups, patients with COVID-19 had slower improvements in oxygenation, longer durations of mechanical ventilation, and lower rates of extubation than patients with influenza. The hospital mortality was 40% in patients with COVID-19 and 19% in patients with influenza (adjusted relative risk, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-3.63; P = 0.006).Conclusions: The need for invasive mechanical ventilation was common in patients in the ICU for COVID-19 and influenza. Compared with those with influenza, patients in the ICU with COVID-19 had worse respiratory outcomes, including longer duration of mechanical ventilation. In addition, patients with COVID-19 were at greater risk for in-hospital mortality, independent of age, sex, comorbidities, and ICU severity of illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , United States
9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 148, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Analyses of blood biomarkers involved in the host response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral infection can reveal distinct biological pathways and inform development and testing of therapeutics for COVID-19. Our objective was to evaluate host endothelial, epithelial and inflammatory biomarkers in COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 171 ICU patients, including 78 (46%) patients positive and 93 (54%) negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection from April to September, 2020. We compared 22 plasma biomarkers in blood collected within 24 h and 3 days after ICU admission. RESULTS: In critically ill COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients, the most common ICU admission diagnoses were respiratory failure or pneumonia, followed by sepsis and other diagnoses. Similar proportions of patients in both groups received invasive mechanical ventilation at the time of study enrollment. COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients had similar rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome, severe acute kidney injury, and in-hospital mortality. While concentrations of interleukin 6 and 8 were not different between groups, markers of epithelial cell injury (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products, sRAGE) and acute phase proteins (serum amyloid A, SAA) were significantly higher in COVID-19 compared to non-COVID-19, adjusting for demographics and APACHE III scores. In contrast, angiopoietin 2:1 (Ang-2:1 ratio) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR-1), markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, were significantly lower in COVID-19 (p < 0.002). Ang-2:1 ratio and SAA were associated with mortality only in non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that, unlike other well-studied causes of critical illness, endothelial dysfunction may not be characteristic of severe COVID-19 early after ICU admission. Pathways resulting in elaboration of acute phase proteins and inducing epithelial cell injury may be promising targets for therapeutics in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Endothelial Cells/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Inflammation/virology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
10.
J Immunol ; 205(4): 892-898, 2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638521

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, has infected millions and has caused hundreds of thousands of fatalities. Risk factors for critical illness from SARS-CoV-2 infection include male gender, obesity, diabetes, and age >65. The mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to critical illness are poorly understood. Of interest, these comorbidities have previously been associated with increased signaling of Th17 cells. Th17 cells secrete IL-17A and are important for clearing extracellular pathogens, but inappropriate signaling has been linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Currently there are few treatment options for SARS-CoV-2 infections. This review describes evidence linking risk factors for critical illness in COVID-19 with increased Th17 cell activation and IL-17 signaling that may lead to increased likelihood for lung injury and respiratory failure. These findings provide a basis for testing the potential use of therapies directed at modulation of Th17 cells and IL-17A signaling in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interleukin-17/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology
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