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Eurasian Journal of Business and Management ; 10(2):137-152, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025814


Transfer pricing manipulation by multinational enterprises is a big problem in developing countries, considering the increased levels of tax avoidance and evasion in these countries. The revenue lost through evasion and avoidance schemes as well as through aggressive tax planning robs developing countries of the much-needed domestic revenues to fund public expenditure. The repercussions of revenue inadequacies are evident in developing countries' governments to adequately invest in education, tax administration, health and security, infrastructural development, and economic development. Most developing countries having enacted transfer pricing regulation, with the arm's length principle are at the core of these regulations. This principle has been criticized in literature for its inefficiency and ineffectiveness in regulating transfer pricing in evolving economic times, while some researchers continue to maintain its relevance. In view of the conflicting views on the cogency of the arm's length principle in developing countries, this paper sought to unpack this debate through an evaluative review to show the areas of disagreement and agreement among scholars. The review was motivated by the continued concern and discussions of tax evasion and avoidance by multinational enterprises through aggressive transfer pricing in developing countries. Through a critical literature review, this article assesses the applicability and relevance of the principle in developing countries. Findings reveal controversies in the availability of comparable data, continued abuse of transfer pricing as well as the difficulty in applying the principle in digital transactions and intangibles.

Laws ; 11(4):57, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023858


The unprecedented expansion of the digital economy has increased the intricacy of mobilising tax revenues from both domestic and international transactions. Tax evasion and avoidance are perpetuated by the invisible nature of digital transactions. To minimise the untapped revenues, countries all over the world are mapping policy strategies on how to collect revenue from this sector. African countries are not an exception. They have constructed digital tax policies to levy both direct and indirect taxes on digital transactions. This paper focuses on direct digital service taxes (DSTs). Direct digital service taxes have been an issue of debate among governments, policy makers, academics, tax bodies, and development organisations. Disagreements coalesce around their structure, their adherence to the canons of taxation, opportunities, and challenges as well as consequences of implementing them. Through a literature review, this paper assesses the legislative structure and administration of digital service taxes in relation to the canons of taxation. The findings of the review were conflicting. While certain aspects, motives, and possible outcomes of the taxes upheld the principles of taxation, some of these were conflicting with the principles. This could possibly be linked to variations in the economic, political, and social contexts in African countries and between developed and developing countries. The study recommends that while digital service taxes are an irrefutable necessity to tap tax revenues from the digital economy, African countries should ensure that equity, neutrality, economy, and efficiency among other principles are considered and balanced with the fundamental roles of tax policy.

Economies ; 10(8):184, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023274


The digital economy has risen dramatically in the global environment, and many developing countries, including African countries, have seen a spike in digital activity over recent years. The digital economy’s growth has resulted in an increase in digital financial services (DFS) in Africa and other developing regions. Since many African countries are under pressure to raise domestic revenue, taxing the digital economy has become a viable option. As a result, this study attempted to respond to the following questions: first, what is the link between DFS growth and digital inclusion in African countries? Second, what justifies the imposition of DFS taxes in Africa? Third, what are the potential consequences of DFS taxes in African countries? Using secondary data from the literature review and document analysis, a systematic technique for assessing or evaluating printed and electronic documents, and computer-based and internet-transmitted material, the study discovered that digital financial inclusion is driving financial inclusion on the African continent. The study also found that, despite several negative consequences associated with the growth of the digital economy, most African economic activities are informal and are being aided by various digital financial services. Therefore, it is equally crucial that when adopting digital finance taxes, care is taken to avoid excluding low-income earners from the financial sector and to take note of the usage, affordability, and distortive implications of taxation.

Sustainability ; 14(16):10239, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1987965


Discussions on the impact of climate change and ways of protecting climate change impact driven by environmentally unfriendly activities have taken the center stage of global development agendas. The importance of environmental sustainability is also reflected in the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Green taxes have become pivotal to protecting the environment, revenue generation and achievement of the SDGs. Through a critical literature review, this paper explores the opportunities and challenges associated with green taxes with respect to revenue mobilization, protection of the environment and delivery of the SDGs. The paper gives an insight to green taxes, exploring the motives of green taxes and the possible implications for environmental sustainability, sustainable development, and attainment of the SDGs in the African context. Fossil fuels such as coal, crude oil and natural gases are fundamental sources of energy for African countries. Therefore, the continent faces a dilemma of how to ensure green economic growth, reduce environmental and climate change problems, and at the same time foster effective revenue mobilization. The review established that while green taxes can provide an opportunity for green transformation policy reforms and boost revenue mobilization to stimulate inclusive and sustainable growth and economic recovery from the COVID-19-induced economic recession, the taxes can increase inequality, heighten the cost of energy, and increase energy poverty for those dependent on fossil fuel for energy. The lack of affordability and access would compromise SDGs such as 7 and 1 (access to clean energy and poverty reduction, respectively). The taxes could lead to a disjointed value chain with consumers disadvantaged and an increase in black market activities as people seek cheaper but unsafe alternatives, indirectly increasing the social costs such as health risks and challenges, poverty, and unemployment.