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1.
Tanaffos ; 20(4):294-295, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073477
2.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 21(4): 467-477, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025954

ABSTRACT

The cytokine storm and lymphopenia are reported in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) exist in two different forms, granulocyte (G-MDSCs) and monocytic (M-MDSCs), that both suppress T-cell function. In COVID-19, the role of chemokines such as interleukin (IL)-8 in recruiting MDSCs is unclear. A recent report has correlated IL-8 and MDSCs with poor clinical outcomes in melanoma patients. In the current study, we evaluated the frequency of MDSCs and their correlation with serum IL-8 levels in severe COVID-19 patients from Iran. Thirty-seven severe patients (8 on ventilation, 29 without ventilation), thirteen moderate COVID-19 patients, and eight healthy subjects participated in this study between 10th April 2020 and 9th March 2021. Clinical and biochemical features, serum, and whole blood were obtained. CD14, CD15, CD11b, and HLA-DR expression on MDSCs was measured by flow cytometry. COVID-19 patients compared to healthy subjects had a greater frequency of M-MDSCs (12.7±13.3% vs 0.19±0.20%,), G-MDSCs (15.8±12.6% vs 0.35±0.40%,) and total-MDSCs (27.5±17.3% vs 0.55±0.41%,). M-MDSC (16.8±15.8% vs 5.4±4.8%,) and total-MDSC (33.3±18.5% vs 17.3±13.3%) frequency was higher in non- ventilated compared to moderate COVID-19 subjects. Serum IL-8 levels were higher in patients with COVID-19 than in normal healthy subjects (6.4±7.8 vs. 0.10±00 pg/mL). Ventilated patients (15.7±6.7 pg/mL), non-ventilated patients (5.7±2.7 pg/mL) and moderate patients (2.8±3.0 pg/mL) had significantly different levels of IL-8.  A negative correlation was found between the frequency of G-MDSCs and the international normalized ratio (INR) test (r=-0.39), and between the frequency of total-MDSCs and oxygen saturation (%) (r=-0.39). COVID-19 patients with severe non-ventilated disease had the highest levels of M-MDSCs. In addition to systemic MDSCs, lung, serum IL-8, and other inflammatory biomarkers should be measured.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-8 , Iran/epidemiology
3.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 21(3): 369-373, 2022 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924809

ABSTRACT

No abstract No abstract No abstract No abstract No abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Granulocytes , Humans , Leukocyte Count
4.
Tanaffos ; 19(4): 291-299, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators are an important component in the pathophysiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to assess the effects of reducing inflammatory mediators using hemoperfusion (HP) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on the mortality of patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. All patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients were divided into three groups, namely, HP, CRRT and HP+CRRT. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes were oxygenation and reduction in inflammatory mediators at the end of the study. RESULTS: Patients were not different at baseline in demographics, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the level of acute phase reactants. Half of the patients (3 out of 6) in the HP+CRRT group survived along with the survival of one patient (1 out of 2) in the HP group. All four patients in the CRRT group died. Serum creatinine (SCr), Interleukin-1 (IL1), Interleukin-6 (IL6), Interleukin-8 (IL8), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), O2 saturation (O2 sat), and hemodynamic parameters improved over time in HP+CRRT and CRRT groups, but no significant difference was observed in the HP group (All Ps > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Combined HP and CRRT demonstrated the best result in terms of mortality, reduction of inflammatory mediators and oxygenation. Further investigations are needed to explore the role of HP+CRRT in COVID-19 patients.

