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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 652335, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526785

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has a disastrous effect on mankind due to the contagious and rapid nature of its spread. Although vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been successfully developed, the proven, effective, and specific therapeutic molecules are yet to be identified for the treatment. The repurposing of existing drugs and recognition of new medicines are continuously in progress. Efforts are being made to single out plant-based novel therapeutic compounds. As a result, some of these biomolecules are in their testing phase. During these efforts, the whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has given the direction to explore the omics systems and approaches to overcome this unprecedented health challenge globally. Genome, proteome, and metagenome sequence analyses have helped identify virus nature, thereby assisting in understanding the molecular mechanism, structural understanding, and disease propagation. The multi-omics approaches offer various tools and strategies for identifying potential therapeutic biomolecules for COVID-19 and exploring the plants producing biomolecules that can be used as biopharmaceutical products. This review explores the available multi-omics approaches and their scope to investigate the therapeutic promises of plant-based biomolecules in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512172

ABSTRACT

With almost 4 million deaths worldwide from the COVID-19 pandemic, the efficient and accurate diagnosis and identification of COVID-19-related complications are more important than ever. Scales such as the pneumonia severity index, or CURB-65, help doctors determine who should be admitted to the hospital or the intensive care unit. To properly treat and manage admitted patients, standardized sampling protocols and methods are required for COVID-19 patients. Using PubMed, relevant articles since March 2020 on COVID-19 diagnosis and its complications were analyzed. Patients with COVID-19 had elevated D-dimer, thrombomodulin, and initial factor V elevation followed by decreased factor V and factor VII and elevated IL-6, lactate dehydrogenase, and c-reactive protein, which indicated coagulopathy and possible cytokine storm. Patients with hypertension, newly diagnosed diabetes, obesity, or advanced age were at increased risk for mortality. Elevated BUN, AST, and ALT in severe COVID-19 patients was associated with acute kidney injury or other organ damage. The gold standard for screening COVID-19 is reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using sputum, oropharyngeal, or nasopharyngeal routes. However, due to the low turnover rate and limited testing capacity of RT-PCR, alternative diagnostic tools such as CT-scan and serological testing (IgM and IgG) can be considered in conjunction with symptom monitoring. Advancements in CRISPR technology have also allowed the use of alternative COVID-19 testing, but unfortunately, these technologies are still under FDA review and cannot be used in patients. Nonetheless, increased turnover rates and testing capacity allow for a bright future in COVID-19 diagnosis.

3.
Endocr Res ; 47(1): 39-44, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Integrin αvß3 is a cell membrane structural protein whose extracellular domain contains a receptor for L-thyroxine (T4). The integrin is expressed in rapidly dividing cells and its internalization is prompted by T4. The protein binds viruses and we have raised the possibility elsewhere that action of free T4 (FT4)-when he latter is increased in the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) known to complicate COVID-19 infecction-may enhance cellular uptke of SARS-CoV-2 and its receptor. OBJECTIVE: Because T4 also acts nongenomically via the integrin to promote platelet aggregation and angiogenesis, we suggest here that T4 may contribute to the coagulopathy and endothelial abnormalities that can develop in COVID-19 infections, particularly when the lung is primary affected. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Elevated FT4 has been described in the NTIS of COVID-19 patients and may be associated with increased illness severity, but the finding of FT4 elevation is inconsistent in the NTIS literature. Circulating 3,5',3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (reverse T3, rT3) are frequently elevated in NTIS. Thought to be biologically inactive, rT3in fact stimulates cancer cell proliferation via avb3 and also may increase actin polymerization. We propose here that rT3 in the NTIS complicating systemic COVIF-19 infection may support coagulation and disordered blood vessel formation via actin polymerization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Integrin alphaVbeta3 , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Hormones , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 5117-5131, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362164

ABSTRACT

As a crucial organ, the lung is exposed to various harmful agents that may induce inflammation and oxidative stress, which may cause chronic or acute lung injury. Nigella sativa, also known as black seed, has been widely used to treat various diseases and is one of the most extensively researched medicinal plants. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main component of black seed volatile oil and has been proven to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. The potential therapeutic properties of TQ against various pulmonary disorders have been studied in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Furthermore, the application of nanotechnology may increase drug solubility, cellular absorption, drug release (sustained or control), and drug delivery to lung tissue target sites. As a result, fabricating TQ as nanoparticles (NPs) is a potential therapeutic approach against a variety of lung diseases. In this current review, we summarize recent findings on the efficacy of TQ and its nanotypes in lung disorders caused by immunocompromised conditions such as cancer, diabetes, gastric ulcers, and other neurodegenerative diseases. It is concluded that TQ nanoparticles with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiasthma, and antitumor activity may be safely applied to treat lung disorders. However, more research is required before TQ nanoparticles can be used as pharmaceutical preparations in human studies.


