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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12920, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960505

ABSTRACT

During the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, symptoms of depression are commonly documented among both symptomatic and asymptomatic quarantined COVID-19 patients. Despite that many of the FDA-approved drugs have been showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro and remarkable efficacy against COVID-19 in clinical trials, no pharmaceutical products have yet been declared to be fully effective for treating COVID-19. Antidepressants comprise five major drug classes for the treatment of depression, neuralgia, migraine prophylaxis, and eating disorders which are frequently reported symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Herein, the efficacy of eight frequently prescribed FDA-approved antidepressants on the inhibition of both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV was assessed. Additionally, the in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-MERS-CoV activities were evaluated. Furthermore, molecular docking studies have been performed for these drugs against the spike (S) and main protease (Mpro) pockets of both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Results showed that Amitriptyline, Imipramine, Paroxetine, and Sertraline had potential anti-viral activities. Our findings suggested that the aforementioned drugs deserve more in vitro and in vivo studies targeting COVID-19 especially for those patients suffering from depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Phytother Res ; 36(7): 2921-2939, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941314

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are phenolic compounds naturally found in plants and commonly consumed in diets. Herein, flavonoids were sequentially evaluated by a comparative in silico study associated with systematic literature search. This was followed by an in vitro study and enzyme inhibition assays against vital SARS-CoV-2 proteins including spike (S) protein, main protease (Mpro ), RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp), and human transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2). The results obtained revealed 10 flavonoids with potential antiviral activity. Out of them, silibinin showed promising selectivity index against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Screening against S protein discloses the highest inhibition activity of silibinin. Mapping the activity of silibinin indicated its excellent binding inhibition activity against SARS-CoV-2 S protein, Mpro and RdRP at IC50 0.029, 0.021, and 0.042 µM, respectively, while it showed no inhibition activity against TMPRSS2 at its IC50(SARS-CoV-2) . Silibinin was tested safe on human mammalian cells at >7-fold its IC50(SARS-CoV-2) . Additionally, silibinin exhibited >90% virucidal activity at 0.031 µM. Comparative molecular docking (MD) showed that silibinin possesses the highest binding affinity to S protein and RdRP at -7.78 and -7.15 kcal/mol, respectively. MDs showed that silibinin exhibited stable interaction with key amino acids of SARS-CoV-2 targets. Collectively, silibinin, an FDA-approved drug, can significantly interfere with SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication through multi-targeting activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Silybin/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg ; 58(1): 81, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928211

ABSTRACT

Background:  Nearly 55 percent of patients are said to be affected by the neurological effects of COVID-19. COVID-19 was shown to be related with stroke in 0.9 to 5% of people. It's critical to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the outcomes of acute ischemic stroke. The goal of this study was to look at the outcomes and characteristics of patients who had an acute ischemic stroke due to covid-19 infection. Results:  The participants in this study were 399 people who had had a stroke. COVID-19 positivity was confirmed in 77 cases, while COVID-19 negativity was confirmed in 322. In the COVID-19 and control groups, the average age of the patients was 65.4 ± 10.2 and 65.3 ± 11.8, respectively. The Covid-19 and control groups had a mean stroke onset of 5.2 ± 2.1 and 5.7 ± 3.8 h, respectively (P = 0.12). There was a high in-hospital mortality rate among patients with COVID-19 with a rate of 11.7% compared to 4.04% among the control group (P = 0.02). At discharge, the number of patients with mRS > 2 was higher (P = 0.001) among the COVID-19. There was a correlation between the mean levels of D-Dimer (r = 0.668, P < 0.001), the severity of COVID-19 (r = 0.802, P < 0.001), and mRS > 2. Conclusion: Despite receiving equal acute care as non-COVID-19 patients, COVID-19 patients had more severe strokes and had worse outcomes. This includes a high chance of death while in the hospital as well as a significant level of disability. Neurologists should use timely and effective therapies, particularly for patients who are at a higher risk of having a stroke. This includes elderly patients, patients with severe COVID-19, patients with high levels of D-Dimer, and those with high NIHSS.