5.
Heliyon ; 8(2): e08957, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Circulating soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE2)2, the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2, together with components of the renin-angiotensin system promote infection and disease severity. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study followed the time-course of sACE2 levels in relation to systemic cytokines in severe and moderate COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir/dexamethasone in combination. METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained upon admission from 30 patients (12 with moderate disease and 18 with severe disease) and 14 patients with PCR-confirmed mild COVID-19. Severe and moderate patients were treated with remdesivir (200mg/first day and 100mg/day for the remaining days) and dexamethasone (100mg/day). 6 healthy control subjects (HC) were also enrolled. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and sACE2 levels were measured by ELISA at baseline and during treatment in severe and moderate patients and at baseline in mild and HCs. RESULTS: Baseline sACE2 levels were lower in severe (p = 0.0005) and moderate (p = 0.0022) patients than in patients with mild COVID-19 and in HC (p = 0.0023 and p = 0.0012 respectively). Treatment significantly increased sACE2 levels in patients with moderate disease (p = 0.0156) but only 50% of patients with severe disease showed enhanced levels compared to baseline. Systemic IL-6 and IL-8 levels were higher in all patient groups compared with HC and were not significantly affected over time or by remdesivir/dexamethasone treatment for 5 days. CONCLUSION: Serum sACE2 levels increase in severe COVID-19 patients as they recover over time whilst circulating cytokines are unaffected. Future studies should link these results to clinical outcomes.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318073

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus disease was described in December 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and has reached pandemic status. According to the World Health Organization, the incubation time from being infected to symptom emergence averages 5-6 days for COVID-19 but can be up to 14 days. The mortality rate varies in different countries but is greater in elderly people and in patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases. Patients with chronic respiratory diseases often have reduced neutrophil function. We sought to measure neutrophil phagocytosis and bacterial killing in COVID-19 patients. 30 COVID-19 patients and 9 healthy individuals were recruited from the Masih Daneshvari Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from March-May 2020. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells were isolated from whole fresh blood and incubated with green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelled methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Phagocytosis was determined by measuring the florescence of co-cultures of bacteria and neutrophils and reported as the lag time before exponential growth. The number of viable bacteria was determined after 70 h by the Colony-Forming Unit (CFU). Bacterial phagocytosis of SA (22±0.9 versus 9.2±0.5h, p<0.01) and PA (12.4±0.6 versus 4.5±0.22, p<0.01) was significantly reduced in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy control subjects. After 70h there was a significant increase in CFU in COVID-19 subjects compared with healthy control subjects for both SA (2.6±0.09 x 10 8 versus 0.8±0.04 x 10 8 CFU/ml, p<0.001) and PA (2.2±0.09 x 10 9 versus 1.0±0.06 x 10 9 CFU/ml, p<0.001).These results suggests a defect in bacterial clearance by neutrophils in COVID-19 patients.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295534

ABSTRACT

Background:SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Circulating soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE2), the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2, together with components of the renin-angiotensin system promote infection and disease severity. Objective: In this pilot study we followed the time-course of sACE2 levels in relation to systemic cytokines in severe and moderate COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir/dexamethasone in combination. <br><br>Methods: Peripheral blood was obtained upon admission from 30 patients (12 with moderate disease and 18 with severe disease) and 14 patients with PCR-confirmed mild COVID-19. Severe and moderate patients were treated with remdesivir (200mg/first day and 100mg/day for the remaining days ) and dexamethasone (100mg/day ). 6 healthy control subjects (HC) were also enrolled. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and sACE2 levels were measured by ELISA at baseline and during treatment in severe and moderate patients and at baseline in mild and HCs. <br><br>Results: Baseline sACE2 levels were lower in severe (p=0.0005) and moderate (p=0.0022) patients than in patients with mild COVID-19 and in HC (p=0.0023 and p=0.0012 respectively). Serum sACE2 levels increased in patients with severe disease recovered over time compared with moderate (p=0.0021) and severe (p=0.0411) COVID-19 subjects at baseline. Systemic IL-6 and IL-8 levels were higher in all patient groups compared with HC and were not significantly affected over time or by remdesivir/dexamethasone treatment for 5 days. <br><br>Conclusion: Serum sACE2 levels increase in severe COVID-19 patients as they recover over time whilst circulating cytokines are unaffected. Future studies should link these results to clinical outcomes.<br><br>Funding: IMA is financially supported by the Welcome Trust (093080/Z/10/Z), the EPSRC (EP/T003189/1), and the Community Jameel Imperial College COVID-19 Excellence Fund (G26290) and by the UK MRC (MR/T010371/1). SM is supported by EU project 853850.<br><br>Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to this article.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the institutional ethics board of the Masih Daneshvari Hospital (Ethics number SBMU.NRITLD.REC.1399.226).

