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1.
J Biomol Tech ; 32(3): 221-227, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687374

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound, detrimental effect on economies and societies worldwide. Where the pandemic has been controlled, extremely high rates of diagnostic testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus have proven critical, enabling isolation of cases and contact tracing. Recently, diagnostic testing has been supplemented with wastewater measures to evaluate the degree to which communities have infections. Whereas much testing has been done through traditional, centralized, clinical, or environmental laboratory methods, point-of-care testing has proven successful in reducing time to result. As the pandemic progresses and becomes more broadly distributed, further decentralization of diagnostic testing will be helpful to mitigate its spread. This will be particularly both challenging and critical in settings with limited resources due to lack of medical infrastructure and expertise as well as requirements to return results quickly. In this article, we validate the tiny isothermal nucleic acid quantification system (TINY) and a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based assay for the point-of-care diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and also for in-the-field, point-of-collection surveillance of wastewater. The TINY system is portable and designed for use in settings with limited resources. It can be powered by electrical, solar, or thermal energy and is robust against interruptions in services. These applied testing examples demonstrate that this novel detection platform is a simpler procedure than reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and moreover, this TINY instrument and LAMP assay combination has the potential to effectively provide both point-of-care diagnosis of individuals and point-of-collection environmental surveillance using wastewater.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Biomol Tech ; 32(3): 228-275, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687373

ABSTRACT

As the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic begins, it remains clear that a massive increase in the ability to test for SARS-CoV-2 infections in a myriad of settings is critical to controlling the pandemic and to preparing for future outbreaks. The current gold standard for molecular diagnostics is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), but the extraordinary and unmet demand for testing in a variety of environments means that both complementary and supplementary testing solutions are still needed. This review highlights the role that loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has had in filling this global testing need, providing a faster and easier means of testing, and what it can do for future applications, pathogens, and the preparation for future outbreaks. This review describes the current state of the art for research of LAMP-based SARS-CoV-2 testing, as well as its implications for other pathogens and testing. The authors represent the global LAMP (gLAMP) Consortium, an international research collective, which has regularly met to share their experiences on LAMP deployment and best practices; sections are devoted to all aspects of LAMP testing, including preanalytic sample processing, target amplification, and amplicon detection, then the hardware and software required for deployment are discussed, and finally, a summary of the current regulatory landscape is provided. Included as well are a series of first-person accounts of LAMP method development and deployment. The final discussion section provides the reader with a distillation of the most validated testing methods and their paths to implementation. This review also aims to provide practical information and insight for a range of audiences: for a research audience, to help accelerate research through sharing of best practices; for an implementation audience, to help get testing up and running quickly; and for a public health, clinical, and policy audience, to help convey the breadth of the effect that LAMP methods have to offer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100522, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650891

ABSTRACT

The molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and what distinguishes them from common seasonal influenza virus and other lung injury states such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, remain poorly understood. To address these challenges, we combine transcriptional profiling of 646 clinical nasopharyngeal swabs and 39 patient autopsy tissues to define body-wide transcriptome changes in response to COVID-19. We then match these data with spatial protein and expression profiling across 357 tissue sections from 16 representative patient lung samples and identify tissue-compartment-specific damage wrought by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, evident as a function of varying viral loads during the clinical course of infection and tissue-type-specific expression states. Overall, our findings reveal a systemic disruption of canonical cellular and transcriptional pathways across all tissues, which can inform subsequent studies to combat the mortality of COVID-19 and to better understand the molecular dynamics of lethal SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Lung/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae , RNA-Seq/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Viral Load
4.
Genomics ; 114(2): 110270, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633861