4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e119, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900389

ABSTRACT

Globally, countries have used diverse methods to report data during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using international guidelines and principles of emergency management, we compare national data reporting systems in African countries in order to determine lessons for future pandemics. We analyse COVID-19 reporting practices across 54 African countries through 2020. Reporting systems were diverse and included summaries, press releases, situation reports and online dashboards. These systems were communicated via social media accounts and websites belonging to ministries of health and public health. Data variables from the reports included event detection (cases/deaths/recoveries), risk assessment (demographics/co-morbidities) and response (total tests/hospitalisations). Of countries with reporting systems, 36/53 (67.9%) had recurrent situation reports and/or online dashboards which provided more extensive data. All of these systems reported cases, deaths and recoveries. However, few systems contained risk assessment and response data, with only 5/36 (13.9%) reporting patient co-morbidities and 9/36 (25%) including total hospitalisations. Further evaluation of reporting practices in Cameroon, Egypt, Kenya, Senegal and South Africa as examples from different sub-regions revealed differences in reporting healthcare capacity and preparedness data. Improving the standardisation and accessibility of national data reporting systems could augment research and decision-making, as well as increase public awareness and transparency for national governments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cameroon , Humans , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2
5.
RSC advances ; 12(25):15775-15786, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1887976

ABSTRACT

To develop a specific treatment against COVID-19, we investigated silymarin–chitosan nanoparticles (Sil–CNPs) as an antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 using in silico and in vitro approaches. Docking of Sil and CNPs was carried out against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using AutoDock Vina. CNPs and Sil–CNPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method and characterized by TEM, FT-IR, zeta analysis, and the membrane diffusion method to determine the drug release profile. Cytotoxicity was tested on both Vero and Vero E6 cell lines using the MTT assay. Minimum binding energies with spike protein and ACE2 were −6.6, and −8.0 kcal mol−1 for CNPs, and −8.9, and −9.7 kcal mol−1 for Sil, respectively, compared to −6.6 and −8.4 kcal mol−1 respectively for remdesivir (RMV). CNPs and Sil–CNPs were prepared at sizes of 29 nm and 82 nm. The CC50 was 135, 35, and 110 μg mL−1 for CNPs, Sil, and Sil–CNPs, respectively, on Vero E6. The IC50 was determined at concentrations of 0.9, 12 and 0.8 μg mL−1 in virucidal/replication assays for CNPs, Sil, and Sil–CNPs respectively using crystal violet. These results indicate antiviral activity of Sil–CNPs against SARS-CoV-2. To develop a specific treatment against COVID-19, we investigated silymarin–chitosan nanoparticles (Sil–CNPs) as an antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 using in silico and in vitro approaches.

6.
RSC Adv ; 12(25): 15775-15786, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882774

ABSTRACT

To develop a specific treatment against COVID-19, we investigated silymarin-chitosan nanoparticles (Sil-CNPs) as an antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 using in silico and in vitro approaches. Docking of Sil and CNPs was carried out against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using AutoDock Vina. CNPs and Sil-CNPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method and characterized by TEM, FT-IR, zeta analysis, and the membrane diffusion method to determine the drug release profile. Cytotoxicity was tested on both Vero and Vero E6 cell lines using the MTT assay. Minimum binding energies with spike protein and ACE2 were -6.6, and -8.0 kcal mol-1 for CNPs, and -8.9, and -9.7 kcal mol-1 for Sil, respectively, compared to -6.6 and -8.4 kcal mol-1 respectively for remdesivir (RMV). CNPs and Sil-CNPs were prepared at sizes of 29 nm and 82 nm. The CC50 was 135, 35, and 110 µg mL-1 for CNPs, Sil, and Sil-CNPs, respectively, on Vero E6. The IC50 was determined at concentrations of 0.9, 12 and 0.8 µg mL-1 in virucidal/replication assays for CNPs, Sil, and Sil-CNPs respectively using crystal violet. These results indicate antiviral activity of Sil-CNPs against SARS-CoV-2.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338466