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291815

ABSTRACT

Background: The mortality and morbidity of COVID‐19 disease as well as the lack of a proper medication has forced researchers and clinicians to employ urgent efficient technologies to overcome this current pandemic. In the severe forms of COVID-19, the patients develop a cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) where pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α play a key role in the development of this serious process. The efficiency of nanomedicines - as efficient immunomodulators - that are synthesized based on nanochelating technology have been proved in the previous studies. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of the combination of BCc1 and Hep-S nanomedicines on hospitalized COVID-19 patients was evaluated. Method: Laboratory-confirmed moderate COVID-19 patients at Masih Daneshvari Hospital were enrolled to participate in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in two separate groups: combination of BCc1 and Hep-S (N=62) (treatment) or placebo (N=60) (placebo). The primary outcome of the study was evaluating the safety of the nanomedicines combination and its effect on the number of deceased patients, while the secondary outcome was decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Results: : The evaluation of blood biochemical indices as well as clinical symptoms showed that adding the combination of BCc1 and Hep-S nanomedicines to the standard protocol of the treatment caused no adverse effects. The results analysis revealed that 28-day consumption of the nanomedicines led to a significant decrease in the mean level of IL-6 cytokine of the patients in the treatment group (p < 0.05). In addition, the patients in the treatment group had lower TNF-α levels compared to those in the control (p > 0.05) and they also showed less need for oxygen therapy. Finally, the number of the deceased patients in the treatment group was 30% lower than that of the control (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of BCc1 and Hep-S, as safe nanomedicines, inhibits IL-6 as a highly important and well-known cytokine in COVID-19 pathophysiology, and presents a promising view for immunomodulation that can manage CSS and reduce mortality rate in COVID19 patients.Trial registration IRCTID, IRCT20170731035423N2. Registered 12 Jun 2020, http://www.irct.ir/ IRCT20170731035423N2.

9.
Front Neurol ; 12: 697079, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359206

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus disease COVID-19 was identified in December 2019. It subsequently spread across the world with over 125 M reported cases and 2.75 M deaths in 190 countries. COVID-19 causes severe respiratory distress; however, recent studies have reported neurological consequences of infection by the COVID-19 virus SARS-CoV-2 even in subjects with mild infection and no initial neurological effects. It is likely that the virus uses the olfactory nerve to reach the CNS and that this transport mechanism enables virus access to areas of the brain stem that regulates respiratory rhythm and may even trigger cell death by alteration of these neuronal nuclei. In addition, the long-term neuronal effects of COVID-19 suggest a role for SARS-CoV-2 in the development or progression of neurodegerative disease as a result of inflammation and/or hypercoagulation. In this review recent findings on the mechanism(s) by which SARS-CoV-2 accesses the CNS and induces neurological dysregulation are summarized.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 646, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are a growing number of studies on evaluating lymphocyte subset counts as prognostic factors for COVID-19 disease severity, the lymphocyte subsets' analyses of both IgM and IgG responders and non-responders during the periods after onset of symptoms, have not been conducted yet. So, this study aimed to evaluate immune cell profiling of COVID-19 patients with and without antibody responses. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the levels of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were measured using flow cytometry in 53 patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, for whom antibody testing of COVID-19 was performed. RESULTS: The white blood cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts consistently decreased in the IgM and IgG non-responder group, while the differences in the median value between the two study groups were found to be statistically significant only in terms of neutrophil counts (P = 0.024 for IgM response and p-value = 0.046 for IgG response, respectively). Moreover, the level of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was observed to be significantly lower in the IgM or IgG non-responder group compared to the IgM or IgG responder group (3.6 ± 3.1 vs. 6.3 ± 4.2; p-value = 0.021). The patients with IgM antibody response had a significantly lower CD20+ lymphocytes (11% versus 15% in the groups without IgM antibody response, p-value = 0.031), The percentages of NK cells and CD4+ T cells significantly increased in the patients with IgG antibody response compared to those without IgG antibody response (13% versus 10%, p-value = 0.028, and 41.5% versus 34%; p-value = 0.03, respectively). Moreover, the patients who produced IgM or IgG antibody had significantly higher percentages of total T lymphocytes (64% versus 54%; p-value = 0.017), CD4+ T cells (41% versus 34%; p-value = 0.038), and NK cells (13% versus 9%, p-value = 0.023) compared to the group with no serological response. No significant difference was observed in the percentage of other lymphocyte subsets, including CD8+ T cells, Treg cells, and CD19+ B cells. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the total T cells, CD4+ T cells, and NK cells percentages are linked to serological response. Moreover, our findings suggested that neutrophil absolute counts and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may be valuable predictors of IgM or IgG antibody response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Front Nutr ; 8: 698617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320581