Subject(s)
Lung Injury , Nanoparticles , Benzoquinones , Humans , Nigella sativa
5.
Endocr Res ; 45(3): 210-215, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uptake of coronaviruses by target cells involves binding of the virus by cell ectoenzymes. For the etiologic agent of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), a receptor has been identified as angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Recently it has been suggested that plasma membrane integrins may be involved in the internalization and replication of clinically important coronaviruses. For example, integrin αvß3 is involved in the cell uptake of a model porcine enteric α-coronavirus that causes human epidemics. ACE2 modulates the intracellular signaling generated by integrins. OBJECTIVE: We propose that the cellular internalization of αvß3 applies to uptake of coronaviruses bound to the integrin, and we evaluate the possibility that clinical host T4 may contribute to target cell uptake of coronavirus and to the consequence of cell uptake of the virus. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The viral binding domain of the integrin is near the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide-binding site and RGD molecules can affect virus binding. In this same locale on integrin αvß3 is the receptor for thyroid hormone analogues, particularly, L-thyroxine (T4). By binding to the integrin, T4 has been shown to modulate the affinity of the integrin for other proteins, to control internalization of αvß3 and to regulate the expression of a panel of cytokine genes, some of which are components of the 'cytokine storm' of viral infections. If T4 does influence coronavirus uptake by target cells, other thyroid hormone analogues, such as deaminated T4 and deaminated 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), are candidate agents to block the virus-relevant actions of T4 at integrin αvß3 and possibly restrict virus uptake.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Integrin alphaVbeta3/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/drug effects , Thyroid Hormones/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Cytokines/physiology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Oligopeptides/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Thyroid Hormones/physiology , Thyroxine/physiology , Virus Internalization
6.
Biomedicines ; 9(1)2020 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027976

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has claimed over one million lives worldwide since December 2019. The complement system, while a first-line immune defense against invading pathogens, has off-target effects that lead to increases in inflammation, tissue damage, and thrombosis; these are common, life-threatening complications seen in patients with COVID-19. This review explores the potential impact of complement activation in COVID-19 and possible treatments targeting the complement system.

7.
Biomedicines ; 9(1):11, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-984116

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has claimed over one million lives worldwide since December 2019. The complement system, while a first-line immune defense against invading pathogens, has off-target effects that lead to increases in inflammation, tissue damage, and thrombosis;these are common, life-threatening complications seen in patients with COVID-19. This review explores the potential impact of complement activation in COVID-19 and possible treatments targeting the complement system.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 563478, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909021

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) was found at the seafood market of Hubei province in Wuhan, China, and this virus was officially named coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) by World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 is mainly characterized by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) and creates public health concerns as well as significant threats to the economy around the world. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is unclear and there is no effective treatment of this newly life-threatening and devastating virus. Therefore, it is crucial to search for alternative methods that alleviate or inhibit the spread of COVID-19. In this review, we try to find out the etiology, epidemiology, symptoms as well as transmissions of this novel virus. We also summarize therapeutic interventions and suggest antiviral treatments, immune-enhancing candidates, general supplements, and CoV specific treatments that control replication and reproduction of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

9.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620955240, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740342

ABSTRACT

The management of sickle cell disease (SCD) and its complications in the COVID-19 era is very challenging. The recurrent sickling process in SCD causes tissue hypoxemia and micro-infarcts, resulting in end organ damage. Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, little data has been published about SCD concerning clinical presentation with COVID-19 and management. Hydroxyurea has been the cornerstone of management in children and adults with SCD, with evidence of its effect on controlling end organ damage. There are several anti-sickling drugs that have been approved recently that might have an additive value toward the management of SCD and its complications. The role of simple and exchange transfusions is well established and should always be considered in the management of various complications. The value of convalescent plasma has been demonstrated in small case series, but large randomized controlled studies are still awaited. Immunomodulatory agents may play a role in reducing the damaging effects of cytokines storm that contributes to the morbidity and mortality in advanced cases. Prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered in every management protocol because SCD and COVID-19 are thrombogenic conditions. Management proposals of different presentations of patients with SCD and COVID-19 are outlined.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hydroxyurea/administration & dosage , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Management , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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