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Implement Sci Commun ; 3(1): 89, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993406


BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a clinician-performed evidence-based imaging modality that has multiple advantages in the evaluation of dyspnea caused by multiple disease processes, including COVID-19. Despite these advantages, few hospitalists have been trained to perform LUS. The aim of this study was to increase adoption and implementation of LUS during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic by using recurrent assessments of RE-AIM outcomes to iteratively revise our implementation strategies. METHODS: In an academic hospital, we implemented guidelines for the use of LUS in patients with COVID-19 in July 2020. Using a novel "RE-AIM dashboard," we used an iterative process of evaluating the high-priority outcomes of Reach, Adoption, and Implementation at twice monthly intervals to inform revisions of our implementation strategies for LUS delivery (i.e., Iterative RE-AIM process). Using a convergent mixed methods design, we integrated quantitative RE-AIM outcomes with qualitative hospitalist interview data to understand the dynamic determinants of LUS Reach, Adoption, and Implementation. RESULTS: Over the 1-year study period, 453 LUSs were performed in 298 of 12,567 eligible inpatients with COVID-19 (Reach = 2%). These 453 LUS were ordered by 43 out of 86 eligible hospitalists (LUS order adoption = 50%). However, the LUSs were performed/supervised by only 8 of these 86 hospitalists, 4 of whom were required to complete LUS credentialing as members of the hospitalist procedure service (proceduralist adoption 75% vs 1.2% non-procedural hospitalists adoption). Qualitative and quantitative data obtained to evaluate this Iterative RE-AIM process led to the deployment of six sequential implementation strategies and 3 key findings including (1) there were COVID-19-specific barriers to LUS adoption, (2) hospitalists were more willing to learn to make clinical decisions using LUS images than obtain the images themselves, and (3) mandating the credentialing of a strategically selected sub-group may be a successful strategy for improving Reach. CONCLUSIONS: Mandating use of a strategically selected subset of clinicians may be an effective strategy for improving Reach of LUS. Additionally, use of Iterative RE-AIM allowed for timely adjustments to implementation strategies, facilitating higher levels of LUS Adoption and Reach. Future studies should explore the replicability of these preliminary findings.

Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323142


There is growing interest from multiple specialties, including internal medicine, to incorporate diagnostic point of care ultrasound (POCUS) into standard clinical care. However, few internists currently use POCUS. The objective of this study was to understand the current determinants of POCUS adoption at both the health system and clinician level at a U.S. academic medical center from the perspective of multi-level stakeholders. We performed semi-structured interviews of multi-level stakeholders including hospitalists, subspecialists, and hospital leaders at an academic medical center in the U.S. Questions regarding the determinants of POCUS adoption were asked of study participants. Using the framework method, team-based analysis of interview transcripts were guided by the contextual domains of the Practical Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM). Thirty-one stakeholders with diverse roles in POCUS adoption were interviewed. Analysis of interviews revealed three overarching themes that stakeholders considered important to adoption by clinicians and health systems: clinical impact, efficiency and cost. Subthemes included two that were deemed essential to high-fidelity implementation: the development of credentialing policies and robust quality assurance processes. These findings identify potential determinants of system and clinician level adoption that may be leveraged to achieve high-fidelity implementation of POCUS applications that result in improved patient outcomes.