ABSTRACT

Background: During late 2019 a viral disease due to a novel coronavirus was reported in Wuhan, China, which rapidly developed into an exploding pandemic and poses a severe threat to human health all over the world. Until now (May 2021), there are insufficient treatment options for the management of this global disease and shortage of vaccines. Important aspects that help to defeat coronavirus infection seems to be having a healthy, strong, and resilient immune system. Nutrition and metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes play a crucial role on the community health situation in general and especially during this new pandemic. There seems to be an enormous impact of lifestyle, metabolic disorders, and immune status on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and recovery. For this reason, it is important to consider the impact of lifestyle and the consumption of well-defined healthy diets during the pandemic. Aims: In this review, we summarise recent findings on the effect of nutrition on COVID-19 susceptibility and disease severity and treatment. Understanding how specific dietary features might help to improve the public health strategies to reduce the rate and severity of COVID-19.

12.
Scand J Immunol ; 94(3): e13083, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273132

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease COVID-19 was first described in December 2019. The peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients have increased numbers of neutrophils which are important in controlling the bacterial infections observed in COVID-19. We sought to evaluate the cytotoxic capacity of neutrophils in COVID-19 patients. 34 confirmed COVID-19 patients (29 severe, five mild disease), and nine healthy controls were recruited from the Masih Daneshvari Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from March to May 2020. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells were isolated from whole blood and incubated with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Bacterial growth was determined by measuring the florescence of co-cultures of bacteria and neutrophils and reported as the lag time before exponential growth. The number of viable bacteria was determined after 70 hours as colony-forming units (CFU). The immunophenotype of tested cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. Isolated neutrophils have higher surface expression of CD16 and CD62L with negative markers for PMN-MDSC. Bacterial growth in the presence of SA (22 ± 0.9 versus 9.2 ± 0.5 h, P < .01) and PA (12.4 ± 0.6 versus 4.5 ± 0.22, P < .01) was significantly reduced in COVID-19 patients. After 70 h incubation of PMN with bacteria (SA and PA), CFUs were significant increased in COVID-19 patients SA (2.6 ± 0.09 × 108 CFU/mL-severe patients and 1.4 ± 0.06 × 108 CFU/mL-mild patients, P < .001) and PA (2.2 ± 0.09 × 109 CFU/mL-severe patients and 1.6 ± 0.03 × 109 CFU/mL-mild patients, P < .001). Gentamycin proliferation assays confirmed the presence of intracellular bacteria. Reduced bacterial killing by neutrophils from COVID-19 patients may be responsible for the high bacterial yield seen in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Humans , Iran , Neutrophils/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 592727, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225860

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 112M patients and resulted in almost 2.5M deaths worldwide. The major clinical feature of severe COVID-19 patients requiring ventilation is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) possibly associated with a cytokine storm. Objectives: To elucidate serum levels of TNF-α and soluble TNF-Receptor 1 (sTNFR1) in patients with severe and mild COVID-19 disease as determinants of disease severity. Methods: We determined serum TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in 46 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (17 patients with severe disease within the intensive care unit [ICU] and 29 non-severe, non-ICU patients) and 15 healthy controls upon admission using ELISA. Subjects were recruited between March-May 2020 at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital Tehran, Iran. Results: Serum levels of sTNFRI were significantly higher in ICU patients (P<0.0001) and non-ICU patients (P=0.0342) compared with healthy subjects. Serum sTNFR1 were significantly higher in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients (P<0.0001). Serum TNF-α levels were greater in ICU and non-ICU patients than in the healthy subjects group (p<0.0001). The sTNFRI concentration in ICU (r=0.79, p=0.0002) and non-ICU (r=0.42, p=0.02) patients positively correlated with age although serum sTNFRI levels in ICU patients were significantly higher than in older healthy subjects. The sTNFRI concentration in ICU patients negatively correlated with ESR. Conclusions: The study demonstrates higher sTNFRI in ICU patients with severe COVID-19 disease and this be a biomarker of disease severity and mortality. Future studies should examine whether lower levels of systemic sTNFR1 at admission may indicate a better disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 897: 173947, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188517

