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2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477821

ABSTRACT

Mass SARS-Cov-2 vaccination campaign represents the only strategy to defeat the global pandemic we are facing. Immunocompromised patients represent a vulnerable population at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 and thus should be prioritized in the vaccination programs and in the study of the vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, most data on efficacy and safety of the available vaccines derive from trials conducted on healthy individuals; hence, studies on immunogenicity of SARS-CoV2 vaccines in such populations are deeply needed. Here, we perform an observational longitudinal study analyzing the humoral and cellular response following the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of patients affected by inborn errors of immunity (IEI) compared to healthy controls (HC). We show that both IEI and HC groups experienced a significant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs 1 week after the second scheduled dose as well as an overall statistically significant expansion of the Ag-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells in both HC and IEI. Five IEI patients did not develop any specific CD4+CD40L+ T cellular response, with one of these patients unable to also mount any humoral response. These data raise immunologic concerns about using Ab response as a sole metric of protective immunity following vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that evaluation of vaccine-induced immunity in this subpopulation should also include quantification of Ag-specific T cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult
3.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 638871, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457675

ABSTRACT

With birth, the newborn is transferred from a quasi-sterile environment to the outside world. At this time, the neonatal immune system is inexperienced and continuously subject to a process of development as it encounters different antigenic stimuli after birth. It is initially characterized by a bias toward T helper 2 phenotype, reduced T helper 1, and cytotoxic responses to microbial stimuli, low levels of memory, and effector T and B cells and a high production of suppressive T regulatory cells. The aim of this setting, during fetal life, is to maintain an anti-inflammatory state and immune-tolerance. Maternal antibodies are transferred during pregnancy through the placenta and, in the first weeks of life of the newborn, they represent a powerful tool for protection. Thus, optimization of vaccination in pregnancy represents an important strategy to reduce the burden of neonatal infections and sepsis. Beneficial effects of maternal immunization are universally recognized, although the optimal timing of vaccination in pregnancy remains to be defined. Interestingly, the dynamic exchange that takes place at the fetal-maternal interface allows the transfer not only of antibodies, but also of maternal antigen presenting cells, probably in order to stimulate the developing fetal immune system in a harmless way. There are still controversial effects related to maternal immunization including the so called "immunology blunting," i.e., a dampened antibody production following infant's vaccination in those infants who received placentally transferred maternal immunity. However, clinical relevance of this phenomenon is still not clear. This review will provide an overview of the evolution of the immune system in early life and discuss the benefits of maternal vaccination. Current maternal vaccination policies and their rationale will be summarized on the road to promising approaches to enhance immunity in the neonate.

4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 183, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physicians play a key role in driving vaccine acceptance and their recommendations are crucial to address vaccine hesitancy. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, awareness and attitude of Italian Pediatric Health Care Professionals (pHCPs) on vaccinations. METHODS: An anonymous on-line questionnaire was developed within the Vaccine Committee of Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP) and spontaneously completed by 231 Pediatricians and Pediatric Nurses (PN). RESULTS: An accurate vaccine education was reported by 70% of pediatricians and 13% of PN but 11% of pediatricians versus 26% of PN consult social media instead of scientific sources for their vaccine update. The investigation on the pHCPs attitudes to vaccination in a personal and family setting highlights poor adherence to vaccinations. Only 63% of pediatricians versus 16% of PN (p < 0.0001) annually received the Flu vaccine. In their family setting 93% of pediatricians versus 51% of PN recommended all vaccinations (p < 0.0001). Anti-flu, anti-rotavirus, anti-zoster and anti-pneumococcal vaccines were not regularly recommended by all pHCPs due to doubts of uselessness (55% of pediatricians versus 40% of PN) and preference for "natural immunity" (44% of pediatricians versus 40% of PN). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that pHCPs' attitude and confidence in regards to vaccines remain suboptimal. Current COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid development of vaccines could increase vaccine hesitancy. Due to the documented pHCPs' influence in the parental decision, educational interventions are needed to improve their level of knowledge and counselling skills in order to address parental vaccine hesitancy and to maintain continuity of immunization services.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pediatric Nursing , Pediatricians/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Professional-Family Relations , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Refusal
5.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31 Suppl 26: 69-71, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160691

ABSTRACT

Flu virus infection is a common cause of acute respiratory illness, with the major incidence in pediatric age, high morbidity, and mortality. The flu vaccine is recommended for all people aged ≥6 months, unless specific contraindications are present. Younger and older age, pregnancy, chronic diseases like asthma, and immunodeficiency are risk factors for severe complications following flu infection. Thus, these categories represent the target for flu vaccine strategies in most countries. Inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV) or live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) are currently available, with specific precautions and contraindications. We aim to resume the current indications for vaccines in the vulnerable populations to support flu vaccination inclusiveness, in anticipation of a "universal vaccine" strategy.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Inactivated
6.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 84, 2020 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599459

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has surprised the entire population. The world has had to face an unprecedented pandemic. Only, Spanish flu had similar disastrous consequences. As a result, drastic measures (lockdown) have been adopted worldwide. Healthcare service has been overwhelmed by the extraordinary influx of patients, often requiring high intensity of care. Mortality has been associated with severe comorbidities, including chronic diseases. Patients with frailty were, therefore, the victim of the SARS-COV-2 infection. Allergy and asthma are the most prevalent chronic disorders in children and adolescents, so they need careful attention and, if necessary, an adaptation of their regular treatment plans. Fortunately, at present, young people are less suffering from COVID-19, both as incidence and severity. However, any age, including infancy, could be affected by the pandemic.Based on this background, the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology has felt it necessary to provide a Consensus Statement. This expert panel consensus document offers a rationale to help guide decision-making in the management of children and adolescents with allergic or immunologic diseases.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Management , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Societies, Medical , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decision Making , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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