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1.
JAMA ; 327(11): 1042-1050, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763144

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persistent physical and mental disorders are frequent in survivors of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, data on these disorders among family members are scarce. Objective: To determine the association between patient hospitalization for COVID-19 ARDS vs ARDS from other causes and the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms in family members. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study in 23 intensive care units (ICUs) in France (January 2020 to June 2020 with final follow-up ending in October 2020). ARDS survivors and family members (1 family member per patient) were enrolled. Exposures: Family members of patients hospitalized for ARDS due to COVID-19 vs ARDS due to other causes. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was family member symptoms of PTSD at 90 days after ICU discharge, measured by the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (score range, 0 [best] to 88 [worst]; presence of PTSD symptoms defined by score >22). Secondary outcomes were family member symptoms of anxiety and depression at 90 days assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (score range, 0 [best] to 42 [worst]; presence of anxiety or depression symptoms defined by subscale scores ≥7). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the association between COVID-19 status and outcomes. Results: Among 602 family members and 307 patients prospectively enrolled, 517 (86%) family members (median [IQR] age, 51 [40-63] years; 72% women; 48% spouses; 26% bereaved because of the study patient's death; 303 [50%] family members of COVID-19 patients) and 273 (89%) patients (median [IQR] age, 61 [50-69] years; 34% women; 181 [59%] with COVID-19) completed the day-90 assessment. Compared with non-COVID-19 ARDS, family members of patients with COVID-19 ARDS had a significantly higher prevalence of symptoms of PTSD (35% [103/293] vs 19% [40/211]; difference, 16% [95% CI, 8%-24%]; P < .001), symptoms of anxiety (41% [121/294] vs 34% [70/207]; difference, 8% [95% CI, 0%-16%]; P= .05), and symptoms of depression (31% [91/291] vs 18% [37/209]; difference, 13% [95% CI, 6%-21%]; P< .001). In multivariable models adjusting for age, sex, and level of social support, COVID-19 ARDS was significantly associated with increased risk of PTSD-related symptoms in family members (odds ratio, 2.05 [95% CI, 1.30 to 3.23]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among family members of patients hospitalized in the ICU with ARDS, COVID-19 disease, as compared with other causes of ARDS, was significantly associated with increased risk of symptoms of PTSD at 90 days after ICU discharge. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04341519.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Health , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 158-166, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess whether intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) could improve outcomes by reducing inflammation-mediated lung injury. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 43 centres in France, we randomly assigned patients (1:1) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for up to 72 h with PCR confirmed COVID-19 and associated moderate-to-severe ARDS to receive either IVIG (2 g/kg over 4 days) or placebo. Random assignment was done with a web-based system and was stratified according to the participating centre and the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation before inclusion in the trial (<12 h, 12-24 h, and >24-72 h), and treatment was administered within the first 96 h of invasive mechanical ventilation. To minimise the risk of adverse events, the IVIG administration was divided into four perfusions of 0·5 g/kg each administered over at least 8 hours. Patients in the placebo group received an equivalent volume of sodium chloride 0·9% (10 mL/kg) over the same period. The primary outcome was the number of ventilation-free days by day 28, assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04350580. FINDINGS: Between April 3, and October 20, 2020, 146 patients (43 [29%] women) were eligible for inclusion and randomly assigned: 69 (47%) patients to the IVIG group and 77 (53%) to the placebo group. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no statistical difference in the median number of ventilation-free days at day 28 between the IVIG group (0·0 [IQR 0·0-8·0]) and the placebo group (0·0 [0·0-6·0]; difference estimate 0·0 [0·0-0·0]; p=0·21). Serious adverse events were more frequent in the IVIG group (78 events in 22 [32%] patients) than in the placebo group (47 events in 15 [20%] patients; p=0·089). INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS, IVIG did not improve clinical outcomes at day 28 and tended to be associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse events, although not significant. The effect of IVIGs on earlier disease stages of COVID-19 should be assessed in future trials. FUNDING: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Iron-Dextran Complex , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327725