ABSTRACT

Viruses can subvert a number of cellular processes including splicing in order to block innate antiviral responses, and many viruses interact with cellular splicing machinery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was shown to suppress global mRNA splicing, and at least 10 SARS-CoV-2 proteins bind specifically to one or more human RNAs. Here, we investigate 17 published experimental and clinical datasets related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, datasets from the betacoronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS, as well as Streptococcus pneumonia, HCV, Zika virus, Dengue virus, influenza H3N2, and RSV. We show that genes showing differential alternative splicing in SARS-CoV-2 have a similar functional profile to those of SARS-CoV and MERS and affect a diverse set of genes and biological functions, including many closely related to virus biology. Additionally, the differentially spliced transcripts of cells infected by coronaviruses were more likely to undergo intron-retention, contain a pseudouridine modification, and have a smaller number of exons as compared with differentially spliced transcripts in the control groups. Viral load in clinical COVID-19 samples was correlated with isoform distribution of differentially spliced genes. A significantly higher number of ribosomal genes are affected by differential alternative splicing and gene expression in betacoronavirus samples, and the betacoronavirus differentially spliced genes are depleted for binding sites of RNA-binding proteins. Our results demonstrate characteristic patterns of differential splicing in cells infected by SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS. The alternative splicing changes observed in betacoronaviruses infection potentially modify a broad range of cellular functions, via changes in the functions of the products of a diverse set of genes involved in different biological processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Alternative Splicing , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zika Virus/genetics
5.
Cell Rep ; 37(3): 109839, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439921

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation that have a major impact on many diseases and provide an exciting avenue toward antiviral therapeutics. From patient transcriptomic data, we determined that a circulating miRNA, miR-2392, is directly involved with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) machinery during host infection. Specifically, we show that miR-2392 is key in driving downstream suppression of mitochondrial gene expression, increasing inflammation, glycolysis, and hypoxia, as well as promoting many symptoms associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We demonstrate that miR-2392 is present in the blood and urine of patients positive for COVID-19 but is not present in patients negative for COVID-19. These findings indicate the potential for developing a minimally invasive COVID-19 detection method. Lastly, using in vitro human and in vivo hamster models, we design a miRNA-based antiviral therapeutic that targets miR-2392, significantly reduces SARS-CoV-2 viability in hamsters, and may potentially inhibit a COVID-19 disease state in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cricetinae , Female , Ferrets , Gene Expression Regulation , Glycolysis , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hypoxia , Inflammation , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Proteomics/methods , ROC Curve , Rats
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1660, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132065

ABSTRACT

In less than nine months, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) killed over a million people, including >25,000 in New York City (NYC) alone. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 highlights clinical needs to detect infection, track strain evolution, and identify biomarkers of disease course. To address these challenges, we designed a fast (30-minute) colorimetric test (LAMP) for SARS-CoV-2 infection from naso/oropharyngeal swabs and a large-scale shotgun metatranscriptomics platform (total-RNA-seq) for host, viral, and microbial profiling. We applied these methods to clinical specimens gathered from 669 patients in New York City during the first two months of the outbreak, yielding a broad molecular portrait of the emerging COVID-19 disease. We find significant enrichment of a NYC-distinctive clade of the virus (20C), as well as host responses in interferon, ACE, hematological, and olfaction pathways. In addition, we use 50,821 patient records to find that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors have a protective effect for severe COVID-19 outcomes, unlike similar drugs. Finally, spatial transcriptomic data from COVID-19 patient autopsy tissues reveal distinct ACE2 expression loci, with macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the lungs. These findings can inform public health and may help develop and drive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic, prevention, and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Drug Interactions , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral , HLA Antigens/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , New York City/epidemiology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
bioRxiv ; 2020 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823190

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused thousands of deaths worldwide, including >18,000 in New York City (NYC) alone. The sudden emergence of this pandemic has highlighted a pressing clinical need for rapid, scalable diagnostics that can detect infection, interrogate strain evolution, and identify novel patient biomarkers. To address these challenges, we designed a fast (30-minute) colorimetric test (LAMP) for SARS-CoV-2 infection from naso/oropharyngeal swabs, plus a large-scale shotgun metatranscriptomics platform (total-RNA-seq) for host, bacterial, and viral profiling. We applied both technologies across 857 SARS-CoV-2 clinical specimens and 86 NYC subway samples, providing a broad molecular portrait of the COVID-19 NYC outbreak. Our results define new features of SARS-CoV-2 evolution, nominate a novel, NYC-enriched viral subclade, reveal specific host responses in interferon, ACE, hematological, and olfaction pathways, and examine risks associated with use of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. Together, these findings have immediate applications to SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, public health, and new therapeutic targets.

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