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Race and Social Problems ; : 21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1926095


During the strong economic conditions that predated the COVID-19 pandemic, many US workers, especially females and individuals of color, suffered from economic vulnerability. Despite growing research attention, we lack an understanding of how the prevalence and patterns of earnings and job instability vary with worker characteristics, particularly at the intersections between sex and race/ethnicity. This study uses longitudinal administrative data from a large, diverse state from 2015 through 2018 to document changes in earnings and jobs. We then examine variation in the size, frequency, and direction of these changes by worker sex and race/ethnicity among a subsample of workers who are connected to the public welfare system. Results indicate that, as expected, workers who are connected to the public welfare system experienced higher levels of economic vulnerability, but with substantial racial/ethnic and sex differences. As a consequence, a large number of workers-disproportionately those of color-were experiencing high levels of economic instability during a period of strong economic growth. Our findings have implications for policy and practice strategies.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S272, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185773


Background: Universal pre-operative screening with SARS-CoV-2 PCR has been adopted by institutions to mitigate risk to healthcare workers (HCW) during aerosol- generating procedures such as intubation. However, there remains uncertainty regarding rates of false negative results and optimal sampling type. The objective was to determine the reliability of single, pre-operative SARS-CoV-2 testing from the nasopharynx in children undergoing general anesthesia. Methods: Children < 18 years of age who underwent intubation for a procedure received pre-operative testing 24-48 hours prior with a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab or wash, in conjunction with intra-operative nasal wash (NW) and tracheal aspirate (TA) sampling. All paired samples underwent testing using the Simplexa DiaSorin platform or a modified Centers for Disease Control assay. Cohen's Kappa was used for interrater reliability of each sample result. McNemar's Test was used to compare result proportions by sample type. Positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated based on the intraoperative NW as the reference standard. Analyses were conducted using SAS (v 9.4). Results: We collected full sample sets from 364 children from April 14 to May 15;66% of pre-operative samples were NP swabs. The median age was 6 years (IQR 2,13), 55% were male, 68% were white and 41% of children had a high-risk comorbidity. Most surgeries were conducted by general surgery (23%), followed by orthopedics (19%). Only 2.5% of children had respiratory symptoms, and 4.8% had a documented fever within a week of the procedure. SARS-CoV-2 positive samples occurred in 4/364 (1%) of pre-operative samples, 8/363 (2.2%) of intra-operative samples, and 8/348 (2.3%) of TA samples. The pre-operative test had 100% PPV and 99% NPV, and the TA had 100% PPV and 98.6% NPV (Table 1). There was very good agreement (Figure) between pre- and intraoperative upper respiratory sampling, with a Kappa of 0.66, (95% CI 0.35-0.97). There was no statistical difference in results by sample type. (Table Presented). Conclusion: There is a high PPV and NPV of pre-operative SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing among children undergoing anesthesia. These data can help inform guidelines regarding appropriate precautions for HCW performing high risk procedures in asymptomatic pediatric patients. (Table Presented).