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We evaluated the clinical, virological and safety outcomes of lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-interferon (IFN)-beta-1a, hydroxychloroquine or remdesivir in comparison to standard of care (control) in COVID-19 inpatients requiring oxygen and/or ventilatory support. While preliminary results were previously published, we present here the final results, following completion of the data monitoring. Methods We conducted a phase 3 multi-centre open-label, randomized 1:1:1:1:1, adaptive, controlled trial (DisCoVeRy), add-on trial to Solidarity ( NCT04315948 , EudraCT2020-000936-23). The primary outcome was the clinical status at day 15, measured by the WHO 7-point ordinal scale. Secondary outcomes included SARS-CoV-2 quantification in respiratory specimens, pharmacokinetic and safety analyses. We report the results for the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms and for the hydroxychloroquine arm, which were stopped prematurely. Results The intention-to-treat population included 593 participants (lopinavir/ritonavir, n=147;lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-beta-1a, n=147;hydroxychloroquine, n=150;control, n=149), among whom 421 (71.0%) were male, the median age was 64 years (IQR, 54-71) and 214 (36.1%) had a severe disease. The day 15 clinical status was not improved with investigational treatments: lopinavir/ritonavir versus control, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.82, (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-1.25, P=0.36);lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-beta-1a versus control, aOR 0.69 (95%CI 0.45-1.05, P=0.08);hydroxychloroquine versus control, aOR 0.94 (95%CI 0.62-1.41, P=0.76). No significant effect of investigational treatment was observed on SARS-CoV-2 clearance. Trough plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir were higher than those expected, while those of hydroxychloroquine were those expected with the dosing regimen. The occurrence of Serious Adverse Events was significantly higher in participants allocated to the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms. Conclusion In adults hospitalized for COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-beta-1a and hydroxychloroquine did not improve the clinical status at day 15, nor SARS-CoV-2 clearance in respiratory tract specimens.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309803

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In severe COVID-19 pneumonia, the appropriate timing and dosing of corticosteroids(CS) is not known. Patient subgroups for which CS could be more beneficial also need appraisal. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of early CS in COVID-19 pneumonia patients admitted to the ICU on the occurrence of 60-day mortality, ICU-acquired-bloodstream infections(ICU-BSI), and hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia(HAP-VAP). Methods: We included patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to 11 ICUs belonging to the French OutcomeRea TM network from January to May 2020. We used survival models with ponderation with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Inflammation was defined as Ferritin >1000 µg/l or D-Dimers >1000 µg/l or C-Reactive Protein >100 mg/dL. Results: The study population comprised 302 patients having a median age of 61.6(53-70) years of whom 78.8% were male and 58.6% had at least one comorbidity. The median SAPS II was 33(25-44). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 34.8% of the patients. Sixty-six (21.8%) patients were in the Early-CS-subgroup. Most of them (n=55, 83.3%) received high doses of steroids. Overall, 60-day mortality was 29.4%. The risks of 60-day mortality ( IPTW HR =0.88;95% CI 0.55 to 1.39, p=0.58), ICU-BSI and HAP-VAP were similar in the two groups. Importantly, early CS treatment was associated with a lower mortality rate in patients aged 60 years or more ( IPTW HR, 0.51;95% CI, 0.29 – 0.91;p=0.02). But, CS was associated with an increased risk of death for the patients younger than 60 years without inflammation on admission ( IPTW HR =8.17;95% CI, 1.76, 37.85;p=0.01). Conclusion: For patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, early CS treatment was not associated with patient survival. Interestingly, inflammation and age can significantly influence the effect of CS.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 225(3): 385-391, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for infection prevention policies. METHODS: We screened surfaces and air samples from single-bed intensive-care unit rooms of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and viable viruses. RESULTS: We evidenced viral RNA environmental contamination in 76% of 100 surfaces samples and in 30% of 40 air samples without any viable virus detection by cell culture assays. No significant differences of viral RNA levels on surfaces and in ambient air were observed between rooms of patients with assisted mechanical ventilation and those of patients with a high-flow nasal cannula system. Using an original experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection model of surfaces, we determined that infectious viruses may have been present on benches within 15 hours before the time of sampling in patient rooms. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that SARS-CoV-2 environmental contamination around patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in single-bed ICU rooms was extensive and that a high-flow nasal cannula system did not generate more viral aerosolization than a mechanical ventilation system in patients with COVID-19. Despite an absence of SARS-CoV-2 viable particles in study samples, our experimental model confirmed the need to apply strict environmental disinfection procedures and classic standard and droplet precautions in ICU wards.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Patients' Rooms , RNA, Viral
7.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534128