ABSTRACT

A series of 1''-(alkylsulfonyl)-dispiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidine-3',3''-piperidine]-2,4''-diones 6a‒o has been synthesized through regioselective multi-component azomethine dipolar cycloaddition reaction of 1-(alkylsulfonyl)-3,5-bis(ylidene)-piperidin-4-ones 3a‒h . X-ray diffraction studies ( 6b‒d,h ) confirmed the structures. The majority of the synthesized analogs reveal promising antiproliferation properties against a variety of human cancer cell lines (MCF7, HCT116, A431 and PaCa2) with good selectivity index towards normal cell (RPE1). Some of the synthesized agents exhibit potent inhibitory properties against the tested cell lines with higher efficacies than the standard references (sunitinib and 5-fluorouracil). Compound 6m is the most potent. Multi-targeted inhibitory properties against EGFR and VEGFR-2 have been observed for the synthesized agents. Flow cytometry supports the antiproliferation properties and shows the tested agents as apoptosis and necrosis forming. Vero cell viral infection model demonstrates the anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties of the synthesized agents. Compound 6f is the most promising (about 3.3 and 4.8 times the potency of the standard references, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine). QSAR models explain and support the observed biological properties.

9.
RSC advances ; 11(46):28876-28891, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812572

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated the potential of emergent pathogens to severely damage public health and global economies. As a consequence of the pandemic, millions of people have been forced into self-isolation, which has negatively affected the global economy. More efforts are needed to find new innovative approaches that could fundamentally change our understanding and management of this disaster. Herein, lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPH NPs) were utilized as a platform for the delivery of azithromycin or niclosamide in combination with piroxicam. The obtained systems were successfully loaded with both azithromycin and piroxicam (LPHAzi–Pir) with entrapment efficiencies (EE%) of 74.23 ± 8.14% and 51.52 ± 5.45%, respectively, or niclosamide and piroxicam (LPHNic–Pir) with respective EE% of 85.14 ± 3.47% and 48.75 ± 4.77%. The prepared LPH NPs had a core–shell nanostructure with particle size ≈ 125 nm and zeta potential ≈ −16.5 irrespective of drug payload. A dose-dependent cellular uptake of both LPH NPs was observed in human lung fibroblast cells. An enhanced in vitro antiviral efficacy of both LPHAzi–Pir and LPHNic–Pir was obtained over the mixed solution of the drugs. The LPH NPs of azithromycin or niclosamide with piroxicam displyed a promising capability to hinder the replication of SARS-CoV-2, with IC50 of 3.16 and 1.86 μM, respectively. These results provide a rationale for further in vivo pharmacological as well as toxicological studies to evaluate the potential activity of these drugs to combat the COVID-19 outbreak, especially the concept of combination therapy. Additionally, the molecular docking of macrolide bioactive compounds against papain-like protease (PDB ID:6wuu) was achieved. A ligand-based study, especially rapid overlay chemical structure (ROCS), was also examined to identify the general pharmacophoric features of these compounds and their similarity to reported anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. Molecular dynamic simulation was also implemented. Drug repurposing approach to combat SARS-CoV-2: lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPH) for the delivery of azithromycin or niclosamide in combination with piroxicam.