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of dexamethasone administration in patients with mild to moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study included 50 patients who were randomly assigned to the dexamethasone group or control group. Dexamethasone was administered at a dose of 20 mg/day from day 1-5 and then at 10 mg/day from day 6-10. The need for invasive mechanical ventilation, death rate, duration of clinical improvement, length of hospital stay, and radiological changes in the computed tomography scan were assessed. The results revealed that 92% and 96% of patients in the dexamethasone and control groups, respectively, required noninvasive ventilation (P = 0.500). Among them, 52% and 44% of patients in the dexamethasone and control groups, respectively, required invasive mechanical ventilation (P = 0.389). At the end of the study, 64% of patients in the dexamethasone group and 60% of patients in the control group died (P = 0.500); the remaining patients were discharged from the hospital during the 28-day follow-up period. The median length of hospital stay was 11 days in the dexamethasone group and 6 days in the control group (P = 0.036) and the median length of hospital stay was 7 days in the dexamethasone group and 3 days in the control group (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the other outcomes. This study showed that corticosteroid administration had no clinical benefit in patients with COVID-19-induced mild to moderate ARDS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Negative Results , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Failure
15.
Hum Antibodies ; 29(2): 109-113, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are few studies to compare antibody response against anti-spike (S) and anti- nucleoprotein (N) SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the IgG antibody production against S and N antigens of the virus and their correlation with the time and severity of the disease. METHODS: The IgG antibodies against S and N antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in serum specimens of 72 symptomatic patients who tested real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction positive for SARS-CoV-2 were detected using the ELISA technique. Different antibody response was compared and the correlation with the time from disease onset and the severity was evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-eight of 72 (67%) patients tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, while 24 (33%) did not have detectable antibodies. Comparison of antibody levels for N and S antibodies showed that they correlate with each other well (r= 0.81; P< 0.001). However, sensitivity of anti-S SARS-CoV-2 IgG and anti-N SARS-CoV-2 IgG was 30% and 60%, during the first 7 days after symptom onset (r= 0.53; P= 0.111), but increased to 73% and 68% at more than 1-week post symptom onset (r= 0.89, P= 0.111), respectively. Cases with positive IgG response showed a decreased CD8+ T cells percentage compared to the negative IgG groups (26 ± 14 vs. 58 ± 32, p= 0.066 in anti-N IgG group and 28 ± 15 vs. 60 ± 45, p= 0.004 in anti-S IgG group, respectively). CONCLUSION: Nearly one-third of the confirmed COVID-19 patients had negative serology results. Lower percent positivity at early time points after symptom onset (less than 1 week) was seen using anti-S SARS-COV-2 IgG kit compare to the anti-N SARS-CoV-2 IgG; therefore, clinicians should interpret negative serology results of especially anti-S SARS-CoV-2 IgG with caution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Negative Results , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 563085, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110288

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a vtiral pneumonia with an unknown agent was reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was identified as the causative agent. Because of the human-to-human transmission and rapid spread; coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly increased to an epidemic scale and poses a severe threat to human health; it has been declared a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review aims to summarize the recent research progress of COVID-19 molecular features and immunopathogenesis to provide a reference for further research in prevention and treatment of SARS coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection based on the knowledge from researches on SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adaptive Immunity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 294, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097189