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: COVID-19 may lead to refractory hypoxemia requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Survival rate if ECMO is implemented as rescue therapy after corticosteroid failure is unknown. We aimed to investigate if ECMO implemented after failure of the full-recommended 10-day corticosteroid course can improve outcome. (2) Methods: We conducted a three-center cohort study including consecutive dexamethasone-treated COVID-19 patients requiring ECMO between 03/2020 and 05/2021. We compared survival at hospital discharge between patients implemented after (ECMO-after group) and before the end of the 10-day dexamethasone course (ECMO-before group). (3) Results: Forty patients (28M/12F; age, 57 years (51-62) (median (25th-75th percentiles)) were included, 28 (70%) in the ECMO-before and 12 (30%) in the ECMO-after group. In the ECMO-before group, 9/28 patients (32%) received the 6 mg/day dexamethasone regimen versus 12/12 (100%) in the ECMO-after group (p < 0.0001). The rest of the patients received an alternative dexamethasone regimen consisting of 20 mg/day during 5 days followed by 10 mg/day during 5 days. Patients in the ECMO-before group tended to be younger (57 years (51-59) versus 62 years (57-67), p = 0.053). In the ECMO-after group, no patient (0%) survived while 12 patients (43%) survived in the ECMO-before group (p = 0.007). (4) Conclusions: Survival is poor in COVID-19 patients requiring ECMO implemented after the full-recommended 10-day dexamethasone course. Since these patients may have developed a particularly severe presentation, new therapeutic strategies are urgently required.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 225(3): 385-391, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for infection prevention policies. METHODS: We screened surfaces and air samples from single-bed intensive-care unit rooms of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and viable viruses. RESULTS: We evidenced viral RNA environmental contamination in 76% of 100 surfaces samples and in 30% of 40 air samples without any viable virus detection by cell culture assays. No significant differences of viral RNA levels on surfaces and in ambient air were observed between rooms of patients with assisted mechanical ventilation and those of patients with a high-flow nasal cannula system. Using an original experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection model of surfaces, we determined that infectious viruses may have been present on benches within 15 hours before the time of sampling in patient rooms. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that SARS-CoV-2 environmental contamination around patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in single-bed ICU rooms was extensive and that a high-flow nasal cannula system did not generate more viral aerosolization than a mechanical ventilation system in patients with COVID-19. Despite an absence of SARS-CoV-2 viable particles in study samples, our experimental model confirmed the need to apply strict environmental disinfection procedures and classic standard and droplet precautions in ICU wards.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Patients' Rooms , RNA, Viral
9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 158-166, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess whether intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) could improve outcomes by reducing inflammation-mediated lung injury. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 43 centres in France, we randomly assigned patients (1:1) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for up to 72 h with PCR confirmed COVID-19 and associated moderate-to-severe ARDS to receive either IVIG (2 g/kg over 4 days) or placebo. Random assignment was done with a web-based system and was stratified according to the participating centre and the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation before inclusion in the trial (<12 h, 12-24 h, and >24-72 h), and treatment was administered within the first 96 h of invasive mechanical ventilation. To minimise the risk of adverse events, the IVIG administration was divided into four perfusions of 0·5 g/kg each administered over at least 8 hours. Patients in the placebo group received an equivalent volume of sodium chloride 0·9% (10 mL/kg) over the same period. The primary outcome was the number of ventilation-free days by day 28, assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04350580. FINDINGS: Between April 3, and October 20, 2020, 146 patients (43 [29%] women) were eligible for inclusion and randomly assigned: 69 (47%) patients to the IVIG group and 77 (53%) to the placebo group. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no statistical difference in the median number of ventilation-free days at day 28 between the IVIG group (0·0 [IQR 0·0-8·0]) and the placebo group (0·0 [0·0-6·0]; difference estimate 0·0 [0·0-0·0]; p=0·21). Serious adverse events were more frequent in the IVIG group (78 events in 22 [32%] patients) than in the placebo group (47 events in 15 [20%] patients; p=0·089). INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS, IVIG did not improve clinical outcomes at day 28 and tended to be associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse events, although not significant. The effect of IVIGs on earlier disease stages of COVID-19 should be assessed in future trials. FUNDING: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Iron-Dextran Complex , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255644, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In severe COVID-19 pneumonia, the appropriate timing and dosing of corticosteroids (CS) is not known. Patient subgroups for which CS could be more beneficial also need appraisal. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of early CS in COVID-19 pneumonia patients admitted to the ICU on the occurrence of 60-day mortality, ICU-acquired-bloodstream infections(ICU-BSI), and hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia(HAP-VAP). METHODS: We included patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to 11 ICUs belonging to the French OutcomeReaTM network from January to May 2020. We used survival models with ponderation with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). RESULTS: The study population comprised 303 patients having a median age of 61.6 (53-70) years of whom 78.8% were male and 58.6% had at least one comorbidity. The median SAPS II was 33 (25-44). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 34.8% of the patients. Sixty-six (21.8%) patients were in the Early-C subgroup. Overall, 60-day mortality was 29.4%. The risks of 60-day mortality (IPTWHR = 0.86;95% CI 0.54 to 1.35, p = 0.51), ICU-BSI and HAP-VAP were similar in the two groups. Importantly, early CS treatment was associated with a lower mortality rate in patients aged 60 years or more (IPTWHR, 0.53;95% CI, 0.3-0.93; p = 0.03). In contrast, CS was associated with an increased risk of death in patients younger than 60 years without inflammation on admission (IPTWHR = 5.01;95% CI, 1.05, 23.88; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: For patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, early CS treatment was not associated with patient survival. Interestingly, inflammation and age can significantly influence the effect of CS.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Community Networks , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Drug Administration Schedule , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(12): 1826-1837, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical, virological and safety outcomes of lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-interferon (IFN)-ß-1a, hydroxychloroquine or remdesivir in comparison to standard of care (control) in coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) inpatients requiring oxygen and/or ventilatory support. METHODS: We conducted a phase III multicentre, open-label, randomized 1:1:1:1:1, adaptive, controlled trial (DisCoVeRy), an add-on to the Solidarity trial (NCT04315948, EudraCT2020-000936-23). The primary outcome was the clinical status at day 15, measured by the WHO seven-point ordinal scale. Secondary outcomes included quantification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in respiratory specimens and pharmacokinetic and safety analyses. We report the results for the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms and for the hydroxychloroquine arm, trials of which were stopped prematurely. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 583 participants-lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 145), lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a (n = 145), hydroxychloroquine (n = 145), control (n = 148)-among whom 418 (71.7%) were male, the median age was 63 years (IQR 54-71), and 211 (36.2%) had a severe disease. The day-15 clinical status was not improved with the investigational treatments: lopinavir/ritonavir versus control, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.83, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.26, p 0.39), lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a versus control, aOR 0.69 (95%CI 0.45-1.04, p 0.08), and hydroxychloroquine versus control, aOR 0.93 (95%CI 0.62-1.41, p 0.75). No significant effect of investigational treatment was observed on SARS-CoV-2 clearance. Trough plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir were higher than those expected, while those of hydroxychloroquine were those expected with the dosing regimen. The occurrence of serious adverse events was significantly higher in participants allocated to the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms. CONCLUSION: In adults hospitalized for COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a and hydroxychloroquine improved neither the clinical status at day 15 nor SARS-CoV-2 clearance in respiratory tract specimens.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): 1834-1837, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232179

