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1.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 740853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518518

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is generally uneventful in children. Only 8% of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome corona virus 2 pediatric patients require intensive care; of these, 1% may need extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Preexisting medical conditions are an independent risk factor for pediatric intensive care unit admission. We describe the case of an 11-year-old girl with adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency who presented severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome, complicated by a massive air leak syndrome. The respiratory failure, refractory to conventional support, required veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. To prevent viral diffusion, bicaval double-lumen cannulation was performed percutaneously at the bedside under exclusive echo guidance. Because of pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema, ultrasound visualization of the heart was possible only with transesophageal echo. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a transesophageal echo guided bedside percutaneous bicaval double-lumen extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation in a pediatric patient. Pitfalls of the technique are highlighted.

2.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(8)2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376863

ABSTRACT

Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant, difficult-to-eradicate pathogen that can colonize patients and health-care environments and cause severe infections and nosocomial outbreaks, especially in intensive care units. We observed an extremely low-birth-weight (800 g), preterm neonate born from vaginal delivery from a C. auris colonized mother, who was colonized by C. auris within a few hours after birth. We could not discriminate whether the colonization route was the birth canal or the intensive care unit environment. The infant died on her third day of life because of complications related to prematurity, without signs or symptoms of infections. In contexts with high rates of C.auris colonization, antifungal prophylaxis in low-birth-weight, preterm neonates with micafungin should be considered over fluconazole due to the C. auris resistance profile, at least until its presence is excluded.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(4): 1217-1225, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: IL-1 plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response during cytokine storm syndromes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyze the efficacy and safety of early anti-inflammatory treatment (AIT) with intravenous anakinra with or without glucocorticoids in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study of patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia from February 26 to April 29, 2020, to assess the efficacy of early AIT with intravenous anakinra (100 mg every 8 hours for 3 days, with tapering) alone or in combination with a glucocorticoid (intravenous methylprednisolone, 1-2 mg/kg daily, with tapering). The standard of care (SOC) treatment was hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin with or without antivirals and anticoagulants. Late rescue AIT with anakinra or tocilizumab was also evaluated. Treatment effect on overall survival was assessed by a propensity score-adjusted Cox model. RESULTS: A total of 128 patients were analyzed; 63 patients received early AIT (30 received anakinra alone and 33 received anakinra plus a glucocorticoid) at admission, and 65 patients did not receive early AIT and were used as controls; of the latter 65 patients, 44 received the SOC treatment alone and 21 received the SOC treatment plus late rescue AIT. After adjustment for all the unbalanced baseline covariates, early AIT reduced the hazard of mortality by 74% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26; P < .001). The effect was similar in patients receiving anakinra alone (adjusted HR = 0.28; P = .04) and anakinra plus a glucocorticoid (adjusted HR = 0.33; P = .07). Late rescue treatment did not show a significant advantage over SOC treatment alone (adjusted HR = 0.82; P = .70). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests, on a larger series of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, the potential efficacy and safety of the early use of high doses of intravenous anakinra with or without glucocorticoids.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Italy/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020167, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060359

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has been the most defining event of our era. The world of healthcare has experienced first-hand the dramatic situation of treating patients in the face of the dangers of contagion and limited resources. Difficult choices have everywhere been made alongside ethical reflection. Now that, at least in our part of the world, viral infection seems to be broadly on the decline, there is an urgent need for fresh, anthropological, ethical reflection. It is important to avoid being unprepared in the event of further occasions, but above all, to now think in global terms. This is because the pandemic has forced us to recognise the urgency of building alliance in healthcare and a balanced relationship with the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethics, Medical , Humanism , Bioethical Issues , Forecasting , Humans
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