10.
Tegally, Houriiyah, San, James, Cotten, Matthew, Tegomoh, Bryan, Mboowa, Gerald, Martin, Darren, Baxter, Cheryl, Moir, Monika, Lambisia, Arnold, Diallo, Amadou, Amoako, Daniel, Diagne, Moussa, Sisay, Abay, Zekri, Abdel-Rahman, Barakat, Abdelhamid, Gueye, Abdou Salam, Sangare, Abdoul, Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam, Sow, Abdourahmane, Musa, Abdualmoniem, Sesay, Abdul, Lagare, Adamou, Kemi, Adedotun-Sulaiman, Abar, Aden Elmi, Johnson, Adeniji, Fowotade, Adeola, Olubusuyi, Adewumi, Oluwapelumi, Adeyemi, Amuri, Adrienne, Juru, Agnes, Ramadan, Ahmad Mabrouk, Kandeil, Ahmed, Mostafa, Ahmed, Rebai, Ahmed, Sayed, Ahmed, Kazeem, Akano, Balde, Aladje, Christoffels, Alan, Trotter, Alexander, Campbell, Allan, Keita, Alpha Kabinet, Kone, Amadou, Bouzid, Amal, Souissi, Amal, Agweyu, Ambrose, Gutierrez, Ana, Page, Andrew, Yadouleton, Anges, Vinze, Anika, Happi, Anise, Chouikha, Anissa, Iranzadeh, Arash, Maharaj, Arisha, Batchi-Bouyou, Armel Landry, Ismail, Arshad, Sylverken, Augustina, Goba, Augustine, Femi, Ayoade, Sijuwola, Ayotunde Elijah, Ibrahimi, Azeddine, Marycelin, Baba, Salako, Babatunde Lawal, Oderinde, Bamidele, Bolajoko, Bankole, Dhaala, Beatrice, Herring, Belinda, Tsofa, Benjamin, Mvula, Bernard, Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie, Marondera, Blessing, Khaireh, Bouh Abdi, Kouriba, Bourema, Adu, Bright, Pool, Brigitte, McInnis, Bronwyn, Brook, Cara, Williamson, Carolyn, Anscombe, Catherine, Pratt, Catherine, Scheepers, Cathrine, Akoua-Koffi, Chantal, Agoti, Charles, Loucoubar, Cheikh, Onwuamah, Chika Kingsley, Ihekweazu, Chikwe, Malaka, Christian Noël, Peyrefitte, Christophe, Omoruyi, Chukwuma Ewean, Rafaï, Clotaire Donatien, Morang’a, Collins, Nokes, James, Lule, Daniel Bugembe, Bridges, Daniel, Mukadi-Bamuleka, Daniel, Park, Danny, Baker, David, Doolabh, Deelan, Ssemwanga, Deogratius, Tshiabuila, Derek, Bassirou, Diarra, Amuzu, Dominic S. Y.; Goedhals, Dominique, Grant, Donald, Omuoyo, Donwilliams, Maruapula, Dorcas, Wanjohi, Dorcas Waruguru, Foster-Nyarko, Ebenezer, Lusamaki, Eddy, Simulundu, Edgar, Ong’era, Edidah, Ngabana, Edith, Abworo, Edward, Otieno, Edward, Shumba, Edwin, Barasa, Edwine, Ahmed, El Bara, Kampira, Elizabeth, Fahime, Elmostafa El, Lokilo, Emmanuel, Mukantwari, Enatha, Cyril, Erameh, Philomena, Eromon, Belarbi, Essia, Simon-Loriere, Etienne, Anoh, Etilé, Leendertz, Fabian, Taweh, Fahn, Wasfi, Fares, Abdelmoula, Fatma, Takawira, Faustinos, Derrar, Fawzi, Ajogbasile, Fehintola, Treurnicht, Florette, Onikepe, Folarin, Ntoumi, Francine, Muyembe, Francisca, Ngiambudulu, Francisco, Zongo Ragomzingba, Frank Edgard, Dratibi, Fred Athanasius, Iyanu, Fred-Akintunwa, Mbunsu, Gabriel, Thilliez, Gaetan, Kay, Gemma, Akpede, George, George, Uwem, van Zyl, Gert, Awandare, Gordon, Schubert, Grit, Maphalala, Gugu, Ranaivoson, Hafaliana, Lemriss, Hajar, Omunakwe, Hannah, Onywera, Harris, Abe, Haruka, Karray, Hela, Nansumba, Hellen, Triki, Henda, Adje Kadjo, Herve Albéric, Elgahzaly, Hesham, Gumbo, Hlanai, mathieu, Hota, Kavunga-Membo, Hugo, Smeti, Ibtihel, Olawoye, Idowu, Adetifa, Ifedayo, Odia, Ikponmwosa, Boubaker, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben, Ssewanyana, Isaac, Wurie, Isatta, Konstantinus, Iyaloo, Afiwa Halatoko, Jacqueline Wemboo, Ayei, James, Sonoo, Janaki, Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard, Makangara, Jean-Claude, Tamfum, Jean-Jacques, Heraud, Jean-Michel, Shaffer, Jeffrey, Giandhari, Jennifer, Musyoki, Jennifer, Uwanibe, Jessica, Bhiman, Jinal, Yasuda, Jiro, Morais, Joana, Mends, Joana, Kiconco, Jocelyn, Sandi, John Demby, Huddleston, John, Odoom, John Kofi, Morobe, John, Gyapong, John, Kayiwa, John, Okolie, Johnson, Xavier, Joicymara Santos, Gyamfi, Jones, Kofi Bonney, Joseph Humphrey, Nyandwi, Joseph, Everatt, Josie, Farah, Jouali, Nakaseegu, Joweria, Ngoi, Joyce, Namulondo, Joyce, Oguzie, Judith, Andeko, Julia, Lutwama, Julius, O’Grady, Justin, Siddle, Katherine, Victoir, Kathleen, Adeyemi, Kayode, Tumedi, Kefentse, Carvalho, Kevin Sanders, Mohammed, Khadija Said, Musonda, Kunda, Duedu, Kwabena, Belyamani, Lahcen, Fki-Berrajah, Lamia, Singh, Lavanya, Biscornet, Leon, Le.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334191