ABSTRACT

Excess soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), a soluble inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor pathway, has been demonstrated to promote endothelial dysfunction. Here, we demonstrate that sFlt-1 plasma levels correlate with respiratory symptom severity, expression of endothelial dysfunction biomarker, and incidence of organ failure in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT04394195.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
15.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 109(4): 1030-1033, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064339

ABSTRACT

Boffito et al. recalled the critical importance to correctly interpret protein binding. Changes of lopinavir pharmacokinetics in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are a perfect illustration. Indeed, several studies described that total lopinavir plasma concentrations were considerably higher in patients with severe COVID-19 than those reported in patients with HIV. These findings have led to a reduction of the dose of lopinavir in some patients, hypothesizing an inhibitory effect of inflammation on lopinavir metabolism. Unfortunately, changes in plasma protein binding were never investigated. We performed a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 treated with lopinavir/ritonavir in intensive care units or infectious disease departments of Toulouse University Hospital (France). Total and unbound concentrations of lopinavir, C reactive protein, albumin, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels were measured during routine care on the same samples. In patients with COVID-19, increased total lopinavir concentration is the result of an increased AAG-bound lopinavir concentration, whereas the unbound concentration remains constant, and insufficient to reduce the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load. Although international guidelines have recently recommended against using lopinavir/ritonavir to treat severe COVID-19, the description of lopinavir pharmacokinetics changes in COVID-19 is a textbook case of the high risk of misinterpretation of a total drug exposure when changes in protein binding are not taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lopinavir/pharmacokinetics , Plasma/physiology , Protein Binding/physiology , Aged , Albumins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Female , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
16.
J Clin Med ; 10(3)2021 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060442

ABSTRACT

The mortality of COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is influenced by their state at admission. We aimed to model COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome state transitions from ICU admission to day 60 outcome and to evaluate possible prognostic factors. We analyzed a prospective French database that includes critically ill COVID-19 patients. A six-state multistate model was built and 17 transitions were analyzed either using a non-parametric approach or a Cox proportional hazard model. Corticosteroids and IL-antagonists (tocilizumab and anakinra) effects were evaluated using G-computation. We included 382 patients in the analysis: 243 patients were admitted to the ICU with non-invasive ventilation, 116 with invasive mechanical ventilation, and 23 with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The predicted 60-day mortality was 25.9% (95% CI: 21.8%-30.0%), 44.7% (95% CI: 48.8%-50.6%), and 59.2% (95% CI: 49.4%-69.0%) for a patient admitted in these three states, respectively. Corticosteroids decreased the risk of being invasively ventilated (hazard ratio (HR) 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39-0.90) and IL-antagonists increased the probability of being successfully extubated (HR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.02-3.17). Antiviral drugs did not impact any transition. In conclusion, we observed that the day-60 outcome in COVID-19 patients is highly dependent on the first ventilation state upon ICU admission. Moreover, we illustrated that corticosteroid and IL-antagonists may influence the intubation duration.

17.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(1): e0329, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055778

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: About 5% of patients with coronavirus disease-2019 are admitted to the ICU for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Opinions differ on whether invasive mechanical ventilation should be used as first-line therapy over noninvasive oxygen support. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of early invasive mechanical ventilation in coronavirus disease-2019 with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure on day-60 mortality. DESIGN: Multicenter prospective French observational study. SETTING: Eleven ICUs of the French OutcomeRea network. PATIENTS: Coronavirus disease-2019 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (Pao2/Fio2 ≤ 300 mm Hg), without shock or neurologic failure on ICU admission, and not referred from another ICU or intermediate care unit were included. INTERVENTION: We compared day-60 mortality in patients who were on invasive mechanical ventilation within the first 2 calendar days of the ICU stay (early invasive mechanical ventilation group) and those who were not (nonearly invasive mechanical ventilation group). We used a Cox proportional-hazard model weighted by inverse probability of early invasive mechanical ventilation to determine the risk of death at day 60. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: The 245 patients included had a median (interquartile range) age of 61 years (52-69 yr), a Simplified Acute Physiology Score II score of 34 mm Hg (26-44 mm Hg), and a Pao2/Fio2 of 121 mm Hg (90-174 mm Hg). The rates of ICU-acquired pneumonia, bacteremia, and the ICU length of stay were significantly higher in the early (n = 117 [48%]) than in the nonearly invasive mechanical ventilation group (n = 128 [52%]), p < 0.01. Day-60 mortality was 42.7% and 21.9% in the early and nonearly invasive mechanical ventilation groups, respectively. The weighted model showed that early invasive mechanical ventilation increased the risk for day-60 mortality (weighted hazard ratio =1.74; 95% CI, 1.07-2.83, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In ICU patients admitted with coronavirus disease-2019-induced acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, early invasive mechanical ventilation was associated with an increased risk of day-60 mortality. This result needs to be confirmed.

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