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

18.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(3): 254-262, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not clearly defined, among the proposed mechanisms, immune system dysfunction is more likely than others. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics and clinical significance of dynamic changes of lymphocyte subsets in the course of COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective study, the levels of peripheral lymphocyte subsets including CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+FOXP3+, CD38+, CD3+HLA-DR+, CD19+, CD20+, and CD16+CD56+ cells were measured by flow cytometry in 52 confirmed hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at the day of admission and after 7 days of care. Clinical response was defined as improvement in symptoms (fever, dyspnea, and cough as well as blood oxygen saturation), and patients who met these criteria after 1 week of admission were classified as early responders; others who survived and finally discharged from the hospital were classified as late responders and patients who died were categorized as nonresponders. Immunophenotyping of studied cell changes on the first day of admission and 7 days after treatment were compared. Besides, the correlation between cellular subset variation and clinical response and outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: Total counts of white blood cell, T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD38+ lymphocytes, and CD3+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were significantly increased in both early and late responders. No statistically significant difference was observed in CD4+/CD8+ ratio, B cells, FOXP3+Treg lymphocytes, and FOXP3 median fluorescence intensity among studied groups. According to the multivariate analysis, an increase in CD4+ T cells (p = 0.019), CD8+ T cells (p = 0.001), and administration of interferon (p < 0.001) were independent predictors of clinical response. CONCLUSION: We found an increasing trend in total T cells, T helpers, cytotoxic T cells, activated lymphocytes, and natural killer cells among responders. This trend was not statistically significant among nonresponders. The findings of this study may enhance our knowledge about the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 93: 107407, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected 86,4 M patients and resulted in 1,86 M deaths worldwide. Severe COVID-19 patients have elevated blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-8 and interferon (IFN)γ. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of antiviral treatment serum cytokines in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Blood was obtained from 29 patients (aged 32-79 yr) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 upon admission and 7 days after antiviral (Favipiravir or Lopinavir/Ritonavir) treatment. Patients also received standard supportive treatment in this retrospective observational study. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated to investigate lung manifestations of COVID-19. Serum was also obtained and cytokines levels were evaluated. 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. RESULTS: Anti-viral therapy significantly reduced CT scan scores and the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In contrast, serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IFNγ were elevated at baseline in COVID-19 subjects compared to healthy subjects with IL-6 (p = 0.006) and IL-8 (p = 0.011) levels being further elevated after antiviral therapy. IL-1ß (p = 0.01) and TNFα (p = 0.069) levels were also enhanced after treatment but baseline levels were similar to those of healthy controls. These changes occurred irrespective of whether patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: Antiviral treatments did not suppress the inflammatory phase of COVID-19 after 7 days treatment although CT, CRP and LDH suggest a decline in lung inflammation. There was limited evidence for a viral-mediated cytokine storm in these COVID-19 subjects.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Pulmonology ; 27(6): 486-492, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, pneumonia associated with a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most frequently observed complication in COVID-19 patients with high mortality rates. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY: To observe the clinical effect of plasmapheresis on excessive inflammatory reaction and immune features in patients with severe COVID-19 at risk of ARDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center study, we included 15 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Masih Daneshvari Hospital, in March 2020 in Tehran, Iran. COVID-19 cases were confirmed by RT-PCR and CT imaging according to WHO guidelines. Plasmapheresis was performed to alleviate cytokine-induced ARDS. The improvement in oxygen delivery (PaO2/FiO2), total number of T cells, liver enzymes, acute reaction proteins, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6), and acute phase reaction proteins including ferritin and CRP were high before plasmapheresis. After plasmapheresis, the levels of PaO2/FiO2, acute phase reactants, inflammatory mediators, liver enzymes and bilirubin were significantly reduced within a week (p < 0.05). In contrast, although the number of T helper cells decreased immediately after plasmapheresis, they rose to above baseline levels after 1 week. Nine out of fifteen patients on non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) survived whilst the six patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) died. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that plasmapheresis improves systemic cytokine and immune responses in patients with severe COVID-19 who do not undergo IMV. Further controlled studies are required to explore the efficacy of plasmapheresis treatment in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasmapheresis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Iran , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
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