ABSTRACT

Investment in Africa over the past year with regards to SARS-CoV-2 genotyping has led to a massive increase in the number of sequences, exceeding 100,000 genomes generated to track the pandemic on the continent. Our results show an increase in the number of African countries able to sequence within their own borders, coupled with a decrease in sequencing turnaround time. Findings from this genomic surveillance underscores the heterogeneous nature of the pandemic but we observe repeated dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 variants within the continent. Sustained investment for genomic surveillance in Africa is needed as the virus continues to evolve, particularly in the low vaccination landscape. These investments are very crucial for preparedness and response for future pathogen outbreaks. One-Sentence Summary Expanding Africa SARS-CoV-2 sequencing capacity in a fast evolving pandemic.

11.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2339, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712179

ABSTRACT

In dengue-endemic regions, the co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and dengue is a significant health concern. Therefore, we performed a literature search for relevant papers in seven databases on 26 Spetember 2021. Out of 24 articles, the mortality rate and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were 19.1% and 7.8%, respectively. The mean hospital stay was 11.4 days. In addition, we identified two pregnancies with dengue and COVID-19 co-infection; one ended with premature rupture of membrane and intrauterine growth restriction fetus, while the other one ended with maternal mortality and intrauterine fetal death. COVID-19 and dengue co-infection had worse outcomes regarding mortality rates, ICU admission, and prolonged hospital stay. Thus, wise-decision management approaches should be adequately offered to these patients to enhance their outcomes. Establishing an early diagnosis might be the answer to reducing the estimated significant burden of these conditions.

