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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311148

ABSTRACT

Early recognition of risk and start of treatment may improve unfavorable outcome of COVID-19. In the SAVE-MORE double-blind randomized trial, 594 patients with pneumonia without respiratory dysfunction at risk as defined by plasma suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) ≥ 6 ng/ml were 1:2 randomized to subcutaneous placebo or 100 mg anakinra once daily for 10 days;85.9% were co-administered dexamethasone. After 28 days, anakinra-treated patients were distributed to lower strata of the 11-point World Health Organization ordinal Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) (adjusted odds ratio-OR 0.36;95%CI 0.26–0.50;P < 0.001);anakinra protected from severe disease or death (≥ 6 points of WHO-CPS) (OR: 0.46;P: 0.010). The median WHO-CPS decrease in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points (OR 0.40;P < 0.0001);the median decrease of SOFA score was 0 and 1 points (OR 0.63;P: 0.004). 28-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio: 0.45;P: 0.045) and hospital stay was shorter. (Sponsored by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT04680949)

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309520

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of inflammation is hypothesized to play a crucial role for inducing the severe complications of Covid-19, with IL-1/IL-6 pathway being central in these events. Eight patients with severe Covid-19 pneumonia treated with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra are reported;seven patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) in Greece and one non-ICU patient in the Netherlands. Patients scored positive for the hemophagocytosis score and they were diagnosed with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (sHLH). At the end-of-treatment with anakinra, ICU patients had less demands on vasopressors;they also had lower C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, troponin I, D-dimers, and ferritin - the hallmark marker of sHLH. All patients improved their respiratory function. Only two patients died. These data argue that the administration of anakinra may be a viable treatment in severe Covid-19 with sHLH, supporting for larger clinical studies to validate this concept.

3.
Journal of the Endocrine Society ; 5(Supplement_1):A835-A836, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1221835

ABSTRACT

Background: Lymphopenia is a key feature of immune dysfunction in bacterial sepsis and COVID-19 patients and is associated with poor clinical outcomes, but the cause is largely unknown. These severely ill patients may also present with thyroid function abnormalities, so-called non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), and several studies have suggested that TSH, thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) play a crucial role in the homeostatic regulation and function of lymphocyte populations.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(7): 1994-2009, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133638

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Lymphopenia is a key feature of immune dysfunction in patients with bacterial sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with poor clinical outcomes, but the cause is largely unknown. Severely ill patients may present with thyroid function abnormalities, so-called nonthyroidal illness syndrome, and several studies have linked thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) to homeostatic regulation and function of lymphocyte populations. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to test the hypothesis that abnormal thyroid function correlates with lymphopenia in patients with severe infections. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of absolute lymphocyte counts, circulating TSH, T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, albumin, and inflammatory biomarkers was performed in 2 independent hospitalized study populations: bacterial sepsis (n = 224) and COVID-19 patients (n = 161). A subgroup analysis was performed in patients with severe lymphopenia and normal lymphocyte counts. RESULTS: Only T3 significantly correlated (ρ = 0.252) with lymphocyte counts in patients with bacterial sepsis, and lower concentrations were found in severe lymphopenic compared to nonlymphopenic patients (n = 56 per group). Severe lymphopenic COVID-19 patients (n = 17) showed significantly lower plasma concentrations of TSH, T4, FT4, and T3 compared to patients without lymphopenia (n = 18), and demonstrated significantly increased values of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. Remarkably, after 1 week of follow-up, the majority (12 of 15) of COVID-19 patients showed quantitative recovery of their lymphocyte numbers, whereas TSH and thyroid hormones remained mainly disturbed. CONCLUSION: Abnormal thyroid function correlates with lymphopenia in patients with severe infections, like bacterial sepsis and COVID-19, but future studies need to establish whether a causal relationship is involved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Sepsis/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/blood , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/immunology , Female , Greece , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Male , Netherlands , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/immunology , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Thyroid Hormones/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyrotropin/immunology
5.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 7, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is currently leading to increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients all over the world. Clinical presentations range from asymptomatic, mild respiratory tract infection, to severe cases with acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, and death. Reports on a dysregulated immune system in the severe cases call for a better characterization and understanding of the changes in the immune system. METHODS: In order to dissect COVID-19-driven immune host responses, we performed RNA-seq of whole blood cell transcriptomes and granulocyte preparations from mild and severe COVID-19 patients and analyzed the data using a combination of conventional and data-driven co-expression analysis. Additionally, publicly available data was used to show the distinction from COVID-19 to other diseases. Reverse drug target prediction was used to identify known or novel drug candidates based on finding from data-driven findings. RESULTS: Here, we profiled whole blood transcriptomes of 39 COVID-19 patients and 10 control donors enabling a data-driven stratification based on molecular phenotype. Neutrophil activation-associated signatures were prominently enriched in severe patient groups, which was corroborated in whole blood transcriptomes from an independent second cohort of 30 as well as in granulocyte samples from a third cohort of 16 COVID-19 patients (44 samples). Comparison of COVID-19 blood transcriptomes with those of a collection of over 3100 samples derived from 12 different viral infections, inflammatory diseases, and independent control samples revealed highly specific transcriptome signatures for COVID-19. Further, stratified transcriptomes predicted patient subgroup-specific drug candidates targeting the dysregulated systemic immune response of the host. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel insights in the distinct molecular subgroups or phenotypes that are not simply explained by clinical parameters. We show that whole blood transcriptomes are extremely informative for COVID-19 since they capture granulocytes which are major drivers of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Transcriptome , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Down-Regulation , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/immunology , Phenotype , Principal Component Analysis , RNA/blood , RNA/chemistry , RNA/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation
6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(1): 117-123.e1, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260325

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of inflammation is hypothesized to play a crucial role in the severe complications of COVID-19, with the IL-1/IL-6 pathway being central. Here, we report on the treatment of eight severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients-seven hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) in Greece and one non-ICU patient in the Netherlands-with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. All patients scored positive for the hemophagocytosis score (HScore) and were diagnosed with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (sHLH) characterized by pancytopenia, hyper-coagulation, acute kidney injury, and hepatobiliary dysfunction. At the end of treatment, ICU patients had less need for vasopressors, significantly improved respiratory function, and lower HScore. Although three patients died, the mortality was lower than historical series of patients with sHLH in sepsis. These data suggest that administration of Anakinra may be beneficial for treating severe COVID-19 patients with sHLH as determined by the HScore, and they support the need for larger clinical studies to validate this concept.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Off-Label Use , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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