13.
The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 53(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615295

ABSTRACT

Background There is a worldwide deficit in teaching and training in the field of radiology for undergraduate medical students. This educational gap is prominent in many medical schools as most radiology curricula are a part of other specialty trainings, usually provided by non-radiologists. After COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increased trend in online education. However, questions have been raised about the efficacy and acceptance of online education. We developed a course on the principles of radiology and medical imaging basics to target Egyptian medical students. We then assessed the impact of these educational videos through several online surveys. Our "The Principles of Radiology Online Course" was delivered to students at various Egyptian medical schools;it was a prerecorded series composed of nine sessions, and each session followed the sequence of a pre-test, video, and post-test. There was a final survey to assess the overall feedback. Finally, we analyzed the results to give insight onto how teaching radiology through online lectures can help build better physicians. Results Among various medical schools around Egypt, 1396 Egyptian medical students joined this cohort. Cohort population percentage was 56% female and 44% male. Ninety-eight percent of the students agreed that this program increased their understanding of radiology. Eighty-four percent of the students found the platform friendly and easy to use. Seventy-nine percent found these webinars were more convenient compared to in-person education. Statistical significance (p-value < 0.05) was achieved in all sessions after comparing students’ pre and post-test scores, and in students’ confidence and knowledge level before and after the course. Conclusions Radiology is an underrepresented subject for a lot of medical students. Online radiology webinars have proven to be a promising method of teaching medical students key medical imaging concepts. An online course of radiology basics and principles can help improve a medical student’s knowledge and enhance overall future patient care.

14.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(1): 44, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595653

ABSTRACT

Investigating bicelles as an oral drug delivery system and exploiting their structural benefits can pave the way to formulate hydrophobic drugs and potentiate their activity. Herein, the ability of non-ionic surfactants (labrasol®, tween 80, cremophore EL and pluronic F127) to form curcumin loaded bicelles with phosphatidylcholine, utilizing a simple method, was investigated. Molecular docking was used to understand the mechanism of bicelles formation. The % transmittance and TEM exhibited bicelles formation with labrasol® and tween 80, while cremophor EL and pluronic F127 tended to form mixed micelles. The surfactant-based nanostructures significantly improved curcumin dissolution (99.2 ± 2.6% within 10 min in case of tween 80-based bicelles) compared to liposomes and curcumin suspension in non-sink conditions. The prepared formulations improved curcumin ex vivo permeation over liposomes and drug suspension. Further, the therapeutic antiviral activity of the formulated curcumin against SARS-CoV-2 was potentiated over drug suspension. Although both Labrasol® and tween 80 bicelles could form bicelles and enhance the oral delivery of curcumin when compared to liposomes and drug suspension, the mixed micelles formulations depicted superiority than bicelles formulations. Our findings provide promising formulations that can be utilized for further preclinical and clinical studies of curcumin as an antiviral therapy for COVID-19 patients. Graphical Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Antiviral Agents , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Micelles , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents
15.
Arab J Chem ; 14(4): 103092, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574281

ABSTRACT

This work was a structured virtual screening for marine bioactive compounds with reported antiviral activities which were subjected to structure-based studies against SARS-CoV-2 co-crystallized proteins. The molecular docking of marine bioactive compounds against the main protease (Mpro, PDB ID: 6lu7 and 6y2f), the spike glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6vsb), and the RNA polymerase (PDB ID: 6m71) of SARS-CoV-2 was performed. Ligand-based approach with the inclusion of rapid overlay chemical structures (ROCS) was also addressed in order to examine the probability of these marine compounds sharing relevance and druggability with the reported drugs. Among the examined marine library, the highest scores in different virtual screening aspects were displayed by compounds with flavonoids core, acyl indole, and pyrrole carboxamide alkaloids. Moreover, a complete overlay with the co-crystallized ligands of Mpro was revealed by sceptrin and debromo-sceptrin. Thalassoilin (A-B) which was found in the Red Sea exhibited the highest binding and similarity outcomes among all target proteins. These data highlight the importance of marine natural metabolites in regard to further studies for discovering new drugs to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 52(1), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1563262

ABSTRACT

Background In multidisciplinary education, different perspectives from more than one discipline are used to illustrate a certain topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online, multidisciplinary radiology curriculum to teach radiology to medical students in Egypt. A multidisciplinary team of radiologists, surgeons, and internists taught a series of 5 case-based radiology sessions on a web conference platform. Topics included common clinical case scenarios for various body systems. Undergraduate medical students across Egypt were enrolled in the course. A pre-test–post-test design was used to evaluate the efficacy of each session. Upon course completion, students filled out a subjective survey to assess the radiology education series. Results On average, 1000 students attended each session. For each session, an average of 734 students completed both the pre-test and post-test. There was a statistically significant increase in post-test scores compared to pre-test scores across all 5 sessions (p < 0.001) with an overall average score improvement of 63%. A subjective survey at the end of the course was completed by 1027 students. Over 96% of students found the lecture series to be a worthwhile experience that increased their imaging knowledge and interest in radiology, and that the use of a multidisciplinary approach added educational value. About 66% of students also reported that the session topics were “excellent and clinically important.” There was a marked increase in reported confidence levels in radiology competencies before and after attendance of the sessions. Conclusions An online radiology curriculum with a multidisciplinary approach can be implemented successfully to reach a large group of medical students and meet their educational objectives.

18.
ChemMedChem ; 16(22): 3418-3427, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525425

ABSTRACT

Currently, limited therapeutic options are available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We have developed a set of pyrazine-based small molecules. A series of pyrazine conjugates was synthesized by microwave-assisted click chemistry and benzotriazole chemistry. All the synthesized conjugates were screened against the SAR-CoV-2 virus and their cytotoxicity was determined. Computational studies were carried out to validate the biological data. Some of the pyrazine-triazole conjugates (5 d-g) and (S)-N-(1-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-phenylethyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide 12 i show significant potency against SARS-CoV-2 among the synthesized conjugates. The selectivity index (SI) of potent conjugates indicates significant efficacy compared to the reference drug (Favipiravir).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Pyrazines/chemical synthesis , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/toxicity , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells
19.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Egyptian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Six databases were searched for relevant papers. The quality of the selected articles was measured using the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool. We used a fixed-effects model when there was no heterogeneity and a random-effects model when there was heterogeneity. RESULTS: After screening 197 records, 10 studies were ultimately included. Anxiety was the most commonly reported psychiatric disorder among HCWs, with a prevalence of 71.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.4 to 86.9), followed by stress (66.6%; 95% CI, 47.6 to 81.3), depression (65.5%; 95% CI, 46.9 to 80.3), and insomnia (57.9%; 95% CI, 45.9 to 69.0). As measured using the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, the most common level of severity was moderate for depression (22.5%; 95% CI, 19.8 to 25.5) and stress (14.5%; 95% CI, 8.8 to 22.9), while high-severity anxiety was more common than other levels of severity (28.2%; 95% CI, 3.8 to 79.6). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on Egyptian HCWs' psychological well-being. More psychological support and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the further development of psychiatric illness among physicians and other HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512751

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses represent a major public health concern, as they are highly mutated, resulting in new strains emerging with high pathogenicity. Currently, the world is suffering from the newly evolving severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a mild-to-severe respiratory tract infection with frequent ability to give rise to fatal pneumonia in humans. The overwhelming outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 continues to unfold all over the world, urging scientists to put an end to this global pandemic through biological and pharmaceutical interventions. Currently, there is no specific treatment option that is capable of COVID-19 pandemic eradication, so several repurposed drugs and newly conditionally approved vaccines are in use and heavily applied to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of new variants of the virus that partially or totally escape from the immune response elicited by the approved vaccines requires continuous monitoring of the emerging variants to update the content of the developed vaccines or modify them totally to match the new variants. Herein, we discuss the potential therapeutic and prophylactic interventions including repurposed drugs and the newly developed/approved vaccines, highlighting the impact of virus evolution on the immune evasion of the virus from currently licensed vaccines for COVID-19.

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